Dinki

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

Yin dinki sana'a ce ta ɗaure ko haɗa abubuwa ta amfani da ɗinki da aka yi da allurar ɗinki da zare . dinki yana daya daga cikin tsofaffin fasahar yadi, wanda ya taso a zamanin Paleolithic . Kafin ƙirƙirar yadudduka na kadi ko saƙa, masana ilimin kimiya na kayan tarihi sun yi imanin mutanen zamanin Dutse a duk faɗin Turai da Asiya sun dinka gashin gashi da kayan fata ta amfani da kashi, antler ko na hauren giwa da allura da “zaren” da aka yi da sassa daban-daban na jikin dabba ciki har da sinew, catgut, da veins. . [1]

Tsawon shekaru dubbai, duk ɗinki ana yin su da hannu. Ƙirƙirar na'urar ɗinki a ƙarni na 19 da haɓakar na'ura mai kwakwalwa a ƙarni na 20 ya haifar da yawan samarwa da fitar da kayan ɗinki zuwa waje, amma har yanzu ana yin ɗinkin hannu a duniya.[1] Kyakkyawar ɗinkin hannu wata siffa ce ta tela mai inganci, kayan kwalliyar kwalliya, da yin suturar al'ada, kuma masu fasahar masaku da masu sha'awar sha'awa suna bi da su azaman hanyar ƙirƙira. [abubuwan da ake bukata]

Sanin farko da aka yi amfani da kalmar “dinki” shi ne a ƙarni na 14.[1]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Asalin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

dinki yana da tsohon tarihi da aka kiyasta zai fara a zamanin Paleolithic[1]. An yi amfani da dinki wajen dinke fatun dabbobi wuri guda domin sutura da matsuguni. Inuit, alal misali, sun yi amfani da sinew daga caribou don zaren zaren da allura da aka yi da kashi;[2] ’yan asalin yankin Amurka da Prairies na Kanada sun yi amfani da ingantattun hanyoyin dinki don harhada matsugunan tipi.[3] An hada dinki da saƙar ganyen tsiro a Afirka don ƙirƙirar kwanduna, irin waɗanda masu saƙa Zulu suka yi, waɗanda suka yi amfani da siraran lefen dabino a matsayin “zaren” wajen ɗinke fiɗaɗɗen ganyen dabino da aka saƙa a cikin nada. 4] Saƙar kyalle daga filaye na halitta ya samo asali ne a Gabas ta Tsakiya a wajajen shekara ta 4000 BC, kuma wataƙila a farkon zamanin Neolithic, da ɗinkin zane ya kasance tare da wannan ci gaba.[5]

A lokacin tsakiyar zamanai, Turawa da za su iya ba da ita sun yi aikin dinki da dinki. Muhimmancin mahimmancin ɗinki an nuna shi ta wurin matsayi mai daraja na "Ubangiji Sewer" a yawancin nadin sarauta na Turai daga tsakiyar zamanai. Misali shi ne Robert Radcliffe, 1st Earl na Sussex wanda aka nada Lord Sewer a nadin sarautar Henry VIII na Ingila a shekara ta 1509. Yin dinki a galibi sana'ar mace ce, kuma yawancin dinki kafin karni na 19 yana da amfani. Tufafi ya kasance jari mai tsada ga yawancin mutane, kuma mata suna da muhimmiyar rawa wajen tsawaita tsawon rayuwar kayan tufafi. An yi amfani da dinki don gyarawa. Tufafin da suka shuɗe za a juye su a ciki don a ci gaba da sawa, wani lokacin kuma sai an ware su a sake haɗa su don dacewa da wannan manufa. Da zarar tufafin ya lalace ko kuma a yayyage, za a cire shi kuma a dinka zanen da za a sake amfani da shi a cikin sababbin tufafi, a yi shi zuwa ƙwanƙwasa, ko kuma a yi amfani da shi. Yawancin matakan da ake amfani da su wajen yin tufafi daga karce (saƙa, yin ƙira, yankewa, gyare-gyare, da sauransu) na nufin cewa mata sukan yi musayar ƙwarewarsu ta wata fasaha da juna.[1] Ayyukan allura na ado irin su ƙwanƙwasa fasaha ce mai ƙima, kuma 'yan mata masu lokaci da hanyoyin za su yi aiki don gina ƙwarewar su a wannan yanki. Tun daga tsakiyar zamanai zuwa karni na 17, kayan aikin dinki irin su allura, fil, da pincushions sun kasance a cikin wando na yawancin matan turawa.[2] An yi amfani da tsuntsun ɗinki ko ɗinkin ɗinki a matsayin hannu na uku kuma sun kasance mashahurin kyaututtuka ga masu sana'a a ƙarni na 19.[3][4] [2][3] An daraja kayan ado na ado a al'adu da yawa a duniya. Ko da yake mafi yawan ɗinkin ɗinki a cikin waƙar Yamma a al'adance na Biritaniya, Irish ko Yammacin Turai asalinsu, ɗinkin da ya samo asali daga al'adu daban-daban an san su a duk faɗin duniya a yau. Wasu misalan su ne madaidaicin Buɗaɗɗen Cikewa na Cretan, Couching Romania ko Couching Oriental, da ɗinkin Jafananci.[1] Dinkin da ke da alaƙa da yin ado ya bazu ta hanyar hanyoyin kasuwanci waɗanda ke aiki a lokacin Tsakiyar Tsakiya. Hanyar siliki ta kawo fasahohin yin ado na kasar Sin zuwa yammacin Asiya da gabashin Turai, yayin da fasahohin da suka samo asali daga Gabas ta Tsakiya suka yadu zuwa Kudancin da Yammacin Turai ta hanyar Maroko da Spain.[2] Matsugunan daular Turawa kuma sun yada fasahohin sakawa da dinki a duk duniya. Duk da haka, akwai misalan fasahar ɗinki na asali ga al'adu a wurare masu nisa daga juna, inda sadarwar al'adu ta kasance mai wuyar tarihi. Misali, hanyar juyawa appliqué da aka sani ga yankunan Kudancin Amurka kuma an san shi zuwa kudu maso gabashin Asiya.[2] [4] Juyin juya halin masana'antu ya canza samar da masaku daga gida zuwa masana'anta. A farkon shekarun juyin juya halin masana'antu, injinan sun samar da tufaffi gabaɗaya. Na'urar dinki ta farko a duniya ta kasance a shekarar 1790 ta Thomas Saint.[1] A farkon shekarun 1840, wasu injinan dinki na farko sun fara bayyana. Barthélemy Thimonnier ya gabatar da injin dinki mai sauƙi a cikin 1841 don samar da kayan aikin soja ga sojojin Faransa; Jim kadan bayan haka, gungun masu sana’ar dinki sun kutsa cikin shagon Thimonnier suka jefar da injin din daga tagogin, suna ganin cewa injin din zai sa su daina aiki.[2] A cikin shekarun 1850, Isaac Singer ya ƙera na'urorin ɗinki na farko waɗanda za su iya aiki cikin sauri da kuma daidai kuma sun zarce aikin ɗinki ko tela da hannu.

Yayin da ake samar da riguna da yawa a gida daga ’yan uwa mata, ana kuma samar da tufafin da aka kera don masu matsakaicin matsayi da injin dinki. Shagunan zufa masu cike da ma'aikatan injunan ɗinki marasa biyan kuɗi sun girma zuwa ɗaukacin gundumomin kasuwanci a manyan biranen London da New York City. Don ci gaba da tallafawa masana'antar, an yi aikin guntu don kuɗi kaɗan daga matan da ke zaune a cikin marasa galihu. Aikin allura yana ɗaya daga cikin ƴan sana'o'in da ake ganin karɓuwa ga mata, amma ba ta biya albashin rai ba. Mata masu aikin nesa sukan yi aiki na tsawon awanni 14 don samun abin da za su iya dogaro da kansu, wani lokacin kuma ta hanyar hayar injin dinki da ba za su iya saya ba.[1]

  1. Anawalt (2007), pp. 80–81
  2. Munro, Heather, "A Little Token of Love: The Sewing Bird," Western Illinois Museum, February 2014
  3. Sewing Bird. National Museum of American History. Patented 15 February 1853, to Charles Waterman of Meridan, Connecticut
  4. Leslie, Catherine Amoroso (2007). Needlework Through History: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. xii. ISBN 9780313335488.