Ciki

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

Ciki, wanda kuma aka sani da gestation, shi ne lokacin da daya ko fiye da zuriya ke tasowa a cikin mace.[1] YawanYawancin ciki ya ƙunshi zuriya fiye da ɗaya, kamar tare da tagwaye.[2] Yawanci yana faruwa ta hanyar jima'i, amma yana iya faruwa ta hanyar fasahar haihuwa.[3] Ciki zai iya ƙare a cikin raye-raye, zubar da ciki, ko haihuwa. Haihuwa yawanci tana faruwa kusan makonni 40 daga farkon hailar ƙarshe (LMP).[1][4] Wannan ya wuce watanni tara - (shekarun haihuwa) inda kowane wata ke cika kwanaki 31.[1][4] Lokacin amfani da shekarun haihuwa yana kusan makonni 38.[4] Amfrayo ita ce zuriya masu tasowa a cikin makonni takwas na farko bayan haihuwa, (shekarun haihuwa na makonni goma) bayan haka, ana amfani da kalmar tayin har zuwa haihuwa.[4] Alamomin ciki na farko na iya haɗawa da rashin haila, ƙirji mai laushi, tashin zuciya da amai, yunwa, da yawan fitsari.[2] Ana iya tabbatar da ciki tare da gwajin ciki.[5]

An raba ciki zuwa uku trimesters, kowanne yana ɗaukar kusan watanni 3.[1] Na farko trimester ya hada da daukar ciki, wanda shi ne lokacin da maniyyi taki kwai.[1] Kwai da aka haifa sai ya gangara zuwa cikin bututun fallopian ya manne zuwa cikin mahaifar, inda ya fara samar da amfrayo da mahaifa.[1] A cikin farkon watanni uku, yiwuwar zubar da ciki (mutuwar amfrayo ko tayin) yana kan mafi girma.[6] A kusa da tsakiyar trimester na biyu, ana iya jin motsin tayin.[1] A makonni 28, fiye da kashi 90% na jarirai za su iya rayuwa a wajen mahaifa idan an ba su kulawar likita mai inganci.[1]

Kulawa da haihuwa yana inganta sakamakon ciki.[7] Kulawar haihuwa na iya haɗawa da shan ƙarin folic acid, guje wa ƙwayoyi, shan taba, da barasa, yin motsa jiki akai-akai, gwajin jini, da gwaje-gwaje na jiki akai-akai.[7] Matsalolin ciki na iya haɗawa da cutar hawan jini, ciwon sukari na ciki, ƙarancin ƙarfi da kuma tashin zuciya tare da amai mai tsanani.[8] A cikin manufa haihuwa aiki fara da kanta a lokacin da mace "a ajali".[9] Yaran da aka haifa kafin makonni 37 sun kasance "pre-term" kuma suna cikin haɗari mafi girma na matsalolin kiwon lafiya irin su cerebral palsy.[1] Yaran da aka haifa tsakanin makonni 37 da 39 ana ɗaukarsu “farkon lokaci” yayin da waɗanda aka haifa tsakanin makonni 39 da 41 ana ɗaukarsu “cikakken lokaci”.[1] Yaran da aka haifa a tsakanin makonni 41 zuwa 42 ana daukar su a matsayin "karshen lokaci" yayin da bayan mako 42 ana daukar su "post term".[1] Bayarwa kafin makonni 39 ta hanyar shigar da haihuwa ko sashin caesarean ba a ba da shawarar ba sai dai idan an buƙata don wasu dalilai na likita.[8]

Kimanin masu juna biyu miliyan 213 ne suka faru a shekarar 2012, daga cikinsu, miliyan 190 (89%) suna cikin kasashe masu tasowa kuma miliyan 23 (11%) suna cikin kasashen da suka ci gaba.[10] Adadin ciki a cikin mata masu shekaru tsakanin 15 zuwa 44 shine 133 cikin 1,000 na mata.[10] Kusan kashi 10 zuwa 15% na masu juna biyu da aka sani suna ƙarewa a cikin zubar da ciki.[6] A cikin 2016, rikice-rikice na ciki ya haifar da mutuwar mata 230,600, ya ragu daga mutuwar 377,000 a 1990.[11] Abubuwan da suka fi dacewa sun hada da zubar jini, cututtuka, cututtuka masu hawan jini na ciki, toshewar aiki, da matsalolin da ke hade da zubar da ciki, zubar da ciki, ko ciki na ectopic.[11] A duniya, kashi 44% na masu juna biyu ba su da shiri.[1] Fiye da rabin (56%) na ciki marasa shiri ana zubar da ciki.[12] Daga cikin masu juna biyu da ba a yi niyya ba a Amurka, kashi 60% na mata sun yi amfani da maganin hana haihuwa zuwa wani lokaci a cikin watan da ya faru.[4]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 "Pregnancy: Condition Information". Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 19 December 2013. Archived from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Wylie, Linda (2005). Essential anatomy and physiology in maternity care (Second ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-443-10041-3. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017.
  3. Shehan, Constance L. (2016). The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Family Studies, 4 Volume Set (in Turanci). John Wiley & Sons. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-470-65845-1. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Abman, Steven H. (2011). Fetal and neonatal physiology (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders. pp. 46–47. ISBN 978-1-4160-3479-7.
  5. "How do I know if I'm pregnant?". Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 30 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  6. 6.0 6.1 The Johns Hopkins Manual of Gynecology and Obstetrics (4 ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2012. p. 438. ISBN 978-1-4511-4801-5. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "What is prenatal care and why is it important?". Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 12 July 2013. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "What are some common complications of pregnancy?". Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 12 July 2013. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  9. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (February 2013), "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question", Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, archived from the original on 1 September 2013, retrieved 1 August 2013
  10. 10.0 10.1 Sedgh G, Singh S, Hussain R (September 2014). "Intended and unintended pregnancies worldwide in 2012 and recent trends". Studies in Family Planning. 45 (3): 301–314. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4465.2014.00393.x. PMC 4727534. PMID 25207494.
  11. 11.0 11.1 GBD 2016 Causes of Death Collaborators (September 2017). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016". Lancet. 390 (10100): 1151–1210. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32152-9. PMC 5605883. PMID 28919116.
  12. Bearak J, Popinchalk A, Alkema L, Sedgh G (April 2018). "Global, regional, and subregional trends in unintended pregnancy and its outcomes from 1990 to 2014: estimates from a Bayesian hierarchical model". The Lancet. Global Health. 6 (4): e380–e389. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30029-9. PMC 6055480. PMID 29519649.