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Harshen Kiowa

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Harshen Kiowa
'Yan asalin magana
20 (2007)
Baƙaƙen boko
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 kio
Glottolog kiow1266[1]

Kiowa /ˈkaɪ.Oʊ.ə/ ko Cáuijògà/Cáuijò꞉gyà ("harshe na Cáuigù (Kiowa) ") yare ne na Tanoan wanda Ƙabilar Kiowa ta Oklahoma ke magana a cikin yankunan Caddo, Kiowa, da Comanche. Cibiyar kabilar Kiowa tana cikin Carnegie . Kamar yawancin harsunan asalin Arewacin Amurka, Kiowa yare ne mai haɗari

Asalin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kodayake Kiowa yana da alaƙa da sauran yarukan Tanoan na Pueblos, wuri na farko na tarihi na masu magana da shi shine yammacin Montana a kusa da 1700. Kafin rikodin tarihi, tarihin baki, ilimin kimiyyar tarihi, da ilimin harshe sun nuna cewa pre-Kiowa shine yaren arewacin Proto-Kiow-Tanoan, wanda ake magana a shafukan Late Basketmaker II Era. A kusa da AD 450, sun yi ƙaura zuwa arewa ta hanyar yankin Ancestral Puebloans da Great Basin, suna mamaye yankin Al'adun Fremont na gabashin Colorado Plateau har zuwa wani lokaci kafin 1300. Masu magana sai suka yi nisa zuwa arewa maso yammacin filayen, ba su isa ba daga tsakiyar karni na 16 a yankin Yellowstone inda 'yan Turai suka fara saduwa da Kiowa. Kiowa daga baya suka [2] ƙaura zuwa Black Hills da kudancin Filayen, inda aka rubuta yaren a lokutan tarihi.

Yawan jama'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masanin ilimin ɗan adam na Kwalejin Colorado Laurel Watkins ya lura a cikin 1984 bisa ga ƙididdigar Parker McKenzie cewa kusan mutane 400 ne kawai (yawanci sama da shekaru 50) zasu iya magana da Kiowa kuma cewa yara ne kawai ke koyon yaren. Wani adadi na baya-bayan nan daga McKenzie shine masu magana da manya 300 na "matakan da suka bambanta" wanda Mithun (1999) ya ruwaito daga cikin mambobi 12,242 na kabilar Kiowa (Kidayar Amurka 2000).

[3] Intertribal Wordpath Society, ƙungiyar da ba ta da riba da aka sadaukar don adana harsunan asali na Oklahoma, ta kiyasta matsakaicin adadin masu magana da Kiowa har zuwa 2006 zuwa 400. Wani labarin jarida 2013 ya kiyasta masu magana 100 masu kyau. UNESCO [4] rarraba Kiowa a matsayin 'mai haɗari sosai.' Ya yi iƙirarin cewa yaren yana da masu magana da harshe 20 kawai a cikin 2007, tare da masu magana na harshe na biyu 80, mafi yawansu suna tsakanin shekaru 45 zuwa 60.

Kokarin farfadowa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jami'ar Tulsa, Jami'ar Oklahoma a Norman, da Jami'ar Kimiyya da Fasaha ta Oklahoma a Chickasha suna ba da darussan yaren Kiowa.

Ana rera waƙoƙin Kiowa a Ikilisiyar Methodist ta Mount Scott Kiowa .   [failed verification] 

Farawa a cikin shekarun 2010, kabilar Kiowa ta ba da darussan harshe na mako-mako a gidan Jacobson, cibiyar zane-zane ta 'yan asalin Amurka mai zaman kanta a Norman, Oklahoma. Poolaw da Carol Williams sun koyar da harshen ta amfani da hanyar Parker McKenzie.

Alecia Gonzales (Kiowa / Apache, 1926-2011), wanda ya koyar a USAO, ya rubuta wani Kiowa koyar da harshe da ake kira Thaum khoiye tdoen gyah: fara harshen Kiowa. Modina Toppah Water (Kiowa) ta shirya Saynday Kiowa Indian Children's Stories, wani littafi na harshen Kiowa na labarun trickster da aka buga a cikin 2013.

cikin 2022, Makarantun Jama'a na Tulsa sun sanya hannu kan yarjejeniya tare da Ƙabilar Kiowa ta Oklahoma don koyar da yaren Kiowa da al'adu a gundumar.  

Labari Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Gishiri
Hanci m n
Plosive / Africate
Rashin lafiya
ba tare da murya ba p t ts k ʔ
murya b d g
da ake nema
fitarwa tsʼ
Fricative ba tare da murya ba s h
murya z
Kusanci (w) l j

Kiowa ya bambanta halaye shida na wasali, tare da matakai uku na tsawo da bambancin gaba-baya. Duk sautunan shida na iya zama tsawo ko gajere, baki ko hanci. Hudu daga cikin wasula suna faruwa a matsayin diphthongs tare da babban gaba na gaba na nau'in wasula + /j/ .

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Harshen Kiowa". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Empty citation (help)
  3. Anderton, Alice, Phd.
  4. "UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in danger". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-05-24.