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Hedonism

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Hedonism
world view (en) Fassara
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Karatun ta ethics (en) Fassara
Hedonism kenan

Hedonism yana nufin dangin ra'ayi, waɗanda duk suna da alaƙa cewa jin daɗi yana taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikinsu. Hedonism na ilimin halin dan adam ko motsa jiki yana iƙirarin cewa halayen ɗan adam an ƙaddarawa ta hanyar sha'awar ƙara jin daɗi da rage jin zafi.[1] Hedonism na al'ada ko na ɗabi'a, a gefe guda, ba game da yadda muke zahiri ba amma yadda yakamata muyi aiki: yakamata mu bi jin daɗi kuma mu guji jin zafi.[2] Axiological hedonism, wanda wani lokaci ana bi da shi azaman wani ɓangare na hedonism na ɗabi'a, shine ka'idar cewa jin daɗi kawai yana da ƙima. Aiwatar da jin daɗi ko abin da ke da kyau ga wani, ƙa'idar ita ce jin daɗi da wahala su ne kawai abubuwan jin daɗi. Waɗannan ma'anoni na fasaha na hedonism a cikin falsafar, waɗanda galibi ana ganin su a matsayin mazhabobin tunani, dole ne a bambanta su da yadda ake amfani da kalmar a cikin yaren yau da kullun, wani lokaci ana kiranta "hedonism na jama'a". A wannan ma'ana, yana da ma'ana mara kyau, wanda ke da alaƙa da son kai na neman gamsuwa na ɗan gajeren lokaci ta hanyar shagaltuwa da jin daɗi na azanci ba tare da la'akari da sakamakon ba.[3]

Yanayin jin dadi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wata mace kenan yar Hedonism

Jin daɗi yana taka muhimmiyar rawa a kowane nau'in hedonism; yana nufin kwarewa da ke jin dadi kuma ya ƙunshi jin daɗin wani abu. Jin daɗi ya bambanta da zafi ko wahala, waɗanda nau'ikan jin daɗi ne.[4] Tattaunawa a cikin hedonism yawanci sun fi mayar da hankali kan jin daɗi, amma a matsayin mummunan gefensa, zafi yana nuna daidai a cikin waɗannan tattaunawa. Dukansu jin daɗi da jin zafi sun zo cikin digiri kuma an yi la'akari da su a matsayin girman da ke fitowa daga matsayi mai kyau ta hanyar tsaka-tsakin zuwa digiri mara kyau. Ana amfani da kalmar "farin ciki" sau da yawa a cikin wannan al'ada don komawa ga ma'auni na jin dadi a kan zafi.

A cikin yare na yau da kullun, kalmar "daɗi" tana da alaƙa da farko da abubuwan jin daɗi kamar jin daɗin abinci ko jima'i. Amma a mafi yawan ma'anarsa, ya haɗa da kowane nau'i na abubuwa masu kyau ko masu daɗi ciki har da jin daɗin wasanni, ganin kyakkyawar faɗuwar rana ko yin aiki mai gamsarwa na hankali. Ka'idodin jin daɗi suna ƙoƙarin ƙayyade abin da duk waɗannan abubuwan jin daɗi suke da su a cikin gama gari, abin da ke da mahimmanci a gare su. An raba su a al'ada zuwa ka'idoji masu inganci da ka'idodin halaye. Ka'idoji masu inganci sun ɗauka cewa jin daɗi shine ingancin abubuwan jin daɗi da kansu yayin da ka'idodin halaye ke bayyana cewa jin daɗi a wasu ma'ana na waje ne ga gwaninta tunda ya dogara da yanayin batun ga gwaninta.

Wajen hutawa da shaƙatawa na yan Hedonism kenan

Mahimmancin nau'ikan hedonism daban-daban yana shafar yadda ake ɗaukar yanayin jin daɗi. Muhimmin roko na mafi yawan nau'ikan hedonism shine cewa suna iya ba da labari mai sauƙi da haɗin kai na filayen su. Amma wannan yana yiwuwa ne kawai idan jin daɗi da kansa wani abu ne mai haɗin kai. An sanya wannan a cikin tambaya, galibi saboda nau'ikan abubuwan jin daɗi iri-iri waɗanda da alama ba su da wani sifa da aka haɗa. Wata hanya da aka buɗe ga masu ilimin kimiyya masu inganci don amsa wannan ƙin yarda ita ce ta nuna cewa sautin hedonic na abubuwan jin daɗi ba inganci ba ne na yau da kullun amma inganci mafi girma. Ka'idodin ɗabi'a suna da hanya mafi sauƙi don ba da amsa ga wannan hujja tunda suna iya ɗauka cewa nau'in hali iri ɗaya ne, galibi ana gano shi da sha'awa, wanda ya zama gama gari ga duk abubuwan jin daɗi.[5]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Weijers, Dan. "Hedonism". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  2. Moore, Andrew (2019). "Hedonism". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  3. Crisp, Roger (2017). "Well-Being: 4.1 Hedonism". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.
  4. Katz, Leonard D. (2016). "Pleasure". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  5. Heathwood, Chris (2007). "The Reduction of Sensory Pleasure to Desire". Philosophical Studies. 133 (1): 25–26. doi:10.1007/s11098-006-9004-9. S2CID 170419589.