Fasahar mashigar rubutun kwamfuta

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Wikidata.svgFasahar mashigar rubutun kwamfuta
QWERTY keyboard.jpg
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na keyboard (en) Fassara, human interface device (en) Fassara da text entry interface (en) Fassara
Bangare na na'ura da terminal (en) Fassara
Gajeren suna клавиатура
Maƙirƙiri Sam Hecht (en) Fassara
Has quality (en) Fassara keyboard layout (en) Fassara
Ginin faifan maɓalli, a cikin layi huɗu, na allon rubutu irin na kwamfutar komputa

Ana iya rarraba faifan maɓallan kwamfuta ta hanyar fasahar canzawa da suke amfani da ita. Kwamfuta maɓallan alfanun lambobi yawanci suna da sauyawa masu ɗorewa 80 zuwa 110, Zaɓin fasahar canzawa yana shafar maɓallin kewayawa (kyakkyawar amsar da aka danna maɓalli) da kuma tafiya kafin tafiya (nisan da ake buƙata don tura maɓallin don shigar da rubutu tabbatacce). Wasu sabbin samfuran madannai suna amfani da wasu nau'ikan fasahar zamani don samun ƙarin tsada.

Iri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Maballin keyboard Mimbren[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai maɓallan maɓallin membrane iri biyu, maɓallan maɓallin membrane masu laushi da maɓallan membrane masu cikakken tafiya:

Flat-paniel mimbren galibi ana samu su akan kayan wuta kamar murhun onin na lantarki ko kuma na'urar ɗaukar hoto . Zane na yau da kullun ya ƙunshi nau'i uku. Layi na sama yana da alamun da aka buga a gabansa da kuma ratsi masu jan hankali da aka buga a bayansa. A karkashin wannan yana da shimfiɗar wuri, wanda ke riƙe layin gaba da na baya don kar su saba haɗuwa da lantarki. Layer ta baya tana da ratsi-ƙuli mai bugawa daidai da na gaban gaba. Lokacin da aka haɗu tare, raƙuman suna yin grid. Lokacin da mai amfani ya tura ƙasa a wani matsayi, yatsan su na tura layin gaban ta ƙasa ta hanyar layin da ke kara kaɗan don rufe kewaya a ɗaya daga cikin hanyoyin haɗin layin. Wannan yana nunawa ga kwamfuta ko mai sarrafa keyboard cewa an danna wani maɓalli na musamman.

Gaba ɗaya, faifan maɓanɗakikwana ba su samar da wata sanarwa ta zahiri ba. Sabili da haka, na'urorin da ke amfani da waɗannan batutuwan ƙara ko haskaka haske lokacin da aka danna mabuɗin. Sau da yawa ana amfani da su a cikin mawuyacin yanayi inda tabbatar da ruwa-ko kwararar abu mai kyau. Kodayake anyi amfani dasu a farkon kwanakin kwamfuta na sirri (akan Sinclair ZX80, ZX81 da Atari 400 ), amma an maye gurbinsu ta hanyar kwalliyar da ta fi dacewa da kuma maɓallan maɓallin inji.

Maballin keɓaɓɓen maɓallin mimbrem sune maɓallan komputa na yau da kullun. Suna da maɓallin keɓaɓɓen maballin roba / maɓallin canzawa waɗanda ke latsawa a kan membrane don nuna alamar lamba a cikin matrix mai sauya wutar lantarki.

Maballin sauya roba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yadda dodo-sauya makullin ke aiki: Yatsa yana dankwafar da dome don kammala kewayen
Dome yana canza raga tare da maɓallan (keyboard yana juye a wannan hoton)

Maɓallin madannin Dom- matattara ne na membrane mai faren allo da maɓallan keɓaɓɓu na inji. Suna kawo alamun jirgin zagaye biyu tare a ƙarƙashin roba ko faifan maɓallin sarrafaffen ƙasa wato (silicon) ta amfani da maɓallan "dome" na ƙarfe ko kuma mulkokin da aka kafa na polyurethane. Maɓuɓɓukan dome na ƙarfe an ƙirƙira su da ɓangaren baƙin ƙarfe waɗanda, idan aka matsa su, suka ba mai amfani da haske, ingantaccen martani mai tasiri. Wadannan nau'ikan maɓallan kwalliyar suna da yawa ainun, galibi abin dogaro ne ga sama da hawan keke miliyan 5, kuma ana iya saka su a cikin nickel, azurfa ko zinariya. Sauye-sauyen dome na roba, wanda galibi ake kira polydomes, an ƙirƙira su da tururuwa na polyurethane inda ake rufe kumfa na ciki a cikin hoto. Duk da yake dome dayawa wato (polydomes) galibi suna da rahusa fiye da ƙarancin ƙarfe, amma suna da ƙarancin na ƙarfe, kuma galibi suna da ƙayyadaddun yanayin rayuwa. Polydomes ana ɗaukarsu masu nutsuwa ne, amma masu tsabtace jiki sukan same su "mushy" saboda dome da ke rugujewa baya samar da sakamako mai ma'ana kamar na ƙarfe. Ga ko dai ƙarfe ko polydomes, lokacin da aka danna maɓalli, sai ya rushe dome, wanda ya haɗa alamun biyu kuma ya kammala haɗin don shigar da halin. Misali akan allon PC galibi an yi masa zinare.

Dukansu fasaha ne na yau da kullum da aka yi amfani da su a cikin maɓallan kasuwar yau. Irin wannan fasaha ta canzawa ana amfani dashi mafi yawa a cikin masu kula da hannu, wayoyin hannu, mota, kayan masarufi da na'urorin kiwon lafiya. Ana kiran maɓallan maɓallin Dome-switch kai tsaye.

Maɓallin sauya almakashi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsarin sauya Scissor

Hali na musamman na maɓallin komboutocin kwamfuta - mai canza almakashi. Mabuɗan suna haɗe da maɓallin ta hanyar filastik guda biyu waɗanda ke tsarke cikin yanayi mai kama da "almakashi", kuma a kama su da maɓallin da madannin. Har yanzu yana amfani da sandunan roba, amma inji na musamman 'almakashi' ya danganta keycap zuwa wani abin gogewa wanda ke lalata dome na roba tare da gajeren tafiya fiye da maɓallin dome na roba. Hakanan maɓallan almakashi mai sauya almakashi suna amfani da membrane membobin 3-a matsayin kayan lantarki na sauyawa. Hakanan galibi suna da ɗan gajeren tafiya mai nisa (2 mm maimakon 3.5 - 4 mm don daidaitaccen dome-canza makullin dubawa). Irin wannan maɓallan maɓallin ana samun su a kan maɓallan da aka gina akan kwamfutocin tafi-da-gidanka da maɓallan da aka tallata a matsayin 'ƙaramin martaba'. Waɗannan maɓallan suna gaba ɗaya shiru kuma maɓallan suna buƙatar ƙaramin ƙarfi don latsawa.

Maɓallin mabuɗin Scissor-sauya yawanci ya fi tsada. Suna da wahalar tsaftacewa (saboda iyakantaccen motsi na maɓallan da maɓallan haɗe-haɗe da yawa) amma kuma ba za su iya samun tarkace a cikinsu ba saboda rata tsakanin maɓallan galibi ƙananan ne (saboda babu buƙatar ƙarin ɗaki don ba da damar 'kunnawa' a cikin madannin, kamar yadda aka saba samu akan mabuɗin membrane).

Maɓallin Mai Kargo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin irin wannan madannin keyboard, latsa madanni yana canza ƙarfin abin kwalliyar. Samfurin ya ƙunshi gammarorin D-dimbin yawa na makunnin katun don kowane canji, an buga shi a kan allon zagaye (PCB) kuma an rufe ta da siririn fim mai narkewa wanda ke aiki a matsayin mai lantarki .

Duk da mahimmancin ra'ayi, tsarin canzawar ƙarfin yana da sauki a zahiri..Amman shikum mai motsi ya ƙare da wani lebur kumfa mai faɗi game da girman ƙaramar kwamfutar asfirin, an gama shi da takin aluminum Akasin sauyawa shine PCB tare da maɓallin kumburi. Lokacin da aka danna mabuɗin, sai a tsare sirrin ɗin ɗin a saman PCB, ya zama sarkar mai daisy na masu ƙarfi guda biyu tsakanin maɓallin tuntuɓar kanta da kanta ta rabu da mai baƙin ciki, kuma ta haka ne ya “gajerta” gammayen huɗɗar tare da sauƙin ganuwa mai saurin amsawa. tsakanin su. Yawancin lokaci wannan yana ba da izinin bugun jini don a ji daɗi. Saboda sauyawa ba shi da ainihin ma'amala da lantarki, babu tsinkayen dole. Mabuɗan ba sa buƙatar a danna su sosai don a motsa su, wanda ke ba wasu mutane damar buga sauri. Mai firikwensin ya ba da isasshen bayani game da matsayin maɓallin don bawa mai amfani damar daidaita batun motsawa (maɓallin kewayawa). Ana iya yin wannan daidaituwa tare da taimakon kayan haɗin software kuma daban-daban don kowane maɓalli, idan an aiwatar da haka. [1]

Maɓallin IBM sarrafaffe na F shine makullan maɓallin keɓaɓɓen wanda ya ƙunshi maɓuɓɓugar ruwan bazara a kan PCB mai aiki, daidai da maɓallin M Model na baya wanda yayi amfani da membrane a maimakon PCB.

Kamfanin da aka fi sani da fasaha mai sauyawa (electrostatic) shine Topre Corporation [2] daga ƙasan Japan. Koyaya, yayin da aka siyar da samfuran su akan eBay, Amazon, da sauran shafukan tallata haj na yana gizo, galibi basu da yawa a manyan sassan duniya. Maɓallan maɓalli na Topre suna amfani da bazara ƙasa da dome na roba. Dome yana ba da yawancin ƙarfi wanda ke hana danna maɓallin, kama da mabuɗin maɓallin membrane, yayin bazara yana taimakawa tare da ɗaukar ƙarfin aiki.

Makullin makunnin inji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sauya Maɓallan Maballin Kayan Kayan Kayan Cherry MX guda biyu (an haɗa su a dama)

Kowane maɓalli keɓaɓɓiyar maɓalli na ƙunshe da cikakken maɓalli a ƙasa. Kowane maɓallin canzawa yana ƙunshe da gidaje, maɓuɓɓugar ruwa, da tushe, da kuma wasu lokuta wasu bangarorin kamar su ganye mai banbanci ko maɓallin kewayawa. Sauye-sauye sun zo a cikin bambance-bambancen guda uku: "linzami" tare da juriya daidai, "tactikal" tare da ciwan da ba a ji ba, da "danna" tare da duka karo da na sauraro. Dogaro da juriya na bazara, mabuɗin yana buƙatar matsin lamba da yawa don motsawa da zuwa ƙasa. Siffar tushe da ƙirar gidan sauyawa ya bambanta nisan motsawa da nisan tafiyar mai sauyawa. Za'a iya canza sautin ta farantin, harka, shafawa, har ma da maɓallan maɓalli. Makullin injina suna ba da damar cirewa da maye gurbin maɓallan maɓalli, amma maye gurbinsu ya fi zama gama gari tare da mabuɗin maɓallin keɓaɓɓe saboda yanayin fasali iri ɗaya

Maɓallin keɓaɓɓe yana da tsawon rai fiye da membrane ko maɓallan sauya-dome-switch. Cherry MX sauyawa, alal misali, suna da tsawon rayuwar da ake tsammani ana latsa miliyan 50 a kowane canji, yayin da masu sauyawa daga Razer suna da darajar rayuwa mai latsa miliyan 60 a kowane canji.

Babban mai canzawa na inji wato (switch)a harshen turanci a yanzu shine Cherry . Harfa na ilektirik, tsohon babban furodusa ne, ya ƙare samarwa a farkon a shekaran 2000, amma sauye sauyen Alps ana ci gaba da yin su ta wasu kamfanoni kamar su Matias, Xiang Min (XM), [3] Tai-Hao (APC) [4] da Hua-Jie (AK). [5] Sauran masana'antun canza sheƙa sun haɗa da Gateron, [6] Kaihua (Kailh), [7] Gaote (Outemu), [8] Greetech, [9] TTC [10] da Omron .

Mashigar Rubutu Mai Sprin

Hotuna daga asalin lokacin bazarar U.S. Patent 4,118,611, wanda aka baiwa IBM a cikin 1978.

Yawancin masanan buga rubutu sun fi son bugawa maɓallan bazara. Hanyar bazara ( U.S. Patent 4,118,611 ) a saman canzawar shine ke da alhakin taɓawa da amsawar keyboard. Wannan inji yana sarrafa ƙaramar guduma wacce ta buge makunnin wuta ko membrane.

In 1993, two years after spawning Lexmark, IBM transferred its keyboard operations to the daughter company. New Model M keyboards continued to be manufactured for IBM by Lexmark until 1999, when Unicomp purchased the keyboard technology.

Yau, Unicomp ne ke ƙera sabbin maɓallan buckling-spring. Unicomp kuma yana gyara tsofaffin mabuɗan IBM da Lexmark.

Maɓallin madannin Hall yana amfani da maganaɗisu da firikwensin tasirin Hall maimakon sauyawa tare da lambobin sadarwa na inji. Lokacin da maɓalli ke baƙin ciki, yana motsa maganaɗisu wanda mai auna sigar aiki ya gano shi. Saboda basa buƙatar tuntuɓar jiki don aiwatarwa, maɓallin Hall yana da matukar dogaro kuma yana iya karɓar miliyoyin maɓallan bugu kafin ya kasa. Ana amfani dasu don aikace-aikacen amintattu masu ƙarfi kamar su shuke-shuke da makamashin nukiliya, matukan jirgin sama, da mahalli masu masana'antu masu mahimmanci. A sauƙaƙe ana iya sanya su mara ruwa, kuma suna iya tsayayya da turɓaya da yawa. Saboda ana buƙatar maganaɗisu da firikwensin kowane maɓalli, da kuma kayan sarrafa lantarki na al'ada, suna da tsada don ƙera su.

Na'urar hangen nesa ta laser kusan girman linzamin kwamfuta na aiwatar da ƙididdigar maɓallan mabuɗi a saman shimfiɗe, kamar tebur. Wannan nau'ikan maɓallan maɓallin kewayawa wanda za'a iya amfani dashi da PDAs da wayoyin hannu, kuma yawancin samfuran suna da igiyoyi da za'a iya ja da su da kuma damar mara waya. Koyaya, rikicewar ko bazata na laser zai yi rijistar maɓallin keystroke maras so. Hakanan, idan matsalar aiki ta laser, gaba ɗayan rukunin ba su da amfani, saɓanin mabuɗan maɓallan al'ada waɗanda za a iya amfani da su koda kuwa an cire abubuwa da dama (kamar maɓallan maɓallin). Irin wannan nau'in madannin na iya zama abin takaici don amfani tunda yana da sauƙin kamuwa da kurakurai, koda a yayin rubutu na yau da kullun, kuma rashin cikakkiyar amsawar da zai iya sanya shi ma rashin sauƙin amfani da mai amfani da maɓallan maɓallin mafi ƙarancin inganci.

Maɓallin Mai Nadi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin maɓallan maɓalli suna da ƙarfi, amma wannan maɓallin keyboard yana da sassauƙa.

Maballan da aka yi da sarrafaffen kasa wato silicone mai sauƙi ko kayan polyurethane za su iya birgima a cikin dam. Daidaita madannin keyboard na iya lalata layukan membrane na ciki. Lokacin da aka rufe su gaba ɗaya a cikin roba, suna da ƙarfin ruwa. Kamar maɓallan maɓallin membrane, an ba da rahoton cewa suna da matukar wahalar amfani da su, saboda babu ɗan ƙaramin bayani game da su, kuma silikan ɗin zai jawo hankalin datti, ƙura, da gashi.

Fasaha ta kimiyyar gani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Haka ne kuma an san shi da maɓallin keɓaɓɓen hoto, maɓallin keɓaɓɓen haske, madannin hoto mai amfani da lantarki, da kuma fasahar gano maɓallin gani da ido.

Harley E. Kelchner ne ya gabatar da fasahar madannin gani da ido a shekarar 1962 don amfani dashi a cikin injin buga rubutu da nufin rage hayaniya da ke samarwa ta hanyar kunna madannin buga rubutu.

Fasaha mai amfani da faifan maɓalli tana amfani da na'urori masu fitar da haske da firikwensin hoto don gano maɓallan aiki da kyau. Mafi yawanci emitters da firikwensin suna a kewaye, an ɗora su akan ƙaramin PCB . Ana nusar da haske daga gefe zuwa gefe na cikin madannin keyboard, kuma za'a iya toshe shi ta hanyar makullin da aka kunna. Yawancin maɓallan gani suna buƙatar aƙalla katako 2 (galibi katako a tsaye da katako a kwance) don tantance maɓallin kunnawa. Wasu mabuɗan maɓalli na gani suna amfani da maɓallin keɓaɓɓen maɓalli na musamman wanda ke toshe haske a cikin wani takamaiman tsari, yana ba da katako ɗaya kawai a kowane layi na maɓallan (galibi katako a kwance).

pHanyar maɓallin kewayawa mai sauƙi ne - ana aika katako mai haske daga emitter zuwa firikwensin karɓa, kuma maɓallan maɓallin da aka kunna, suna nunawa, ƙyamar ko kuma ba haka ba suna hulɗa tare da katako, wanda ya haifar da maɓallin da aka gano.

Wasu maɓallan maɓallin gani na farko sun iyakance a tsarin su kuma suna buƙatar keɓewa ta musamman don toshe hasken waje, babu wani aiki mai maɓalli da yawa da aka tallafawa kuma ƙirar ta iyakance ga takaddun murabba'i mai kauri.

Fa'idodi da fasahar kidan kimiyyar gani ita ce cewa tana ba da faifan maɓalli na gaske, mai jure ƙura da ruwa; kuma yana amfani da kusan kashi 20% na PCB, idan aka kwatanta shi da membrane ko maɓallan sauya dome, yana rage ƙarancin lantarki . Advantagesarin fa'idodi na fasahar keɓaɓɓiyar maɓallin kewayawa a kan sauran fasahohin keyboard kamar tasirin Hall, laser, mirginewa, da maɓallan mabuɗi suna kwance cikin farashi (Maɓallin tasirin Hall) da kuma jin - fasahar makullin gani da ido ba ta buƙatar maɓallan maɓalli daban, da mahimmancin ji na buga rubutu ya kasance iri ɗaya sama da shekaru 60.

Ƙwararren maɓallin kewayawa na DataHand yana amfani da fasahar gani don fahimtar maɓallin kewayawa tare da katako mai haske da firikwensin ta kowane maɓalli. Ana riƙe mabuɗan a cikin wurin hutunsu ta maganaɗisu; lokacin da aka shawo kan ƙarfin maganaɗisu don danna maɓalli, ana buɗe hanyar gani kuma an yi rijistar maɓallin kewayawa.

Kashewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lokacin da aka buge maɓalli, sai ya juya (ko ya yi bounces) ga abokan hulɗarsa sau da yawa kafin ya daidaita. Idan aka sake shi, sai ya sake juyawa har sai ya koma yadda yake. Kodayake hakan na faruwa ne a kan karamin sihiri wanda ba za a iya ganinsa ba ga idanuwa, amma ya isa ga kwamfutar ta yi rajistar bugun jini da yawa ba da gangan ba.

Don warware wannan matsalar, mai sarrafawa a cikin keyboard yana "ba da ma'anar" maɓallan, ta hanyar tattara su a kowane lokaci don samar da maɓallin keɓaɓɓen "tabbatacce" wanda (yawanci) ya dace da abin da galibi keɓaɓɓiyar lamba ce. Fuskokin maɓallan membrane na farko sun iyakance bugun bugawa saboda dole ne su yi rawar gani. Wannan matsala ce sananne akan ZX81 .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Mabuɗi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana amfani da maɓallan maballi a kan maballan tafiye-tafiye na cikakken tafiya. Duk da yake madannan maballin zamani ana buga su sama-sama, ana kuma iya yin su da shuɗi biyu, za a iya buga laser, a buga sublimation, a zana su, ko kuma za a iya yin su da wani abu mai haske tare da abubuwan da aka saka a takarda.

Hakanan akwai maɓallan maɓalli waɗanda ƙananan bawo ne waɗanda aka sanya su a kan maɓallan tushe. Waɗannan an yi amfani da su a kan maballan PC na IBM.

Sauran sassan madannin PC[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Maballin PC na zamani kuma ya haɗa da mai sarrafa sarrafawa da fitilun nuna alama don ba da amsa ga mai amfani game da yanayin mboyar a ciki. Dogaro da wayewar shirye-shiryen mai sarrafawa, maballan na iya bayar da wasu fasaloli na musamman. Mai sarrafawa yawanci sau ɗaya cibiya 8048 microcontroller bambancin. Matatar sauya madannin keyboard tana da wayoyi ga abubuwan shigarta kuma tana aiwatar da maɓallan shigowa kuma tana aika sakamakon zuwa layin serial (maɓallin kebul) zuwa mai karɓar a cikin babban akwatin kwamfutar. Hakanan yana sarrafa hasken " makullan makullin ", " lambar kulle " da " ƙulli makulli " fitilu.

Gwajin gama gari na ko kwamfutar ta faɗi tana danna maɓallin "makullin rufe". Maballin kewayawa yana aika lambar maɓallan zuwa direban keyboard da ke aiki a cikin babbar kwamfutar; idan babbar kwamfutar tana aiki, tana umartar haske da ya kunna. Duk sauran fitilun fitilun suna aiki iri ɗaya. Direban faifan ma yana bin sauyin motsi, alt da yanayin sarrafawa na maballin.

Matattarar sauya mashigar rubutu na komputa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Maballin sauyawa na maɓallin keyboard ana zana shi sau da yawa tare da wayoyi masu kwance da wayoyi na tsaye a cikin layin wutar lantarki wanda ake kira matrix circuit . Yana da maballin sauyawa a wasu ko duk hanyoyin tsinkaya, da yawa kamar nuni mai yawa. Kusan dukkan maɓallan maɓallan suna da maɓalli a kowane mahadar, wanda ke haifar da "maɓallan fatalwa" da "maɓallin kewayawa" yayin da aka danna maɓallan da yawa ( mirginewa ). Tabbas, galibi yafi tsada, mabuɗan maɓallan suna da diode tsakanin kowane mahaɗan, yana barin maɓallin microcontroller ya iya fahimtar kowane maɓallan maɓallan lokaci ɗaya ana matsewa, ba tare da ƙirƙirar maɓallan fatalwa ba.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jerin madannai na inji
  • Tsaran faifan maɓalli
    • AZERTY
    • QWERTY
    • QWERTZ
  • Taswirar faifan maɓalli

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  •  
  1. Topre keyboard documentation, describing various features and they software manual pdf
  2. Topre Realforce website
  3. Xiang Min website
  4. Tai-Hao website
  5. Hua-Jie website
  6. Gateron website
  7. Kaihua website
  8. Gaote website
  9. Greetech website
  10. TTC website