Hallucination

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Hallucination
Description (en) Fassara
Iri psychopathological symptom (en) Fassara, disruption (en) Fassara, perceptual distortion (en) Fassara
general symptom (en) Fassara
Specialty (en) Fassara psychiatry (en) Fassara, medical psychology (en) Fassara
psychotherapy (en) Fassara
Identifier (en) Fassara
ICD-10 R44
ICD-9 780.1
DiseasesDB 19769
MedlinePlus 003258
eMedicine 003258
MeSH D006212

Hallucination shine hasashe idan babu wani abin motsa jiki na waje wanda ke da halayen hasashe na gaske. Hallucinations suna da fayyace, suna da mahimmanci, kuma ana ganin suna cikin sararin haƙiƙa na waje. Hallucination hade ne na jihohi biyu masu hankali na farkawa na kwakwalwa da barci REM.[1] An bambanta su daga abubuwa masu alaƙa da yawa, irin su mafarki ( barci REM ), wanda ba ya haɗa da farkawa; pseudohallucination, wanda ba ya kwatanta hasashe na ainihi, kuma an gane shi daidai a matsayin rashin gaskiya; ruɗi, wanda ya haɗa da karkatacciyar fahimta ko kuskuren fahimtar ainihin fahimta; da kuma tunanin tunani, wanda baya kwaikwayi ainihin fahimta, kuma yana ƙarƙashin ikon son rai.

Hallucinations na iya faruwa a kowane yanayi na azanci - na gani, saurare, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, proprioceptive, daidaitattun daidaito, nociceptive, thermoceptive da chronoceptive . Ana kiran hallucinations a matsayin multimodal idan hanyoyi masu yawa sun faru. Wani nau'i mai laushi na hallucination an san shi da damuwa, kuma yana iya faruwa a yawancin hankulan da ke sama. Waɗannan na iya zama abubuwa kamar ganin motsi a cikin hangen nesa, ko jin surutu ko muryoyi. Hallucinations na saurare ya zama ruwan dare a cikin schizophrenia . Suna iya zama masu kyautatawa (suna gaya wa batun abubuwa masu kyau game da kansu) ko kuma su kasance masu ƙeta, suna la'antar batun. Kashi 55% na hallucinations na saurare suna da mugunta a cikin abun ciki, misali, mutane suna magana game da batun, ba tare da magana da su kai tsaye ba. Kamar hallucinations na sauraro, tushen takwarorin gani na iya kasancewa a bayan batun. Wannan na iya haifar da jin ana kallo ko kallo, yawanci tare da mugun nufi.

Hallucination na hypnagogic da hypnopompic hallucinations ana ɗaukar al'amuran al'ada. Halucination na Hypnagogic na iya faruwa yayin da mutum ke yin barci kuma ana yin tashe-tashen hankula a lokacin da mutum ke farkawa. Ana iya haɗuwa da ruɗi tare da yin amfani da miyagun ƙwayoyi (musamman maƙarƙashiya ), rashin barci, ciwon zuciya, cututtuka na neurological, da delirium tremens . Yawancin ruɗuwa suna faruwa kuma yayin barcin barci.

Kalmar “hallucination” ita kanta likita ce ta ƙarni na 17 Sir Thomas Browne ya shigar da ita cikin harshen Ingilishi a cikin 1646 daga asalin kalmar Latin alucinari wanda ke nufin yawo a cikin tunani. Ga Browne, hallucination yana nufin wani nau'in hangen nesa wanda "lalata da karɓar abubuwansa cikin kuskure".

Rabe-Rabe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana iya bayyanar da rudi ta hanyoyi daban daban.[12] Hanyoyi daban-daban na hasashe suna shafar hankali daban-daban, wani lokaci suna faruwa a lokaci daya, suna haifar da hasashe masu yawa ga wadanda ke fuskantar su.[6]

Na ji[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hallucinations na sauraro (kuma aka sani da paracusia)[13] shine tsinkayen sauti ba tare da motsa jiki na waje ba. Za a iya raba hallucinations na saurarO zuwa na farko da hadaddun, tare da na baki da kuma na rashin magana. Wadannan ruhohin su ne mafi yawan nau'in tashe-tashen hankula, tare da jita-jita na magana da aka fi sani fiye da na ba da baki[14][15]. Halayen firamare shine fahimtar sautuka kamar su rairayi, busa, sauti mai tsayi, da sauransu. [16] A lokuta da yawa, tinnitus shine hangen nesa na farko.[15]. Duk da haka, wasu mutanen da suka fuskanci wasu nau'in tinnitus, musamman tinnitus pulsatile, a zahiri suna jin jini yana gudu ta cikin tasoshin kusa da kunne. Domin abin kara kuzari na saurare yana nan a cikin wannan yanayin, bai cancanta ba a matsayin hallucination.

Rikicin hallucination shine na muryoyi, kiɗa, [15] ko wasu sautuna waɗanda ƙila ko ba za su bayyana ba, mai yiwuwa ko ba za a sani ba, kuma suna iya zama abokantaka, m, ko tsakanin sauran damar. Hallucination na mutum ɗaya na ɗaya ko fiye da muryoyin magana yana da alaƙa da cututtukan hauka kamar schizophrenia, kuma yana da mahimmanci na musamman wajen gano waɗannan yanayi.

Hallucination na kiɗan kuma ya zama ruwan dare gama gari dangane da haɗaɗɗun hallucinations na saurare kuma yana iya zama sakamakon abubuwa da yawa waɗanda ke kama da asarar ji (kamar ciwon kunne na kiɗa, nau'in ji na Charles Bonnet syndrome), farfaɗo na ɗan lokaci na ɗan lokaci, [19] rashin lafiyar jijiya, [20] bugun jini, rauni, kurji, ko ƙari.[21]

Ƙungiyar Muryoyin Ji (Hearing Voices Movement) ƙungiya ce ta tallafi da bayar da shawarwari ga mutanen da suke ruɗin murya, amma ba sa nuna alamun tabin hankali ko nakasu[22].

An danganta yawan shan maganin kafeyin da ƙaruwar yuwuwar mutum ya fuskanci tashe-tashen hankula.[23] Wani bincike da makarantar koyar da ilimin halayyar dan adam ta Jami’ar La Trobe ta gudanar ya nuna cewa, kusan kofuna biyar na kofi a rana (kimanin 500 MG na maganin kafeyin) na iya haifar da lamarin.[24]

Na gani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hallucination na gani shine "hangen wani abin motsa jiki na gani na waje inda babu shi"[25]. Wani lamari na daban amma yana da alaƙa shine ruɗi na gani, wanda shine murdiya na ainihin abin motsa jiki na waje. An rarraba hallucinations na gani a matsayin mai sauƙi ko hadaddun:

. Sauƙaƙan hallucinations na gani (SVH) ana kuma kiransa azaman abubuwan gani da ba a kafa ba da kuma abubuwan gani na farko. Waɗannan sharuɗɗan suna magana ne ga fitilu, launuka, sifofin geometric, da abubuwa marasa fahimi. Ana iya raba waɗannan zuwa phosphenes waɗanda suke SVH ba tare da tsari ba, da kuma photopsias waɗanda suke SVH tare da tsarin geometric.

. Complex visual hallucinations (CVH) ana kuma kiransa da kafaffen hallucinations na gani. CVHs a bayyane suke, hotuna masu kama da rayuwa ko fage kamar mutane, dabbobi, abubuwa, wurare, da sauransu. Misali, mutum na iya bayar da rahoton hallucinating da rakumi. Sauƙaƙan hallucination na gani wani siffa ce mai kama da ƙila tana da kamanni siffa ko launi ga raƙuma (kamar raƙuma), yayin da hadadden hangen nesa hoto ne mai hankali, mai kama da rai wato, babu shakka, giraffe.

Na umurni[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hallucination na umarni shine hallucination ta hanyar umarni; suna bayyana daga waje ne, ko kuma suna iya fitowa daga kan abin da ake magana a kai[26]. Abubuwan da ke cikin tantanin halitta na iya kasancewa daga marasa laifi zuwa umarni don cutar da kai ko wasu.[26] Ana danganta hallucination na umarni da schizophrenia. Mutanen da ke fuskantar hallucination na umarni suna iya ko ba za su bi ƙa'idodin da aka ruɗe ba, ya danganta da yanayi. Yin biyayya ya fi zama ruwan dare ga umarnin da ba na tashin hankali ba.[27]

A wasu lokuta ana amfani da furucin umarni don kare wani laifi da aka aikata, yawanci kisan kai[28]. A haƙiƙa, murya ce da mutum ya ji kuma tana gaya wa mai sauraro abin da zai yi. Wani lokaci umarnin umarni ne marasa kyau kamar "Tashi" ko "Rufe kofa."[29] Ko umarni ne don wani abu mai sauƙi ko wani abu mai barazana, har yanzu ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin "umurni na hallucination." Wasu tambayoyi masu taimako waɗanda za su iya taimaka wa mutum wajen sanin ko suna da wannan sun haɗa da: "Menene muryoyin ke gaya maka ka yi?", "Yaushe muryoyinka suka fara gaya maka ka yi abubuwa?", "Ka gane mutumin da ya yi?" yana gaya muku ku cutar da kanku (ko wasu)?”, “Kuna tsammanin za ku iya hana yin abin da muryoyin ke gaya muku ku yi?”[29].

Na shaķa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Phantosmia ( olfactory hallucinations ), warin da ba a zahiri ba, [30] da kuma parosmia (wasan kwaikwayo na wari), shakar wani wari na gaske amma ganinsa a matsayin kamshi daban-daban fiye da yadda ake tunawa, [31] su ne karkatar da ma'anar wari (ƙarashin ƙanshi). tsarin), kuma a mafi yawan lokuta, ba wani abu mai tsanani ne ke haifar da shi ba kuma yawanci za su tafi da kansu cikin lokaci[30]. Yana iya haifar da yanayi daban-daban kamar ciwon hanci, polyps na hanci, matsalolin hakori, ciwon kai, raunin kai, tashin hankali, shanyewar jiki, ko ciwan kwakwalwa.[30][32]. Bayyanar muhalli a wasu lokuta na iya haifar da shi, kamar shan taba, bayyanar da wasu nau'ikan sinadarai (misali, maganin kashe kwari ko abubuwan da ake amfani da su), ko maganin radiation don ciwon kansa ko wuyansa[30]. Hakanan yana iya zama alamar wasu cututtuka na tabin hankali kamar su baƙin ciki, cuta ta biyu, maye, cire kayan maye, ko rashin lafiyar kwakwalwa (misali, schizophrenia).[32]. Warin da ake gane yawanci ba shi da daɗi kuma ana siffanta shi da ƙamshin ƙonewa, ƙamshi, lalacewa, ko ruɓe.[30]

Dalili[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana iya haifar da ruɗi ta hanyar abubuwa da yawa.[36]

Hypnagogic hallucination[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wadannan rukunan suna faruwa ne daf da yin barci kuma suna shafar yawancin jama'a: a cikin binciken daya kashi 37% na wadanda suka amsa sun fuskanci su sau biyu a mako.[37] Halucinations na iya wucewa daga daƙiƙa zuwa mintuna; duk lokacin, batun yawanci ya kasance sane da ainihin yanayin hotunan. Ana iya haɗa waɗannan da narcolepsy. A wasu lokuta ana danganta haye-hayen haye tare da rashin daidaituwar tushen kwakwalwa, amma wannan ba kasafai ba ne.[38]

Peduncular hallucinoosis[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Peduncular yana nufin abin da ya shafi peduncle, wanda wata hanya ce ta jijiyoyi da ke gudana zuwa kuma daga pons akan tushen kwakwalwa. Wadannan tashe-tashen hankula yawanci suna faruwa ne da yamma, amma ba lokacin bacci ba, kamar a yanayin hallucination na hypnagogic. Maudu'in yawanci yana sane sosai sannan yana iya yin mu'amala tare da haruffan halluci na dogon lokaci. Kamar yadda yake a yanayin hallucinations hypnagogic, fahimtar yanayin hotunan ya kasance cikakke. Hotunan karya na iya faruwa a kowane bangare na filin gani, kuma ba kasafai ake yin su ba.[38]

Delirium tremens[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ɗaya daga cikin mafi girman nau'i na halucination na gani shine mai canzawa sosai, mai yiwuwa polymodal delirium tremens. Yana da alaƙa da janyewa a cikin rashin amfani da barasa. Mutanen da ke fama da ɓacin rai na iya zama cikin tashin hankali da ruɗewa, musamman ma a matakin baya na wannan cuta.[39] Hankali yana raguwa a hankali tare da ci gaban wannan cuta. Barci yana damuwa kuma yana faruwa na ɗan gajeren lokaci, tare da saurin motsin ido.[40]

Migraine coma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

This type of hallucination is usually experienced during the recovery from a comatose state. The migraine coma can last for up to two days, and a state of depression is sometimes comorbid. The hallucinations occur during states of full consciousness, and insight into the hallucinatory nature of the images is preserved. It has been noted that ataxic lesions accompany the migraine coma.[38]

Charles Bonnet syndrome[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Charles Bonnet ciwo shine sunan da aka ba wa hangen nesa wanda wani bangare ko mai rauni na gani ya samu. Halayen na iya faruwa a kowane lokaci kuma suna iya damun mutane na kowane zamani, saboda ƙila ba su san da farko cewa suna ruɗewa ba. Suna iya jin tsoron lafiyar hankalinsu da farko, wanda zai iya jinkirta rabawa tare da masu kulawa har sai sun fara fahimtar shi da kansu. Halucination na iya tsoratarwa da rashin fahimta game da abin da yake na ainihi da abin da ba haka ba. Wani lokaci ana iya tarwatsa abubuwan kallon ta hanyar motsin ido, ko kuma ta hanyar tunani mai ma'ana kamar, "Ina iya ganin wuta amma babu hayaki kuma babu zafi daga gare ta" ko watakila, "Muna da kamuwa da berayen amma suna da ribbons masu ruwan hoda. da kararrawa daure a wuyansu”. A cikin watanni da shekaru da suka wuce, abubuwan da ake gani za su iya zama ko žasa da yawa tare da canje-canje na iya gani.

Farfadiya mai zurfi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Haushin gani na gani saboda kamawar hankali ya bambanta dangane da yankin kwakwalwa inda tashin hankali ya faru. Misali, hangen nesa na gani a lokacin faɗuwar lobe na occipital galibi hangen nesa ne na launuka masu haske, siffofi na geometric waɗanda za su iya motsawa a cikin filin gani, ninka, ko samar da zobe mai tattarawa kuma gabaɗaya suna dagewa daga ƴan daƙiƙai zuwa ƴan mintuna. Yawancin lokaci suna waje ɗaya kuma an keɓance su zuwa wani ɓangare na filin gani a gefen abin da ya saba wa hankali, yawanci filin na ɗan lokaci. Duk da haka, hangen nesa guda ɗaya wanda ke tafiya a kwance a cikin filin gani yana farawa ta gefen da aka saba kuma ya matsa zuwa gefen ipsilateral.[34][43]

Farfadiya na lobe na ɗan lokaci, a gefe guda, na iya haifar da hadaddun abubuwan gani na mutane, al'amuran, dabbobi, da ƙari tare da karkatar da hangen nesa. Rikicin hallucinations na iya zama kamar na gaske ko maras gaskiya, maiyuwa ko ba za a gurbata ba dangane da girman, kuma yana iya zama kamar abin damuwa ko zance, a tsakanin sauran masu canji. Ɗayan da ba kasafai ba amma sanannen nau'in hangen nesa shine heautoscopy, tauraro na hoton madubi na kansa. Wadannan "wasu kan su" na iya kasancewa a tsaye ko kuma suna yin ayyuka masu sarkakiya, suna iya zama hoton saurayi ko na yanzu, kuma suna kasancewa a takaice. Rikicin hallucinations wani abu ne da ba a saba gani ba a cikin marasa lafiya na lobe na wucin gadi. Da wuya, suna iya faruwa a lokacin daɗaɗɗen kaifin ido ko a cikin ɓangarorin lobe na parietal.[34]

Hallucination na miyagun ƙwayoyi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hallucinogens, dissociatives, da deiriants ne ke haifar da hallucination na miyagun ƙwayoyi, gami da magunguna da yawa tare da ayyukan anticholinergic da wasu abubuwan da ke motsa jiki, waɗanda aka sani suna haifar da hallucinations na gani da na gani. Wasu psychedelics irin su lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) da psilocybin na iya haifar da hallucinations wanda ke cikin bakan mai laushi zuwa mai tsanani.

Hallucination na rashin hankali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana iya haifar da hallucination ta hanyar ɓacin rai lokacin da ya faru na tsawon lokaci, kuma kusan koyaushe yana faruwa a cikin yanayin da aka hana (gani don rufewa / duhu, saurare don yanayin da aka rufe, da sauransu) [49].

Pathophysiology[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dopaminergic da serotonergic hallucinations[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An ba da rahoton cewa a cikin abubuwan da ake kira serotonergic hallucinations, mutum yana kula da sanin cewa suna yin hallucination, sabanin dopaminergic hallucinations.[10]

Neuroanatomy[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hallucinations suna da alaƙa da rashin daidaituwa na tsari da na aiki a cikin cortices na firamare da na sakandare. Rage ƙwayar launin toka a cikin yankuna na gyrus na wucin gadi / tsakiyar gyrus na wucin gadi, gami da yankin Broca, yana da alaƙa da tashe-tashen hankula a matsayin sifa, yayin da tsattsauran ra'ayi yana da alaƙa da haɓaka aiki a cikin yankuna guda tare da hippocampus, parahippocampus, da dama. homologue na hemispheric na yankin Broca a cikin gyrus na gaba na baya.[54] Rashin al'adar launin toka da fari a cikin yankuna na gani suna da alaƙa da tashe-tashen hankula a cikin cututtuka irin su cutar Alzheimer, suna ƙara tallafawa ra'ayi na rashin aiki a yankuna masu azanci da ke cikin ruɗi.[55]

Ɗaya daga cikin samfurin da aka tsara na hallucinations ya nuna cewa yawan aiki a cikin yankuna masu hankali, wanda yawanci ana danganta shi ga tushen ciki ta hanyar hanyoyin sadarwa na ciyarwa zuwa gyrus na gaba na baya, ana fassara shi da asali daga waje saboda rashin haɗin kai ko aiki na hanyar sadarwar ciyarwa.[54]. Wannan yana samun goyan bayan nazarin fahimi na waɗanda ke da hangen nesa, waɗanda suka nuna halayen da ba su dace ba na abubuwan da suka haifar da kai.[56]

Magani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai 'yan jiyya ga nau'ikan hallucinations da yawa. Duk da haka, game da waɗannan abubuwan da ke haifar da cutar tabin hankali, ya kamata a tuntuɓi masanin ilimin halayyar ɗan adam ko likitan hauka, kuma magani zai dogara ne akan abubuwan da likitocin suka yi. Hakanan za'a iya amfani da maganin antipsychotic da na rashin hankali don magance rashin lafiya idan alamun sun yi tsanani kuma suna haifar da damuwa sosai.[60] Ga wasu dalilai na hasashe babu wata hujja ta gaskiya da za ta goyi bayan duk wani magani da aka gwada ta kimiyance kuma aka tabbatar. Duk da haka, kaurace wa magungunan hallucinogenic, kwayoyi masu kara kuzari, sarrafa matakan damuwa, rayuwa cikin koshin lafiya, da yawan bacci na iya taimakawa wajen rage yawan rudani. A duk yanayin da ake ciki na hange, ya kamata a nemi kulawar likita tare da sanar da mutum takamaiman alamunsa. Meta-bincike ya nuna cewa fahimi halayya far[61] da metacognitive horo[62] kuma iya rage tsanani da hallucinations.

Bincike[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yawaitar tashe-tashen hankula sun bambanta dangane da yanayin rashin lafiya, [63] [6] waɗanne hanyoyin azanci, [7] shekaru[64] [63] da al'adu.[65]. Ya zuwa 2022, hallucinations na ji shine mafi kyawun nazari kuma mafi yawan yanayin ji na hangen nesa, tare da kiyasin yawan rayuwa na 9.6%.[64] An gano yara da matasa suna fuskantar irin wannan ƙimar (12.7% da 12.4% bi da bi) waɗanda ke faruwa galibi a lokacin ƙuruciya da ƙuruciya. Ana kwatanta wannan tare da manya da waɗanda suka wuce 60 (tare da ƙimar 5.8% da 4.8% bi da bi).[64][63] Ga masu fama da cutar schizophrenia, yawan abubuwan da ke faruwa a rayuwar su ya kai kashi 80%[6] kuma kiyasin yawan abubuwan da ake gani na gani shine kashi 27%, idan aka kwatanta da kashi 79% na hasashe.[6]. Wani bincike na 2019 ya ba da shawarar kashi 16.2% na manya masu fama da nakasar ji suna fuskantar tashe-tashen hankula, tare da haɓakar haɓakawa zuwa 24% a cikin mafi yawan rukunin marasa ji.[66]

Wani abu mai haɗari don hallucinations multimodal shine ƙwarewar hangen nesa na unimodal a baya.[6] A cikin kashi 90 cikin 100 na ciwon hauka, hangen nesa yana faruwa a haɗe tare da wani salon azanci, galibi yana kasancewa mai ji ne ko kuma na somatic[6]. A cikin schizophrenia, hallucinations multimodal sun ninka fiye da na unimodal sau biyu.[6]

Binciken da aka yi a shekara ta 2015 na wallafe-wallafe 55 daga 1962 zuwa 2014 ya gano kashi 16-28.6 cikin 100 na masu hasashe suna ba da rahoton aƙalla wasu abubuwan addini a cikinsu,[67]: 415  tare da 20-60% suna ba da rahoton wasu abubuwan addini cikin ruɗi.[67] 415  Akwai wasu shaidun da ke nuni da cewa rudu yana da hadari ga rugujewar addini, kuma kashi 61.7% na mutanen da suka fuskanci wata rudu da kuma kashi 75.9% na wadanda suka samu rudani na addini da aka samu suma suna fuskantar rudani.[67]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Patterson C, Procter N (2023-05-24). "Hallucinations in the movies tend to be about chaos, violence and mental distress. But they can be positive too". The Conversation (in Turanci). Archived from the original on 2023-05-28. Retrieved 2023-05-28.