Dementia

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Dementia
An old man diagnosed as suffering from senile dementia. Colo Wellcome L0026689.jpg
Description (en) Fassara
Iri cognitive disorder (en) Fassara, organic brain syndrome (en) Fassara, clinical sign (en) Fassara
particular disease (en) Fassara
Specialty (en) Fassara psychiatry (en) Fassara
neurology (en) Fassara
Treatment (en) Fassara
Magani (RS)-citalopram (en) Fassara, risperidone (en) Fassara, perphenazine (en) Fassara, donepezil (en) Fassara, galantamine (en) Fassara, tacrine (en) Fassara, rivastigmine (en) Fassara, olanzapine (en) Fassara, quetiapine (en) Fassara, pimavanserin (en) Fassara, aripiprazole (en) Fassara, memantine (en) Fassara, dihydro-α-ergocryptine (en) Fassara da dihydroergocristine (en) Fassara
Identifier (en) Fassara
ICD-9-CM 290.8, 294.8 da 294.1
ICD-10 F00, F01, F02, F03, F04, F05.1, F06 da F07
ICD-9 290290—294294
DiseasesDB 29283
MedlinePlus 000739
eMedicine 000739
MeSH D003704
Disease Ontology ID DOID:1307

Dementia wani dogon lokaci ne kuma sau da yawa a hankali raguwa a cikin ikon tunani da tunawa da ke da tsanani isa ya shafi aikin yau da kullum.[1] Sauran alamun gama gari sun haɗa da matsalolin motsin rai, matsalolin harshe, da raguwar kuzari.[1][2] Hankali yawanci ba ya shafar.[3] Gano ciwon hauka yana buƙatar canji daga aikin tunanin mutum da ya saba da kuma raguwa fiye da wanda zai yi tsammani saboda tsufa.[1][4] Wadannan cututtuka suna da tasiri mai mahimmanci ga masu kulawa.[1]

Mafi yawan nau'in ciwon hauka shine cutar Alzheimer, wanda ke samar da kashi 50% zuwa 70% na lokuta.[1][2] Sauran nau'o'in gama gari sun haɗa da lalatawar jijiyoyin jini (25%), lalata tare da jikin Lewy (15%), da lalatawar gaban lokaci.[1][2] Abubuwan da ba su da yawa sun haɗa da matsi na al'ada hydrocephalus, cutar hauka ta Parkinson, syphilis, HIV, da cutar Creutzfeldt-Jakob.[5] Fiye da nau'in hauka ɗaya na iya kasancewa a cikin mutum ɗaya.[1] Ƙananan adadin lokuta ana gudanar da su a cikin iyalai.[6] A cikin DSM-5, an sake rarraba lalata a matsayin rashin lafiyar neurocognitive, tare da digiri na tsanani.[7] Ganowa yawanci yana dogara ne akan tarihin rashin lafiya da gwajin fahimi tare da hoton likita da gwajin jini da aka yi amfani da shi don kawar da wasu dalilai masu yiwuwa.[8] Karamin gwajin yanayin tunani shine gwajin fahimi da aka saba amfani dashi.[2] Ƙoƙarin rigakafin cutar hauka ya haɗa da ƙoƙarin rage haɗarin haɗari kamar hawan jini, shan taba, ciwon sukari, da kiba.[1] Ba a ba da shawarar duba yawan jama'a don cutar ba.[9]

Ba a san maganin dementia ba.[1] Ana amfani da masu hana cholinesterase irin su donedpezil sau da yawa kuma suna iya zama masu fa'ida cikin rashin ƙarfi zuwa matsakaici.[10][11][12] Gabaɗaya fa'ida, duk da haka, kaɗan ne.[13][14] Akwai matakan da yawa waɗanda zasu iya inganta rayuwar mutanen da ke fama da cutar hauka da masu kula da su.[1] Sassan hankali da ɗabi'a na iya dacewa.[1] Ilmantarwa da ba da goyon baya na motsin rai ga mai kulawa yana da mahimmanci.[1] Shirye-shiryen motsa jiki na iya zama masu fa'ida game da ayyukan rayuwar yau da kullun kuma suna iya inganta sakamako.[15] Maganin matsalolin ɗabi'a tare da antipsychotics ya zama gama gari amma ba a saba ba da shawarar ba, saboda ƙarancin fa'ida da illa, gami da haɗarin mutuwa.[16][17]

A duk duniya, cutar hauka ta shafi mutane miliyan 46 a cikin 2015.[18] Kimanin kashi 10% na mutane suna kamuwa da cutar a wani lokaci a rayuwarsu.[19] Ya zama ruwan dare gama gari.[20] Kimanin kashi 3% na mutanen da ke tsakanin shekaru 65-74 suna da lalata, 19% tsakanin 75 da 84, kuma kusan rabin waɗanda suka wuce shekaru 85.[21] A cikin 2013 cutar hauka ta haifar da mutuwar mutane kusan miliyan 1.7, sama da miliyan 0.8 a 1990.[22] Yayin da mutane da yawa ke rayuwa mai tsawo, ciwon hauka yana ƙara zama ruwan dare.[23] Ga mutanen da ke da takamaiman shekaru, duk da haka, yana iya zama ƙasa da yawa, aƙalla a cikin ƙasashen da suka ci gaba, saboda raguwar abubuwan haɗari.[23] Yana daya daga cikin abubuwan da ke haifar da nakasa a cikin tsofaffi.[2] An yi imanin zai haifar da tsadar tattalin arziki na dalar Amurka biliyan 604 a shekara.[1] Mutanen da ke fama da ciwon hauka galibi ana kame su a zahiri ko kuma a sinadarai zuwa matsayi mafi girma fiye da larura, suna tada batutuwan haƙƙin ɗan adam.[1] Tozarta jama'a ga wadanda abin ya shafa ya zama ruwan dare gama gari.[2]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 "Dementia Fact sheet N°362". who.int. April 2012. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Burns A, Iliffe S (February 2009). "Dementia". BMJ. 338: b75. doi:10.1136/bmj.b75. PMID 19196746.
  3. "Dementia". www.who.int (in Turanci). Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  4. Budson, Andrew; Solomon, Paul (2011). Memory loss : a practical guide for clinicians. [Edinburgh?]: Elsevier Saunders. ISBN 978-1-4160-3597-8.
  5. Gauthier, Serge (2006). Clinical diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's disease (3rd ed.). Abingdon, Oxon: Informa Healthcare. pp. 53–54. ISBN 978-0-203-93171-4. Archived from the original on 2016-05-03.
  6. Loy CT, Schofield PR, Turner AM, Kwok JB (March 2014). "Genetics of dementia". Lancet. 383 (9919): 828–40. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60630-3. PMID 23927914.
  7. Association, American Psychiatric (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-5 (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. pp. 591–603. ISBN 978-0-89042-554-1.
  8. "Dementia diagnosis and assessment" (PDF). pathways.nice.org.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 December 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  9. "Dementia overview" (PDF). pathways.nice.org.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 December 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  10. Kavirajan H, Schneider LS (September 2007). "Efficacy and adverse effects of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine in vascular dementia: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". The Lancet. Neurology. 6 (9): 782–92. doi:10.1016/s1474-4422(07)70195-3. PMID 17689146.
  11. Birks J (January 2006). "Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD005593. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005593. PMID 16437532.
  12. Rolinski M, Fox C, Maidment I, McShane R (March 2012). "Cholinesterase inhibitors for dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's disease dementia and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease" (PDF). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3 (3): CD006504. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006504.pub2. PMID 22419314.
  13. Commission de la transparence (June 2012). "Drugs for Alzheimer's disease: best avoided. No therapeutic advantage" [Drugs for Alzheimer's disease: best avoided. No therapeutic advantage]. Prescrire International. 21 (128): 150. PMID 22822592.
  14. Fink, Howard A.; Linskens, Eric J.; MacDonald, Roderick; Silverman, Pombie C.; McCarten, J. Riley; Talley, Kristine M.C.; Forte, Mary L.; Desai, Priyanka J.; Nelson, Victoria A.; Miller, Margaret A.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Brasure, Michelle; Taylor, Brent C.; Ng, Weiwen; Ouellette, Jeannine M.; Sheets, Kerry M.; Wilt, Timothy J.; Butler, Mary (19 May 2020). "Benefits and Harms of Prescription Drugs and Supplements for Treatment of Clinical Alzheimer-Type Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". Annals of Internal Medicine. 172 (10): 656–668. doi:10.7326/M19-3887.
  15. Forbes D, Forbes SC, Blake CM, Thiessen EJ, Forbes S (April 2015). "Exercise programs for people with dementia". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Submitted manuscript). 132 (4): 195–96. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006489.pub4. PMID 25874613.
  16. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. "Low-dose antipsychotics in people with dementia". nice.org.uk. Archived from the original on 5 December 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  17. "Information for Healthcare Professionals: Conventional Antipsychotics". fda.gov. 2008-06-16. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  18. GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577. PMID 27733282.
  19. Loy CT, Schofield PR, Turner AM, Kwok JB (March 2014). "Genetics of dementia". Lancet. 383 (9919): 828–40. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60630-3. PMID 23927914.
  20. Larson EB, Yaffe K, Langa KM (December 2013). "New insights into the dementia epidemic". The New England Journal of Medicine. 369 (24): 2275–77. doi:10.1056/nejmp1311405. PMC 4130738. PMID 24283198.
  21. Umphred, Darcy (2012). Neurological rehabilitation (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby. p. 838. ISBN 978-0-323-07586-2. Archived from the original on 2016-04-22.
  22. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators (January 2015). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604. PMID 25530442.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Larson EB, Yaffe K, Langa KM (December 2013). "New insights into the dementia epidemic". The New England Journal of Medicine. 369 (24): 2275–77. doi:10.1056/nejmp1311405. PMC 4130738. PMID 24283198.