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Harshen Karaja

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Harshen Karaja
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 kpj
Glottolog kara1500[1]

Kasashen gargajiya na Jicarilla Apache (Tinde) suna cikin yankunan arewa maso gabas da gabashin New Mexico. Jicarilla Apache ya faɗaɗa kan Texas da Oklahoma panhandles zuwa cikin yankin kudu maso gabas na Colorado da kusurwar kudu maso yamma na Kansas. Yankin ya goyi bayan Jicarilla Apache tare da salon rayuwar Indiya ta Plains. An raba ƙabilar a cikin wannan ƙasar ta gidauniya biyu: White Clan da Red Clan. Jicarilla Apache sun yi yaƙe-yaƙe da yawa waɗanda suka kai su barin wannan ƙasar kuma an tilasta musu ƙaura a kan ajiyar a yau Dulce, NM.

/k/

Karajá, wanda aka fi sani da Iny rybè, Mutanen Karajá ne ke magana da shi a cikin ƙauyuka talatin a tsakiyar Brazil.


Karaja harshe ne na fi'ili-ƙarshe, [2] tare da sauƙaƙan suna da ƙarin hadaddun yanayin halittar fi'ili wanda ya haɗa da haɗa suna . Kalmomi suna jujjuyawa don shugabanci da kuma mutum, yanayi, abu, da murya.

Yaruka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yaruka sune Arewacin Karajá, Kudancin Karajá, Xambioá, da Javaé . :1[3] :95

Karajá daidai ana magana ne akan babban hanyar kogin Araguaia a ciki da wajen tsibirin Banana . A tsarin sauti, an keɓance shi da sauran yarukan (Javaé da Xambioá) ta hanyar faruwar wasalin /ə/ (ba a wakilta a cikin rubutun waƙa), wanda ya dace da cikakken wasali a Javaé da Xambioá wanda ingancinsa kwafin wasalin ne. na gaba syllable. Misali, Karajá bdi</link> / bədɪ</link> / 'zuma', -dkỹ</link> / -dəkə̃</link> /' ƴar ƙaranci ', -tka</link> / -ɗəka</link> / 'daure', kbò</link> / kəbɔ</link> / ' banzeiro ', kdò</link> / kədɔ</link> / 'karami', rkù</link> / ɾəkʊ</link> / 'Gourd' yayi daidai da Javaé da Xambioá bidi</link> / bɪdɪ</link> /, -nỹkỹ</link> / -də̃kə̃</link> /, -taka</link> / -ɗaka</link> /, kòbò</link> / kɔbɔ</link> /, kòdò</link> / kɔdɔ</link> /, rùkù</link> / ɾʊkʊ</link> /. :21, 31Wani fasalin salon sauti na musamman ga Karajá daidai shine ci gaba da haɓakar /k/</link> kuma /ɾ/</link> (zuwa /tʃ/</link> da /dʒ/</link> ) bin /i/</link> : kwatanta Karajá ritxòrè</link> 'zuriya', itxòrò</link> 'fox', ritxoko</link> ' Ritxoko lãka tsana', idjasò</link> ' arowana ' and Javaé/Xambioá rikòrè</link> , ikòrò</link> , rikoko</link> , iraso</link> . [4] :37[5] :77, 92Misalan bambance-bambance na lexical tsakanin Karajá daidai da sauran yaruka sun haɗa da lei</link> 'anaconda', tõsõ</link> 'kayan itace', makiti</link> 'Sukari', daidai da Javaé da Xambioá rei</link> , sõsõ</link> , biditi</link> . [4] :21

Karajá dacewa an ƙara raba shi zuwa Arewa da Kudancin Karajá. Kudancin Karajá ana magana a cikin Fontoura ( Btõiry</link> ) ƙauye da kuma gaba zuwa kudu, yayin da arewacin Karajá ake magana a cikin São Domingos ( Krèhãwa .</link> ) kauye da kuma kara zuwa arewa. Akwai 'yan bambance-bambance tsakanin Arewa da Kudancin Karajá. Misalan bambance-bambancen lexical sun haɗa da N (orthern) ji(k)arỹ</link> / S (na waje) di(k)arỹ</link> 'I', :89N wi</link> / S wiu</link> 'waka.♂', [4] :134N adèrana</link> / S wdèna</link> 'karuwa', N bdòlèkè</link> / S bdòkùjkè</link> ' pirarucu kifi', N butxi</link> / S boti</link> ' tukunyar yumbu', N (k)õritxi</link> / S (k)uritxi</link> 'curassow', [6] da sauran kalmomi nau'i-nau'i. Arewacin Karajá kuma ya bambanta da Kudancin Karajá wajen amfani da alamomin al'ada daban-daban ga mutane daban-daban (mutum na farko -wahã .</link> , mutum na biyu -mahã</link> , mutum na uku -mỹhỹ</link> ), yayin da Kudancin Karajá ke amfani da -mỹhỹ</link> ga dukan mutane uku. [4] :252Bugu da ƙari, akwai bambanci game da abin da ya faru na prefix na centripetal ( n- ko d-, phonologically / d-/) a cikin mutum na farko na ainihin yanayi . A Arewacin Karajá (kamar a cikin Javaé da Xambioá), yana faruwa sau ɗaya kawai, bayan prefix na mutum na farko: ãdiwyde</link> 'Na kawo shi'. A Kudancin Karajá, yana faruwa sau biyu, kafin da kuma bayan mutumin da ke gaba: nadiwyde</link> 'Na kawo shi'. [4] :39

Javaé a halin yanzu yana magana da Kogin Javaés, ƙaramin reshe na Araguaia, kodayake a tarihi Javaé yana zaune a cikin tsibirin Bananal, har zuwa aƙalla rabin farkon karni na 20. :2Karajá yana kiran Javaé daidai da ixỹju</link> , kalmar in ba haka ba ana amfani da ita ga mutanen ƴan asalin ƙasar da ba Karajá ba irin su Xavante, amma a fili suna magana iri-iri na Karajá. Javaé yana da ƙarin lamunin Apyãwa fiye da sauran yarukan Karajá. [4] :169A tsarin sauti, Javaé ana siffanta shi da faruwar /e/ daidai da Karajá /ə/</link> da Xambioá /i/</link> gabanin harafi wanda ya ƙunshi /i/</link> : Javaé -tebiè</link> 'don kiwo, don ciyarwa', hetxi</link> 'kasa, gindi', exi</link> 'laushi', -teji</link> 'don saka' daidai da Karajá -tbiè</link> , htxi</link> , àxi</link> , tdi</link> ; Hambioá -txibiè</link> , hitxi</link> , ixi, tidi. [4] :97–8Bugu da ƙari, Javaé yana da ƙarancin bambance-bambancen jinsi fiye da Karajá da Xambioá, kamar yadda a yawancin lokuta matan Javaé suna amfani da tsari da tsari waɗanda ke iyakance ga jinsin maza a wasu yarukan. [4] :155–9

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Harshen Karaja". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Rodrigues (1999), pp. 187–88
  3. Nikulin, Andrey. 2020. Proto-Macro-Jê: um estudo reconstrutivo. Doctoral dissertation, University of Brasília.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Ribeiro-Karajá
  5. Empty citation (help)
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Prodoclin