Ilmin duwatsu

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Ilmin duwatsu
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Ilmi, academic discipline
subclass ofnatural science Gyara
bangare naEarth science Gyara
has qualitygeologic time scale Gyara
practiced bygeologist Gyara
studieslithosphere Gyara
tarihin maudu'ihistory of geology Gyara
maintained by WikiProjectWikiProject Geology Gyara
Ilmin duwatsu

Ilmin duwatsu - da kimiyya da abun da ke ciki, tsari da kuma alamu na ci gaba da Duniya da kuma sauran taurari, a cikin hasken rana tsarin da na halitta da tauraron dan adam.

ire-iren duwatsu

Akwai uku main yankunan da ma'aunan kasa bincike: siffatawa, tsauri da kuma tarihi ilmin duwatsu. Kowane shugabanci na da ka'idodi da kuma hanyoyin da bincike. Siffatawa ilmin duwatsu da aka nazarin rarraba da abun da ke ciki na ma'aunan kasa jikin, ciki har da suke siffar, girman, dangantaka, da jerin faru, da kuma wani bayanin daban-daban ma'adanai da kuma kankara. Tsauri ilmin duwatsu na bincika juyin halittar ma'aunan kasa tafiyar matakai, kamar su lalata duwatsu, dauke da iska, glaciers, surface ko ruwan karkashin kasa, laka jari (external zuwa ga duniya a ɓawon burodi) ko motsi na duniya ta ɓawon burodi, girgizar asa, volcanic eruptions (ciki). Tarihi ilmin duwatsu da aka nazarin jerin ma'aunan kasa tafiyar matakai da suka gabata.

Silar sunan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Asali kalmar "ilmin duwatsu" shi ne gaban da kalmar "tauhidin". Da kimiyya da rai na ruhaniya contrasted kimiyya na dokoki da dokokin rayuwa a duniya. A cikin wannan mahallin, kalmar da ake amfani, Bishop A. de binne a cikin littafinsa «Philobiblon» («love littattafai"), wanda aka buga a 1473 a Cologne. Kalmar zo daga Girkanci γῆ, ma'ana "duniya"da kuma λόγος, ma'ana "koyarwa".

Masana binciken halitta disciplines aiki a duk yankunan uku a fannin binciken kasa da kuma daidai rabo a cikin kungiyoyin ba ya wanzu. New disciplines fito fili a mahada a fannin binciken kasa tare da wasu yankunan na ilmi. A TSB bayar da wadannan rarrabuwa: da kimiyya na duniya ta ɓawon burodi, da kimiyya na zamani ma'aunan kasa tafiyar matakai, da kimiyya na tarihi jerin ma'aunan kasa tafiyar matakai amfani disciplines, da kuma yankin ilmin duwatsu. Da kimiyya na duniya ta ɓawon burodi:

  • Mineralogy - ilmin duwatsu sashe nazarin ma'adanai, tambayoyi da suka Farawa, cancantar. Nazarin duwatsu kafa a tafiyar matakai dangantaka da yanayi, biosphere da hydrosphere, ke hulda lithology. Wadannan duwatsu ma ba daidai ko da ake kira sedimentary duwatsu. Permafrost duwatsu saya da dama halayyar Properties da fasaloli, wanda ke hulda da nazarin Geocryology.
  • Petrography - sashe a fannin binciken kasa, nazarin igneous da metamorphic duwatsu, yafi siffatawa gefe - su Farawa, abun da ke ciki, textural da tsarin fasali, da rarrabuwa.
  • Tsarin ilmin duwatsu - ilmin duwatsu sashe, ke nazarin da siffofin ya faru na take hakki da kuma ilmin tarihin kasa jikin na duniya ta ɓawon burodi.
  • Crystallography - asali daya daga cikin yankunan da mineralogy, yanzu mafi jiki horo.

Da kimiyya na zamani ma'aunan kasa tafiyar matakai (tsauri ilmin duwatsu):

  • Tectonics - sashe ilmin duwatsu cewa ke nazarin motsi na duniya ta ɓawon burodi (Geotektonika, neotectonic da gwaji tectonics).
  • Volcanology - Sashe a fannin binciken kasa da ke nazarin da volcanism.
  • Seismology - da sashe a fannin binciken kasa, nazarin ilmin tarihin kasa tafiyar matakai a lokacin girgizar asa, na girgizar kasa rabawa cikin sassa.
  • Geocryology - sashe a fannin binciken kasa, nazarin permafrost.
  • Petrology - sashe ilmin duwatsu cewa ke nazarin da Farawa kuma yanayin asalin magmatic da metamorphic duwatsu.

Da kimiyya na tarihi jerin ma'aunan kasa tafiyar matakai (tarihi ilmin duwatsu):

  • Tarihin ilmin duwatsu - reshe a fannin binciken kasa da ke nazarin da jerin bayanan mafi muhimmanci abubuwan da suka faru a tarihin duniya. Duk ma'aunan kasa kimiyyar a sãɓãwar launukansa digiri, na da tarihi hali, idan akai la'akari da data kasance ilimi a tarihi hangen zaman gaba da tsunduma da farko bayyanãwa tarihin samuwar zamani Tsarin. Tarihin duniya ne zuwa kashi biyu manyan matakai - eon, daga bayyanar kwayoyin da wuya sassa, da barin burbushi a sediments da kuma barin bisa binciken burbushin halittu hali tabbatar da dalilin da dangi ma'aunan kasa da shekaru.Da zuwan ma'adanai a duniya ya fara Phanerozoic - wani bude rayuwa, da kuma kafin wannan shi kriptozoy ko Precambrian - lokaci boye rayuwa. Ilmin duwatsu tsaye a waje musamman horo, kamar yadda aka nazarin musamman, sau da yawa mai tsanani da kuma akai-akai metamorphosed gidaje, kuma yana da musamman hanyoyin da bincike.
  • Binciken burbushin halittu da ake nazarin zamanin d siffofin na rayuwa da kuma bayanin burbushin kuma gano burbushin na kwayoyin.
  • Stratigraphy - da kimiyya na kayyade wa ma'abũcin zumunta ma'aunan kasa da shekaru sedimentary duwatsu, dismemberment da kuma hulda da dutsen duwatsu daban-daban tsarin ilmin tarihin kasa. Daya daga cikin manyan hanyoyin samun bayanai domin sanin ko stratigraphy ne binciken burbushin halittu.

Da aka jera a kasa su ne sauran sassan ilmin duwatsu, yafi tsaye a tsaka-tsaki tare da wasu kimiyyar:

  • Geochemistry - sashe ilmin duwatsu cewa ke nazarin da sinadaran abun da ke ciki na duniya a tafiyar matakai, mayar da hankali da kuma dispersing sinadaran abubuwa daban-daban wurare na duniya.
  • Geophysics - sashe ilmin duwatsu cewa ke nazarin jiki Properties na Duniya, wanda ya hada da hada da hadaddun bincike hanyoyin: gravimetric, na girgizar kasa, Magnetic, lantarki bincike daban-daban gyare-gyare da sauransu.
  • Geothermobarometry - da kimiyya da nazarin da hadaddun hanyoyin domin kayyade da matsa lamba da kuma yawan zafin jiki na samuwar ma'adanai da kuma kankara.
  • Microstructural ilmin duwatsu - da sashe a fannin binciken kasa, dutse nakasawa karatu a micro matakin, a kan wani sikelin na hatsi na ma'adanai da kuma aggregates.
  • Geodynamics - da kimiyya da nazarin da tafiyar matakai na planetary sikelin a sakamakon juyin halittar duniya. Shi ke nazarin dangantakar dake tsakanin tafiyar matakai a cikin zuciyar, alkyabban da ɓawon burodi.
  • Geochronology - sashe a fannin binciken kasa, domin sanin da shekaru duwatsu da kuma ma'adanai.
  • Lithology (petrography na sedimentary duwatsu) - sashe a fannin binciken kasa da ke nazarin sedimentary duwatsu.

Tarihin ilmin duwatsu - sashe tarihin ilmin tarihin kasa ilmi da karafa.

  • Agrogeologiya - ilmin duwatsu sashe game da gano agroores samar da amfani a aikin noma, kazalika da mineralogical abun da ke ciki na aikin gona kasa.

Nazarin da hasken rana da tsarin tsunduma a cikin wadannan sassan ilmin duwatsu: cosmochemistry, cosmology, ilmin duwatsu da kuma planetology sarari.