Hakar ma'adinai

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Wikidata.svgHakar ma'adinai
economic activity (en) Fassara
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Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na engineering (en) Fassara
Bangare na mining industry (en) Fassara
By-product (en) Fassara tailings (en) Fassara
Gudanarwan mining engineer (en) Fassara da miner (en) Fassara
Tarihin maudu'i History of mining (en) Fassara
NACE code (en) Fassara B
Haɗin kwal na ƙasa
Maƙarƙancin Sulfur tare da sulfur da aka ɗauke shi daga bene na Ijen Volcano (2015)
Saukake taswirar ma'adanai

Hakar ma'adinai shine hakar ma'adanai masu mahimmanci ko wasu abubuwan ilimin ƙasa daga Duniya, yawanci daga jikin ƙasa, lode, vein, seam, reef, ko ajiya. Waɗannan kuɗaɗen suna samar da kayan masarufi wanda ke da fa'idar tattalin arziƙi ga mai hakar gwal.

Ma’adanan da aka gano ta hanyar hakar ma’adinai sun hada da karafa, gawayi, shallen mai, gemstones, farar ƙasa, alli, dutse mai girma, gishirin dutsen, potash, tsakuwa, da yumbu. Ana buƙatar hakar ma'adinai don samun duk wani abu wanda ba za a iya haɓaka ta hanyar aiwatar da aikin gona ba, ko kuma mai yiwuwa a ƙirƙira shi ta hanyar wucin gadi a cikin dakin gwaje-gwaje ko masana'anta. Ma'adanan ma'adanai da yalwa sun haɗa da hakar duk wani abu mara sabuntawa kamar su fetur, gas, ko ma ruwa.

Ayyukan hakar ma'adinai na zamani sun haɗa da neman ma'adanan ƙasa, nazarin fa'idar ribar ma'adinan da ake son samarwa, hakar abubuwan da ake so, da sake dawo da ƙasar bayan an rufe ma'adinan.[1]

Ayyukan hakar ma'adanai galibi suna haifar da mummunan tasirin mahalli, yayin aikin hakar ma'adinai da kuma bayan rufe ma'adinai. Don haka, yawancin al'ummomin duniya sun zartar da ƙa'idoji don rage tasirin. Tsaron aiki ya daɗe yana damuwa, kuma ayyukan yau da kullun sun inganta aminci a cikin ma'adinai.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kafin tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ma'adanin tagulla na Chalcolithic a cikin kwarin Timna, Negev Negev

Tun farkon wayewa, mutane suna amfani da dutse, tukwane kuma, daga baya, karafa da aka samo kusa da saman Duniya. Anyi amfani da waɗannan don yin kayan aiki na farko da makamai; misali, an yi amfani da dutsen ƙanƙara mai inganci da aka samo a arewacin Faransa, kudancin Ingila da Poland don ƙirƙirar kayayyakin ƙanƙan dutse.[2] An gano ma'adanan Flint a wuraren alli inda aka bi sawun dutsen a shararraki da wuraren adana hotuna. Ma'adanai a Grimes Graves da Krzemionki sun shahara sosai, kuma kamar yawancin sauran ma'adanai, asalinsu neolithic (c. 4000-3000 BC). Sauran duwatsu masu wuya da aka haƙa ko tara don gatari sun haɗa da dutsen dutse na masana'antar gatari na Langdale wanda ke yankin Gundumar Kogin Ingila. Mafi shahararren ma'adanai a tarihin tarihi shi ne Ngwenya na Ngwenya a Eswatini (Swaziland), wanda tattaunawar rediyo ta nuna yana da kimanin shekaru 43,000. A wannan rukunin yanar gizon mutane sun halicci hematite don yin launi mai launin ja.[3][4] Ma'adanai na irin wannan shekarun a cikin Hungary an yi imanin cewa wurare ne inda wataƙila Neanderthals ya haƙo dutsen ƙanƙara don makamai da kayan aiki.[5]

Tsohon Misira[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Malachite

Tsoffin Masarawa sun yi malachite a Maadi.[6] Da farko, Masarawa sunyi amfani da duwatsu masu launin koren malachite don kayan ado da tukwane. Daga baya, tsakanin 2613 da 2494 BC, manyan ayyukan gine-gine sun buƙaci balaguro zuwa ƙasashen waje zuwa yankin Wadi Maghareh don tabbatar da ma'adinai da sauran albarkatun da babu su a cikin Misira kanta.[7] An kuma gano wuraren neman kayan turquoise da na jan ƙarfe a Wadi Hammamat, Tura, Aswan da sauran wurare daban-daban na Nubia a Tsibirin Sinai da Timna.[7]

Hakar ma'adinai a Misira ya faru ne a farkon dauloli. Ma'adanai na zinare na Nubia suna daga cikin mafi girma kuma mafi girman kowane a cikin Tsohon Misira. Wadannan marubutan sun bayyana ne ta hanyar marubucin Girkanci Diodorus Siculus, wanda ya ambaci sanya wuta a matsayin hanya daya da ake amfani da ita wajen farfasa dutsen da ke dauke da zinaren. Ana nuna ɗayan rukunin gidaje a ɗayan sanannun taswira. Masu hakar ma'adinan sun ragargaza ma'adinan kuma sun nika shi da ƙamshi mai kyau kafin su wanke foda don ƙurar zinaren.

Tsohon Girka da Rome[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ci gaban Tsohon Roman na Ma'adinan Zinare na Dolaucothi, Wales

Ma'adinai a Turai yana da dogon tarihi. Misalan sun hada da ma'adanan azurfa na Laurium, wanda ya taimaka wajen tallafawa jihar birni ta Athens. Kodayake suna da bayi sama da 20,000 da ke aiki da su, amma fasahar su ta kasance daidai da ta magabatan su.[8] A wasu ma'adanai, kamar a tsibirin Thassos, 'yan Faransa sun sassaka marmara bayan sun isa karni na 7 BC.[9] An kawo marmar din kuma daga baya masana binciken kayan tarihi sun gano cewa anyi amfani da shi a cikin gine-gine ciki har da kabarin Amphipolis. Philip II na Macedon, mahaifin Alexander the Great, ya kama ma'adinan zinariya na Mount Pangeo a cikin 357 BC don ba da kuɗin kamfen ɗin sa na soja.[10] Hakanan ya kama ma'adinan zinare a cikin Thrace don ƙirƙirar tsabar kuɗi, a ƙarshe ya samar da tan 26 a shekara.

Koyaya, Romawa ne suka kirkiro manyan hanyoyin hakar ma'adinai, musamman amfani da manyan ruwa da aka kawo ta mahaƙar ta hanyar magudanan ruwa da yawa. An yi amfani da ruwan don dalilai daban-daban, gami da cire abubuwa masu nauyi da kuma tarkacen dutse, wanda ake kira hakar mai, da kuma hada-hadar wanka, ko nikakke, ores da tukin injina masu sauƙi.

Romawa sun yi amfani da hanyoyin hakar ma'adanai a babban sikelin don hango jijiyoyin ma'adanai, musamman ma wanda aka daina amfani da shi yanzu wanda ake kira hushing. Sun gina magudanan ruwa da yawa don samar da ruwa ga ma'adinan. A can, ruwan da aka ajiye a cikin manyan tafkunan ruwa da tankuna. Lokacin da aka bude cikakken tanki, ambaliyar ruwan ta dauke kayan da aka dora musu nauyi don fallasa gadon da ke karkashin da kowane jijiyoyin zinariya. Daga nan wuta ta yi aiki a kan dutsen don dumama dutsen, wanda za a kashe shi da rafin ruwa. Sakamakon girgizar zafin da ya haifar ya fashe dutsen, wanda ya ba da damar cire shi ta hanyar ƙarin rafuka na ruwa daga tankunan da ke sama. Masu hakar ma'adinan Roman sunyi amfani da irin waɗannan hanyoyin don yin aikin cassiterite a cikin Cornwall da gubar dalma a cikin Pennines.

Rumawan sun kirkiro hanyoyin ne a Spain a shekara ta 25 AD don amfani da dukiyar zinare masu yawa, mafi girman wurin shine a Las Medulas, inda dogayen magudanan ruwa guda bakwai suka tatse kogunan yankin kuma suka biya kudaden. Romawa kuma sun yi amfani da azurfar da ke cikin galena mai ban tsoro a cikin ma'adinan Cartagena (Cartago Nova), Linares (Castulo), Plasenzuela da Azuaga, da sauransu.[11] Spain ta kasance ɗayan mahimman yankuna na haƙar ma'adinai, amma duk yankuna na Daular Rome ana amfani da su. A cikin Burtaniya nan asalin ƙasar sun haƙo ma'adinai na shekaru dubu, amma bayan mamayar Rome,[12] girman ayyukan ya karu sosai, saboda Romawa suna buƙatar albarkatun Britannia, musamman zinariya, azurfa, kwano, da gubar.

Fasahar Roman ba ta takaita ga hakar ma'adinai ba. Sun bi jijiyoyin karkashin kasa da zarar an fara samun damar hakar ma'adinai. A Dolaucothi sun dakatar da jijiyoyin kuma sunyi amfani da adit ta cikin dutsen da ba dutse don magudanar wuraren. Hakanan an yi amfani da irin waɗannan adon don shigar da aiki, musamman mahimmanci lokacin da aka yi amfani da saitin wuta. A wasu sassan shafin, sun ratsa teburin ruwan kuma sun lalata ma'adinan ta hanyar amfani da nau'ikan injina, musamman ma masu juya ruwa-ruwa. An yi amfani da waɗannan sosai a ma'adinan tagulla a Rio Tinto a Spain, inda ɗayan jerin ya ƙunshi irin waɗannan ƙafafun 16 da aka shirya biyu-biyu, da ɗaga ruwa kimanin mita 24 (ƙafa 79). An yi musu aiki a matsayin matattarar masarufi tare da masu hakar ma'adinai da ke tsaye a saman tebur. Yawancin misalai na irin waɗannan na'urori an samo su a cikin tsohuwar ma'adinan Roman kuma wasu misalai yanzu ana adana su a Gidan Tarihi na Burtaniya da Gidan Tarihi na Walesasa na Wales.[13]

Na da Turai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Agricola, marubucin De Re Metallica
Gallery, ƙarni na 12 zuwa 13, Jamus

Ma'adinai azaman masana'anta ya sami canje-canje masu ban mamaki a zamanin Turai. Masana'antar hakar ma'adanai a farkon ƙarni na Tsakiya sun fi mai da hankali ne akan hakar tagulla da baƙin ƙarfe. Hakanan an yi amfani da wasu karafa masu daraja, galibi don ƙyalli ko tsabar kuɗi. Da farko, ana samun karafa da yawa ta hanyar hakar ma'adinai, kuma ana fitar da ma'adanin ne daga zurfin zurfin, maimakon ta hanyar zurfafan ma'adanai. Kusan karni na 14, yawan amfani da makamai, kayan yaƙi, masu motsa jiki, da takalmin dawakai ya ƙaru da buƙatar ƙarfe. Misali, masanan zamanin da, galibi ana ɗauke da farantin da ya kai kilogiram 100 (45 kilogiram) ko sulke da takobi, mashi da sauran makamai.[14] Babban dogaro da baƙin ƙarfe don dalilan soja ya haifar da samar da baƙin ƙarfe da ayyukan hakar.

Rikicin azurfar na shekarar 1465 ya faru ne lokacin da dukkan ma'adinai suka isa zurfin da ba za a iya sake amfani da sandunan a bushe da fasahar dake akwai ba.[15] Kodayake yawan amfani da takardun kudi, lamuni da tsabar kudi na jan ƙarfe a wannan lokacin ya rage darajar, da kuma dogaro da, ƙarafa masu daraja, zinariya da azurfa har yanzu suna da mahimmanci ga labarin ma'adinai na da.

Saboda bambance-bambance a cikin tsarin zamantakewar al'umma, karuwar hakar ma'adinai ya yadu daga tsakiyar Turai zuwa Ingila a tsakiyar karni na sha shida. A nahiya, ma'adinan ma'adinai mallakar na kambi ne, kuma an haƙƙaƙe wannan haƙƙin mallaka. Amma a Ingila, an taƙaita haƙƙin haƙar ma'adinai ga zinare da azurfa (waɗanda Ingilishi kusan ba su da ajiya) ta hanyar yanke hukunci na 1568 da doka a 1688. Ingila na da baƙin ƙarfe, tutiya, tagulla, gubar, da ma'adanai. Masu mallakar ƙasa waɗanda suka mallaki ƙananan ƙarfe da gawayi a ƙarƙashin ƙauyukansu to suna da ƙarfin ƙarfafawa don cire waɗannan ƙarfe ko don ba da rancen ajiyar kuɗi da karɓar kuɗi daga masu aikin hakar ma'adinai. Ingilishi, Jamusanci, da Dutch babban birni sun haɗu don haɓaka kuɗin haɓaka da tacewa. An kawo ɗaruruwan ƙwararrun masanan Jamus da ƙwararrun ma'aikata; a shekara ta 1642 wani yanki na yan kasashen waje 4,000 masu hakar ma'adinai da narkar da tagulla a Keswick a tsaunukan arewa maso yamma.[16]

Amfani da ikon ruwa a cikin hanyar mills na ruwa ya yawaita. An yi amfani da injinan haƙar ruwa a murƙushe ma'adinai, ɗaga ma'adanan daga raƙuman ruwa, da kuma yin ɗakunan shiga ta iska mai ƙarfi. An fara amfani da hoda baƙar fata a hakar ma'adinai a Selmecbánya, Masarautar Hungary (yanzu Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia) a 1627.[17] Baƙi hoda ya ba da izinin fashewar dutsen da ƙasa don sassautawa da bayyanar jijiyoyin ƙasa. Ayukan iska mai ƙarfi ya fi sauri fiye da saita wuta kuma ya ba da izinin hakar ƙananan ƙarfe da ma'adanai da ba za a iya hana su ba.[18] A cikin 1762, aka kafa makarantar farko ta hakar ma'adanai a cikin wannan garin a can.

Yawaitar sabbin abubuwa na aikin gona kamar garmaho, da kuma karuwar da ake amfani da shi a matsayin kayan gini, shima ya kasance abin tuki a cikin gagarumin ci gaban masana'antar karfe a wannan lokacin. Mutanen Espanya sukan yi amfani da abubuwan kirkire-kirkire kamar su kayan kwalliyar ma'adinai bayan an haƙa. Dabbobi ne suka yi amfani da wannan na'urar kuma sunyi amfani da ƙa'idodin da aka yi amfani da su don sussukar hatsi.[19]

Mafi yawan ilimin dabarun hako ma'adinan zamani sun fito ne daga littattafai kamar su Biringuccio's De la pirotechnia kuma mai yiwuwa mafi mahimmanci daga Georg Agricola's De re metallica (1556). Wadannan littattafan sun yi bayani dalla-dalla kan hanyoyin hakar ma'adinai daban-daban da aka yi amfani da su a ma'adinan Jamusawa da Saxon. Babban batu a cikin ma'adinai na da, wanda Agricola yayi bayani dalla-dalla, shine cire ruwa daga raƙuman ma'adanai. Yayin da masu hakar gwal suke zurfafa don samun sabbin jijiyoyi, ambaliyar ta zama babbar matsala. Masana'antar hakar ma'adinai ta zama ingantacciya sosai da wadata tare da ƙirƙirar fanfunan inji da dabbobi.

Afirka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Metarfe ƙarfe a Afirka ya faro sama da shekaru dubu huɗu. Daga ƙarni na 19, haƙar zinare da lu'u-lu'u a kudancin Afirka na da babban sakamako na siyasa da zamantakewar jama'a.

Oceania[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Zinare da haƙo kwal sun fara a Australia da New Zealand a ƙarni na 19. Nickel ya zama mai mahimmanci a cikin tattalin arziƙin New Caledonia.

Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jagoran hakar ma'adinai a cikin yankin Kogin Mississippi na Amurka, 1865

A zamanin da, Amurkawa na farko sun haƙo tagulla da yawa a Tekun Manyan Keweenaw da kuma kusa da Isle Royale; ƙarfe jan ƙarfe ya kasance har yanzu kusa da farfajiyar lokacin mulkin mallaka.[20][21][22] 'Yan asalin ƙasar sun yi amfani da tagulla mafi ƙarancin tagulla daga aƙalla shekaru 5,000 da suka gabata;[20] an gano kayayyakin jan karfe, kwanson kibiya, da sauran kayan tarihi wadanda suka kasance wani bangare na babbar hanyar sadarwar kasar.[21] Masu binciken Faransawa na farko da suka ci karo da wuraren ba sa amfani da karafan saboda wahalar jigilar su,[21] amma daga ƙarshe an yi ciniki da tagulla a duk faɗin nahiyar tare da manyan hanyoyin ruwa.

Masu hakar ma'adinai a Tamarack Mine a Copper Country, Michigan, U.S. a 1905.

A cikin tarihin mulkin mallaka na farko na Amurka, "an kwashe zinariya da azurfa na asali da sauri kuma an mayar da su zuwa Spain a cikin gwanayen zinariya da azurfa",[23] zinariya da azurfa da suka samo asali galibi daga ma'adinai a Amurka ta Tsakiya da Kudancin Amurka. Turquoise mai kwanan wata a 700 AD an haƙa shi a cikin pre-Columbian America; a cikin Cerillos Mining District a New Mexico, an kiyasta "kimanin tan 15,000 na dutse daga Dutsen Chalchihuitl ta amfani da kayan aikin dutse kafin 1700."[24]

A cikin 1727 Louis Denys (Denis) (1675-1741), sieur de La Ronde - ɗan'uwan Simon-Pierre Denys de Bonaventure da surukin René Chartier - sun karɓi umarnin Fort La Pointe a Chequamegon Bay; inda 'yan ƙasar suka sanar da shi tsibirin jan ƙarfe. La Ronde ya sami izini daga kambin Faransa don sarrafa ma'adinai a cikin 1733, ya zama "farkon mai hakar ma'adinai a tafkin mafifici"; shekaru bakwai bayan haka, barkewar cuta tsakanin Sioux da Chippewa ta dakatar da hakar ma'adinai.[25]

Yin hakar ma'adanai a cikin Amurka ya zama gama gari a cikin karni na 19, kuma Majalisar Wakilan Amurka ta zartar da Dokar Janar na Mining na 1872 don ƙarfafa haƙar ma'adinan ƙasashen tarayya.[26] Kamar yadda yake tare da California Gold Rush a tsakiyar karni na 19, hakar ma'adanai da ƙarafa masu daraja, tare da kiwon dabbobi, ya zama abin tuki a Haɓakar Yammacin Amurka zuwa gabar tekun Pacific. Tare da binciken kasashen yamma, sansanonin hakar ma'adinai suka tashi kuma "suka bayyana wata ruhi ta daban, gadon da zai dawwama ga sabuwar kasar"; Masu Rushewar Zinare za su fuskanci matsaloli iri ɗaya kamar na Rus Rushan ƙasa na yamma mai wucewa wanda ya gabace su.[27] Taimakon hanyoyin jirgin ƙasa, mutane da yawa sun yi tafiya zuwa Yamma don samun damar aiki a cikin ma'adinai. Garuruwan yamma kamar Denver da Sacramento sun samo asali daga garuruwan hakar ma'adanai.

Lokacin da aka bincika sabbin wurare, galibi zinare ne (placer sannan lode) sannan kuma azurfa waɗanda aka ƙwace su kuma suka fara fitarwa. Sauran karafa galibi za su jira layin dogo ko magudanan ruwa, saboda ƙurar zinare mai laushi da kayan masarufi ba sa buƙatar narkewa kuma suna da saukin ganewa da jigilar kaya.[22]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Agricola, Georg; Hoover, Herbert (1950). De re metallica. MBLWHOI Library. New York, Dover Publications.
  2. Hartman, Howard L. SME Mining Engineering Handbook, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration Inc, 1992, p. 3.
  3. Swaziland Natural Trust Commission, "Cultural Resources – Malolotja Archaeology, Lion Cavern," Retrieved August 27, 2007, "Swaziland National Trust Commission – Cultural Resources – Malolotja Archaeology, Lion Cavern". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-02-05..
  4. Peace Parks Foundation, "Major Features: Cultural Importance." Republic of South Africa: Author. Retrieved August 27, 2007, Archived 2008-12-07 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. "ASA – October 1996: Mining and Religion in Ancient Man". www2.asa3.org. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  6. Shaw, I. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 57–59.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Shaw, I. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 108.
  8. "MINING GREECE ANCIENT MINES". www.miningreece.com. 2014-12-10. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  9. "Mining Greece Ancient Quarries in Thassos". www.miningreece.com. 2014-12-10. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  10. "Mining Greece the Goldmines of Alexander the Great". www.miningreece.com. 2014-12-10. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  11. Calvo, Miguel (2003). Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. II. Sulfuros y sulfosales. Vitoria, Spain: Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Alava. pp. 205–335. ISBN 84-7821-543-3.
  12. "The Independent, 20 Jan. 2007: The end of a Celtic tradition: the last gold miner in Wales". News.independent.co.uk. 2007-01-20. Archived from the original on July 6, 2008. Retrieved 2013-06-22.
  13. "Web Hosting, Reseller Hosting & Domain Names from Heart Internet". romans-in-britain.org.uk. Archived from the original on July 20, 2010.
  14. A culture of Improvement. Robert Friedel. MIT Press. 2007. p. 81
  15. "Chapter 7: Medieval Silver and Gold". Mygeologypage.ucdavis.edu. Archived from the original on 2013-07-14. Retrieved 2013-06-22.
  16. Heaton Herbert (1948) Economic History of Europe. A Harper International Edition. Fifth printing. February 1968. p. 316
  17. Heiss, Andreas G.; Oeggl, Klaus (2008). "Analysis of the fuel wood used in Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age copper mining sites of the Schwaz and Brixlegg area (Tyrol, Austria)". Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. 17 (2): 211–21. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.156.1683. doi:10.1007/s00334-007-0096-8. S2CID 15636432.
  18. The use of Firesetting in the Granite Quarries of South India Paul T. Craddock The Bulletin of the Peak District Mines Historical Society, Vol. 13 Number 1. 1996
  19. "The Spanish Tradition in Gold and Silver Mining." Otis E. Young Arizona and the West, Vol. 7, No. 4 (Winter, 1965), pp. 299–314 (Journal of the Southwest) JSTOR 40167137.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Lankton, L. (1991). Cradle to Grave: Life, Work, and Death at the Lake Superior Copper Mines. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 5–6.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 West, G.A. (1970). Copper: its mining and use by the aborigines of the Lake Superior Region. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
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  23. Vaden, H.E. & Prevost. G. (2002). Politics of Latin America: The Power Game. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 34.
  24. Maynard, S.R., Lisenbee, A.L. & Rogers, J. (2002). Preliminary Geologic Map of the Picture Rock 7.5 – Minute Quadrangle Sante Fe County, Central New Mexico. New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Open-File Report DM-49.
  25. The WPA Guide to Wisconsin: The Badger State, Federal Writers' Project, Trinity University Press, Wisconsin, USA, 2013, p. 451. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
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  27. Boorstin, D.J. (1965). The Americans: The National Experience. New York: Vintage Books, pp. 78–81.