Cutar huhu na yau da kullun

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

Ciwon huhu na yau da kullun (COPD) wani nau'in cutar huhu ne mai toshewa wanda ke da matsalar numfashi na dogon lokaci da rashin isasshen iska.[1][2] Babban alamun sun haɗa da ƙarancin numfashi da tari tare da samar da sputum.[1] COPD cuta ce mai ci gaba, ma'ana yawanci takan tsananta akan lokaci.[3] Daga ƙarshe, ayyukan yau da kullun kamar tafiya ko yin sutura suna zama da wahala.[4] Cutar sankara na yau da kullun da emphysema sune tsoffin kalmomin da ake amfani da su don nau'ikan COPD daban-daban.[5][6][7] Har ila yau ana amfani da kalmar "nau'i-nau'i na mashako" don ma'anar tari mai amfani wanda ke samuwa na akalla watanni uku a kowace shekara har tsawon shekaru biyu.[1] Wadanda ke da irin wannan tari suna cikin haɗarin haɓaka COPD.[8] Hakanan ana amfani da kalmar "emphysema" don rashin kasancewar iska ko wani iskar gas a cikin kyallen takarda.[9]

Mafi yawan sanadin COPD shine shan taba, tare da ƙananan adadin lokuta saboda dalilai kamar gurɓataccen iska da kwayoyin halitta.[10] A cikin ƙasashe masu tasowa, ɗaya daga cikin tushen gurɓacewar iska shine rashin hura wutar lantarki da dafa abinci.[4] Tsawon lokaci ga waɗannan abubuwan haushi yana haifar da amsa mai kumburi a cikin huhu, yana haifar da kunkuntar ƙananan hanyoyin iska da rushewar ƙwayar huhu.[11] Sakamakon ganewar asali ya dogara ne akan rashin kyawun iska kamar yadda aka auna ta gwajin aikin huhu.[12] Sabanin asma, raguwar kwararar iska baya inganta sosai tare da amfani da bronchodilator.[4][13]

Yawancin lokuta na COPD za a iya hana su ta hanyar rage haɗari ga abubuwan haɗari.[14] Wannan ya haɗa da rage yawan shan taba da inganta ingancin iska na cikin gida da waje.[4] Duk da yake jiyya na iya raguwa da tabarbarewa, ba a san magani ba.[4] Magungunan COPD sun haɗa da daina shan taba, alluran rigakafi, gyaran numfashi, da sau da yawa shakar bronchodilator da steroids.[10] Wasu mutane na iya amfana daga dogon lokaci na maganin oxygen ko dashen huhu.[11] A cikin waɗanda ke da lokuta na muni mai tsanani, ana iya buƙatar ƙarin amfani da magunguna, maganin rigakafi, steroids, da asibiti.[10][15]

Ya zuwa 2015, COPD ta shafi kusan mutane miliyan 174.5 (2.4% na yawan al'ummar duniya).[16] Yawanci yana faruwa a cikin mutanen da suka haura shekaru 40.[4] Maza da mata suna fama daidai da yawa. A shekarar 2015, ta yi sanadin mutuwar mutane miliyan 3.2, fiye da kashi 90 cikin 100 a kasashe masu tasowa,[4] sama da miliyan 2.4 a shekarar 1990.[17][18] An yi hasashen adadin wadanda suka mutu zai karu saboda karuwar yawan shan taba a kasashe masu tasowa, da kuma yawan tsufa a duniya. kasashe da dama.[19] Ya haifar da kiyasin tsadar tattalin arziki na dalar Amurka tiriliyan 2.1 a cikin 2010.[20]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Vogelmeier CF, Criner GJ, Martinez FJ, Anzueto A, Barnes PJ, Bourbeau J, et al. (April 2017). "Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2017 Report: GOLD Executive Summary". Respirology. 22 (3): 575–601. doi:10.1111/resp.13012. PMID 28150362. S2CID 42027653.
  2. Roversi, Sara; Corbetta, Lorenzo; Clini, Enrico (5 May 2017). "GOLD 2017 recommendations for COPD patients: toward a more personalized approach". COPD Research and Practice. 3. doi:10.1186/s40749-017-0024-y.
  3. Vestbo, Jørgen (2013). "Definition and Overview". Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 187. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. pp. 1–7. doi:10.1164/rccm.201204-0596PP. PMID 22878278.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Fact sheet N°315". WHO. January 2015. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  5. "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)". WHO. Retrieved 6 June 2019. The more familiar terms of "chronic bronchitis" and "emphysema" have often been used as labels for this condition.
  6. Craig, John A. (2012). Ferri's netter patient advisor (2nd ed.). Saunders. p. 913. ISBN 9781455728268. Traditionally, two types of COPD were known as chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Most cases of COPD are a mixture of both diseases.
  7. "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)". WHO. Retrieved 5 June 2019. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is not one single disease but an umbrella term used to describe chronic lung diseases that cause limitations in lung airflow. The more familiar terms 'chronic bronchitis' and 'emphysema' are no longer used, but are now included within the COPD diagnosis.
  8. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (PDF). 2019. p. 13. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  9. Taylor, Jayne (2019). Bailliere's Dictionary E-Book: for Nurses and Health Care Workers. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 128. ISBN 9780702075643.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Decramer M, Janssens W, Miravitlles M (April 2012). "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". Lancet. 379 (9823): 1341–51. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.1000.1967. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60968-9. PMC 7172377. PMID 22314182.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Rabe KF, Hurd S, Anzueto A, Barnes PJ, Buist SA, Calverley P, Fukuchi Y, Jenkins C, Rodriguez-Roisin R, van Weel C, Zielinski J (September 2007). "Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: GOLD executive summary". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 176 (6): 532–55. doi:10.1164/rccm.200703-456SO. hdl:2066/51740. PMID 17507545. S2CID 20863981.
  12. Nathell L, Nathell M, Malmberg P, Larsson K (December 2007). "COPD diagnosis related to different guidelines and spirometry techniques". Respiratory Research. 8 (1): 89. doi:10.1186/1465-9921-8-89. PMC 2217523. PMID 18053200.
  13. "Asthma vs. COPD: What's the Difference?". WebMD. 2019-01-30. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
  14. Pirozzi C, Scholand MB (July 2012). "Smoking cessation and environmental hygiene". The Medical Clinics of North America. 96 (4): 849–67. doi:10.1016/j.mcna.2012.04.014. PMID 22793948.
  15. Dobler, Claudia C.; Morrow, Allison S.; Beuschel, Bradley; Farah, Magdoleen H.; Majzoub, Abdul M.; Wilson, Michael E.; Hasan, Bashar; Seisa, Mohamed O.; Daraz, Lubna; Prokop, Larry J.; Murad, M. Hassan; Wang, Zhen (25 February 2020). "Pharmacologic Therapies in Patients With Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease". Annals of Internal Medicine. 172 (6): 413–422. doi:10.7326/M19-3007. PMID 32092762.
  16. GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577. PMID 27733282.
  17. GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903. PMID 27733281.
  18. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators (January 2015). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604. PMID 25530442.
  19. Mathers CD, Loncar D (November 2006). "Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030". PLOS Medicine. 3 (11): e442. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030442. PMC 1664601. PMID 17132052.
  20. Lomborg, Bjørn (2013). Global problems, local solutions : costs and benefits. Cambridge University Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-1-107-03959-9.