Ikklisiyoyi na Rock-Hewn, Lalibela

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Taswirar yankin Lalibela

Ikklisiyoyin Rock-hewn na Lalibela majami'u ne na monolithic wadanda ke cikin tsaunukan Habasha na Yammacin kusa da garin Lalibela, wanda aka laƙaba wa ƙarshen ƙarni na 12 da farkon ƙarni na 13 Sarki Gebre Mesqel Lalibela na Daular Zagwe, wanda ya ba da babbar aikin ginin 11 majami'u masu duwatsu don sake tsarkake birnin Kudus a cikin masarautarsa. Ikklesiyar Kiristocin Orthodox ta Habasha na amfani da wannan shafin har wa yau, kuma ya kasance wani muhimmin wuri na aikin hajji ga masu bautar Orthodox na Habasha.[1] Ya ɗauki shekaru 24 kafin a gina duka majami'u goma sha ɗayan duwatsu.

Gidan kayan tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Cocin na Saint George, ɗaya daga cikin coci-coci da yawa da aka sassaƙa zuwa duwatsu masu duwatsu na Lalibela

Tsawon yana kusa da 2,480m.[2] Gidan tarihin ya kunshi sassa 3: kungiyar arewa maso yamma, kungiyar kudu maso gabas da Biete Giorgis.

Kungiyar arewa maso yamma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bet Medhane Alem, wani ɓangare na rukunin majami'u a arewa maso yamma a Lalibela.

Wannan rukunin ya kunshi Biete Medhane Alem, Biete Maryam, Biete Golgotha ​​Mikael, Biete Meskel, da Biete Denagel, waɗanda ke da alaƙa da juna ta hanyar hanyoyi Na rami da ramuka.[1]

Kungiyar kudu maso gabas[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kamar ƙungiyar arewa maso yamma ce, tarin majami'u zuwa kudu maso gabas, wanda ya ƙunshi Biete Amanuel, Biete Qeddus Mercoreus, Biete Abba Libanos, Biete Lehem, da Biete Gabriel-Rufael, suma ana haɗa su ta hanyar hanyar rami.[1]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daular Zagwe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bisa ga al'adar gidan Roha, tsohon sunan Lalibela ya samo asali ne daga wani dangin Agew da ake kira Zagwa ko Zagwe a cikin 1137 AD.[3] An ce an gina majami'un ne a lokacin daular Zagwe kuma a karkashin mulkin Sarki Gebre Mesqel Lalibela[4] (r. A. 1181-1221AD),[5] ko da yake akwai yiwuwar sun rikide zuwa yadda suke a yanzu a kan matakai daban-daban na ginawa da sauya fasalin abubuwan da suka gabata.[6]

Karni na 20[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wurin cocin dutsen da aka sassaƙa dutse na Lalibela an fara saka shi a cikin Lissafin kayan al'adun duniya na UNESCO a cikin 1978.[7]

Mahimmancin addini da aiki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ikklisiyoyin Lalibela suna da mahimmancin addini ga Kiristocin Orthodox na Habasha yayin da tare suke kirkirar wurin aikin hajji tare da kebantaccen darajar ruhaniya da alama tare da shimfidawa mai wakiltar birni mai tsarki na Urushalima. Ana cigaba da amfani da rukunin yanar gizon don yin ibada da addu'a a kowace rana, bikin bukukuwa na addini kamar Genna,[4][2] a matsayin gida ga malamai,[4] kuma a matsayin wurin da ke kara hada mabiya addinai da shugabanni a kowace shekara.[2]

Gine-gine[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ikklisiyoyi kowane ɗayansu ne, suna ba wa rukunin gine-ginen wanda ya bayyana ta hanyar adadi na mutane na bas-reliefs a cikin Bet Golgotha; da zane-zane masu launuka iri-iri na zane-zane da al'amuran Littafi Mai-Tsarki a cikin Bet Mariam.[4]

Moldings da kirtani darussan sun rarraba manyan sifofin tsari zuwa ƙananan sassa a yawancin majami'u.[4]

Gini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana tunanin gina majami'u a matakai 3.[5]

Dukkanin majami'u 11 sakamakon aikin ne ta hanyar amfani da kayan aikin guduma da kankara don hako ramuka da ke kewaye da gine-ginen monolithic da semi-monolithic gami da tsarin ramuka wanda ya hada kungiyoyi daban-daban na cocin coci da juna ta hanyar ban mamaki basalt.[1][8] An yi "ginin" daga sama zuwa kasa.

Kiyayewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Matsaloli tare da kiyayewa daga 2000s zuwa gaba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin ayyukan kiyayewa da sabuntawa na kwanan nan an aiwatar da su a wurin, amma an sami nakasu wajen aiwatarwa. Wani aiki wanda Ofishin Jakadancin Amurka ke daukar nauyin dawo da Bet Gabriel-Rafael kuma daga baya Bet Golgotha-Mikael ya ga batutuwa sun fito fili tsakanin bangarori daban-daban da ke cikin aikin game da fahimtar cikakken ikonta. An sami karancin isasshen sadarwa da raba bayanai game da tsare-tsaren aiki tsakanin Hukumar Kula da Bincike da Kula da Al'adun Gargajiya (ARCCH) da kwamiti na cikin gida da coci.[9]

Tare da kudade daga Tarayyar Turai, an gina masaukai huɗu a cikin 2008 don rufe 5 na majami'un rukunin yanar gizon a ƙoƙarin samar da yanayin kariya na ɗan lokaci ga tsarin har sai an yanke shawara mai tsawo.[10] Koyaya, matsugunan sun kasance a wurin yanzu tsawon lokaci fiye da yadda aka nufa su tsaya, kuma yanzu sakamakon haka yana haifar da haɗari ga gine-ginen da ke ƙasa yayin da suke barazanar durƙushewa saboda nauyinsu mai nauyi tsakanin wasu abubuwan. Daraktan na (ARCCH) ya nuna cewa dole ne a cire matsugunan, duk da haka har yanzu ba a sami wata cikakkiyar shiri ba game da cire su da abin da za a yi bayan haka.[9]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Williams, Frances M. (2016-03-21). Understanding Ethiopia : geology and scenery. Cham. ISBN 9783319021805. OCLC 945445084.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 ARCCH, 2013, A Management Plan for the Rock-hewn Churches of Lalibela World Heritage Site Ethiopia, December, Addis Ababa: ARCCH.
  3. https://nai.uu.se/download/18.39fca04516faedec8b248e0f/1580829012921/ORTLAL05.pdf
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Windmuller-Luna, Kristen (September 2014). "The Rock-hewn Churches of Lalibela". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Sani, Frederico (June 2012). "Integrated geological-architectural pilot study of the Biet Gabriel-Rafael rock hewn church in Lalibela, northern Ethiopia". Italian Journal of Geosciences. 131: 171–186 – via ResearchGate.
  6. Fauvelle-Aymar, François-Xavier; Bruxelles, Laurent; Mensan, Romain; Bosc-Tiessé, Claire; Derat, Marie-Laure; Fritsch, Emmanuel (2010-12-01). "Rock-cut stratigraphy: sequencing the Lalibela churches". Antiquity (in Turanci). 84 (326): 1135–1150. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00067132. ISSN 0003-598X. S2CID 130648151.
  7. UNESCO, 2006, Report on the Mission to Rock Hewn Churches Lalibela, (Ethiopia): assessment of the planned project “Temporary shelters for five churches in Lalibela”, funded by the European Union. Paris: UNESCO.
  8. Bosc-Tiessé, Claire; Fauvelle, François-Xavier; Bruxelles, Laurent; Derat, Marie-Laure; Gleize, Yves; Mensan, Romain (2014-11-01). "The Lalibela Rock Hewn Site and its Landscape (Ethiopia): An Archaeological Analysis". Journal of African Archaeology. 12 (2): 141–164. doi:10.3213/2191-5784-10261. ISSN 1612-1651.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Woldeyes, Y. G. (2018). Conservation Concerns for the Lalibela Rock Hewn Churches. Preliminary Report: Conservation Concerns for the Lalibela Rock Hewn Churches.
  10. Template:Report