Harshen Dangme

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DaDangbe
Dangbe
Yanki Kudu-maso-gabashin Ghana, gabas da Accra
Kabilanci Dangbe
Masu magana na asali
800,000 (2004)[1]
Iyalin harshe
Niger–Congo?
  • Atlantic–Congo
    • Volta-Congo
      • Kwa
        • Ga-Dangme
          • Dangbe
Tsarin rubutu
Latin (harafin Dangbe)
Matsayin hukuma
Harshen hukuma a cikin
Ghana
Lambobin harshe
ISO 639-2 ada

Harshen Dangbe, kuma Dangbe ko Adaŋgbi, yaren Kwa ne da mutanen Dangbe (Dangbeli) ke magana a kudu maso gabashin Ghana. Dangbeli wani bangare ne na babbar kabilar Ga-Dangbe. Klobbi wani bambance-bambance ne, wanda Kloli (Klo ko mutanen Krobo) ke magana. Kropp Dakubu (1987) shine mafi kyawun nahawun harshe.

Rabewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dangme yaren Kwa ne, yanki ne na dangin Nijar-Congo. Yana da alaƙa da Ga, kuma tare sun kafa reshen Ga–Dangme a cikin Kwa.

Rarraba yanki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sama da mutane 800,000 ke magana da Dangme a Ghana har zuwa 2004.

Yaren asali ne da mutanen Ada, Osudoku, Manya Krobo, Yilo Krobo, Shai, Ningo, Prampram da Kpone ke magana a Ghana, Togo, Benin. Dangme wani bangare ne na fahimtar juna tare da Ga, kuma, a takaice, Ewe. Duk da haka, yawancin mutanen Dangme suma suna magana ko fahimtar aƙalla ɗaya daga cikin waɗannan harsuna, suna zana dangantakar a matsayin asymmetric. Dangme a matsayin darasi na makaranta ana koyar da shi a yankunan Dangme.

Ƙasar waɗannan ƙabilun da ke da alaƙa ta taso daga Babban yankin Accra zuwa Gabashin Ghana, arewa zuwa tsaunin Akwapim kuma tana da dukan Dangmeland a gabas da Ga a yammacinta. Bawaleshi, mai tazarar kilomita 4.8 kudu maso yammacin Dodowa, shi ne garin Dangme na karshe wanda ke kusa da iyakar Akwapim da Ga. Akwai manyan yaruka guda shida waɗanda suka yi daidai da raka'o'in siyasa. Yaren bakin teku sune Ada, Ningo da Prampram (Gbugbla). Yarukan cikin gida sune Shai (Sɛ), Krobo (Klo) da Osudoku.

Fassarar sauti[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Baƙi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • /m, p, b/ bilabial ne, yayin da /f, v/ su ne labiodental.
  • /p, b, t, d, k, g/ su ne fursunoni guda ɗaya, /t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ/ ƴan ta'adda ne (tsayawa tare da sakin ƙarfi mai ƙarfi), yayin da /k͡p, ɡ͡b/ su ne nau'i biyu na fursunoni.
  • /l/ ya bambanta tsakanin kusanta ta gefe [l] da trill na tsakiya [r].
  • /j/ yana da allophone mai ɓarna [ʒ].

Wasula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Monophthongs na Dangme, daga Kropp Dakubu (1987:15)

Adangme yana da wasulan baka 7 da wasulan hanci 5.

  • Wasulan na gaba ba su da zagaye, yayin da wasulan na baya suna zagaye.
  • /i, u/ sun ɗan buɗewa fiye da /ĩ, ũ/.
  • /e, o/ suna kusa-tsakiyar [e, o]. Ba su da takwarorinsu na hanci.
  • /ɛ̃, ɔ̃/ suna buɗe-tsakiyar [ɛ̃, ɔ̃], alhalin /ɛ, ɔ/ suna da ɗan ƙasa kaɗan (kusa-buɗe) [æ, ɔ̞].
  • Hancin /ã/ yana buɗe gaba [ã], yayin da na baka /a/ ya ɗan ja da baya (kusa da gaba) [a̠].

Sautuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Adangme yana da sautuna uku: babba, tsakiya da ƙasa. Kamar yawancin harsunan Afirka ta Yamma, tana da sautin terracing.

Wasan kwaikwayo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Matsaloli masu yuwuwar sifofin haruffa sune V, CV, ko CCV inda baki na biyu shine /l/.

Tsarin rubutu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An rubuta Adangme a cikin rubutun Latin. Sautuna da nasalis ba a saba rubutawa ba.

Wasiku na baka da na sauti sun hada da kamar haka:

  • j - /dʒ/
  • ng - /ŋ/
  • ngm - /ŋm/
  • ny - /ɲ/
  • ts - /tʃ/
  • y - /j/
  • ɛ - /ɛ/
  • ɔ - /ɔ/

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Dangbe at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)

Littafi Mai Tsarki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Kropp Dakubu, M. E., ed. (1977). West African Language Data Sheets. 1. West African Linguistic Society.
  • Kropp Dakubu, M. E. (1987). The Dangme Language: An Introductory Survey. London: Macmillan.
  • Kropp Dakubu, M. E., ed. (1988). The Languages of Ghana. London: Kegan Paul International for the International African Institute. ISBN 0-7103-0210-X.
  • Language Guide. Accra: Bureau of Ghana Languages 4th Edition. 1977.