Inge Lehmann

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Inge Lehmann
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Tommerup (en) Fassara da Østerbro (en) Fassara, 13 Mayu 1888
ƙasa Denmark
Mutuwa Kwapanhagan, 21 ga Faburairu, 1993
Makwanci Hørsholm Kirkegård (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Alfred Lehmann
Ahali Harriet Lehmann (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Karatu
Makaranta University of Copenhagen (en) Fassara 1968) Cand.mag. (en) Fassara, Doctor of Philosophy (en) Fassara
Newnham College (en) Fassara
(1910 - 1911)
Harsuna Danish (en) Fassara
Malamai Niels Erik Nørlund (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a seismologist (en) Fassara, geologist (en) Fassara, surveyor (en) Fassara, naturalist (en) Fassara da geophysicist (en) Fassara
Employers Geodætisk Institut (en) Fassara  (1928 -  1953)
Muhimman ayyuka Lehmann discontinuity (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Mamba Royal Society (en) Fassara

Inge Lehmann ForMemRS (13 Mayu 1888 - 21 Fabrairu 1993) ta kasance ƙwararren masanin ilimin ƙasa da ƙasa kuma ɗan ƙasar Denmark. A shekara ta 1936, ta gano cewa Duniya tana da ƙwaƙƙwaran cibiya a cikin narkakkar da ke waje. Kafin haka, masu binciken seismologists sun yi imanin asalin duniya ya zama narkakkar sarari guda ɗaya, da yake ba za su iya ba, duk da haka, su bayyana ma'aunin girgizar ƙasa a hankali daga girgizar ƙasa, waɗanda ba su dace da wannan ra'ayi ba. Lehmann yayi nazari akan ma'aunin igiyoyin girgizar kasa sannan ya kammala cewa dole ne Duniya ta kasance tana da tsayayyen tsakiya da narkakkar cibiya don samar da igiyoyin girgizar kasa wadanda suka yi daidai da ma'auni. Sauran masu binciken seismologists sun gwada sannan kuma sun yarda da bayanin Lehmann. Lehmann kuma ya kasance daya daga cikin masana kimiyyar da suka fi dadewa, wanda ya rayu sama da shekaru 104.[1][2][3]

Rayuwar farko da ilimi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Inge Lehmann an haife ta kuma ta girma a Østerbro, wani yanki na Copenhagen. Ta kasance tana jin kunya sosai tun tana ƙarama, halin da ya ci gaba a rayuwarta. Mahaifiyarta, Ida Sophie Tørsleff, matar gida ce; mahaifinta masanin ilimin halin dan Adam ne na gwaji Alfred Georg Ludvik Lehmann (1858-1921).

Ta sami iliminta na makaranta a Fælleskolen, makarantar sakandare mai ci gaba mai ilimin ilmantarwa wanda ke kula da 'yan mata da maza daidai, tare da sanya su cikin manhaja iri ɗaya da ayyukan karin karatu. Hanna Adler, kawar Niels Bohr ce ta jagoranci wannan makaranta.[4][5] A cewar Lehmann, mahaifinta da Adler sun kasance mafi girman tasirin ci gaban tunaninta.

Tana da shekaru 18, ta sami maki na farko a jarrabawar shiga Jami'ar Copenhagen. A shekara ta 1907, ta fara karatun ta a fannin lissafi, chemistry da physics a jami'ar Copenhagen da jami'ar Cambridge. Rashin lafiya ya katse waɗannan karatun. Ta ci gaba da karatunta na lissafi a Cambridge daga shekara ta 1910 zuwa 1911 a Kwalejin Newnham. A cikin shekara ta 1911, ta dawo daga Cambridge tana jin gajiya daga aikin kuma ta ajiye karatunta na ɗan lokaci. Ta samu kwarewa mai kyau a fannin lissafi a wani ofishi da ta yi aiki na wasu shekaru har ta koma karatu a Jami'ar Copenhagen a shekarar 1918. Ta kammala digiri na candidata a fannin kimiyyar jiki da lissafi a cikin shekaru biyu, inda ta kammala a shekara ta 1920. Lokacin da ta dawo Denmark. a shekara ta 1923, ta karɓi matsayi a Jami'ar Copenhagen a matsayin mataimakiyar J.F. Steffensen, farfesa na kimiyyar actuarial.[6]

Inge Lehmann

Lehmann tana da ƙanwar, Harriet, wadda ta zama marubuciyar fina-finai kuma tana da iyali da 'ya'ya sabanin Lehmann, wadda ta rayu ita kaɗai a duk rayuwarta ta girma.[7][8][9]

Aiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fahimtar zamani game da dakatarwar Lehmann: saurin girgizar S-waves a cikin Duniya kusa da saman a lardunan tectonic uku: TNA = Tectonic Arewacin Amurka SNA = Garkuwan Arewacin Amurka da ATL = Arewacin Atlantika.[10]

A cikin shekara ta 1925 Lehmann's seismology aikin ya fara yayin da ta zama mataimakiyar masanin geodesist Niels Erik Nørlund. An haɗa ta da wasu mataimaka guda uku waɗanda ba su taɓa ganin seismograph a baya ba. Ta fara aikin kafa wuraren lura da yanayin kasa a Denmark da Greenland. A halin da ake ciki, ta karanta seismology da kanta. Ta tafi kasar waje na tsawon watanni uku don yin nazarin ilimin yanayin kasa tare da manyan masana a fannin irin su Beno Gutenberg, wadanda suka tantance nisa zuwa ga iyakar da ke tsakanin kilomita 15 na darajar da aka yarda da ita a yanzu.

Dangane da karatun da ta yi a fannin ilimin kimiyyar yanayi, a cikin shekara ta 1928 ta sami digiri na magister scientiarum (daidai da MA) a cikin geodesy kuma ta karɓi matsayi a matsayin masanin ilimin geodesy na jiha kuma shugabar sashin ilimin girgizar ƙasa a Cibiyar Geodetical ta Denmark karkashin jagorancin Nørlund.[11] Lehmann ta duba don inganta haɗin kai da nazarin ma'auni daga masu lura da yanayin ƙasa na Turai, da kuma sauran ƙoƙarin kimiyya.[12][13] Wadannan gyare-gyare sun kasance a cikin zuciyar bincikenta daga baya.

A cikin wata takarda mai suna P' (1936),[14][15] Lehmann ita ce ta farko da ta fara fassara masu isowar P-wave - wanda ba a bayyana shi ba a cikin inuwar P na duniya - a matsayin tunani daga ainihin ciki, misali daga girgizar kasa mai karfi a shekara ta 1929 Murchison.[16] Sauran manyan masana kimiyyar yanayi na lokacin, irin su Beno Gutenberg, Charles Richter, da Harold Jeffreys, sun amince da wannan fassarar cikin shekaru biyu ko uku, amma sai a shekarar 1971 aka nuna fassarar daidai ta hanyar lissafin kwamfuta.[17] Lehmann ta sami cikas sosai a aikinta da kuma ci gaba da tuntuɓar ƙasashen duniya a lokacin da Jamus ta mamaye Denmark a yakin duniya na biyu. Ta yi aiki a matsayin Shugabar Danish Geophysical Society a cikin shekarar 1940 da 1944 bi da bi.

A cikin shekara ta 1952, Lehmann an dauke ta a matsayin farfesa a fannin ilimin lissafi a Jami'ar Copenhagen, amma ba a nada ta ba. A shekarar 1953, ta yi ritaya daga matsayinta a Cibiyar Geodetic. Ta ƙaura zuwa Amurka na shekaru da yawa kuma ta haɗa kai da Maurice Ewing da Frank Press kan binciken ɓawon ƙasa da rigar sama. A yayin wannan aikin, ta gano wani dakatarwar girgizar ƙasa, waɗanda ke zama haɓakar canjin mataki a cikin saurin igiyoyin girgizar ƙasa a zurfin tsakanin 190 zuwa 250 km. An sanya wa wannan dakatarwar suna bayanta, an ƙirƙira shi azaman dainawar Lehmann. Francis Birch ya lura cewa "An gano dakatarwar Lehmann ta hanyar bincikar bayanan girgizar kasa da wani masanin fasahar bakaken fata ya yi wanda babu wani adadin na'ura mai kwakwalwa da zai iya maye gurbinsa."[17]

Kyaututtuka da karramawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Lehmann ta sami karramawa da yawa saboda fitattun nasarorin kimiyyar da ta samu, daga cikinsu akwai lambar yabo ta Gordon Wood (1960), Medal Emil Wiechert (1964), Medal na Zinare na Danish Royal Society of Science and Letters (1965), Tagea Brandt Rejselegat (1965). 1938 da 1967), zaɓenta a matsayin Fellow of the Royal Society a shekarar 1969,[18] William Bowie Medal (1971, a matsayin mace ta farko), da Medal na Seismological Society of America a shekara ta 1977. An ba ta digiri na girmamawa daga Jami'ar Columbia. a shekarar 1964 kuma daga Jami'ar Copenhagen a shekarar 1968, da kuma yawan membobin girmamawa.

An ba wa Asteroid 5632 Ingelehmann suna a cikin girmamawarta kuma a cikin shekarar 2015 (wanda shine bikin cika shekaru 100 na zaben mata a Denmark) Lehmann ya samu, don sanin babban gwagwarmayar da ta yi da al'ummar binciken da maza suka mamaye da suka wanzu a Denmark a tsakiyar karni na 20. , sabon nau'in ƙwaro mai suna bayanta: Globicornis (Hadrotoma) ingelehmannae sp. n., Jiří Háva & Anders Leth Damgaard, 2015.[19]

Saboda gudummawar da ta bayar ga kimiyyar kasa, a cikin shekarar 1997, Ƙungiyar Geophysical ta Amurka ta kafa Medal Inge Lehmann na shekara-shekara don girmama "fitattun gudunmawar gudummuwa ga fahimtar tsari, abun da ke ciki, da kuma motsin tufafi na duniya."[12][20][21]

A bikin cika shekaru 127 da haihuwarta, Google ya sadaukar da Google Doodle na duniya a gare ta.[22][23][24]

An shigar da sabon abin tunawa da aka sadaukar don Lehmann a kan Frue Plads a Copenhagen a cikin shekara ta 2017. Elisabeth Toubro ce ta tsara wannan abin tunawa.[25]

Wallafe-wallafe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Lehmann, Inge (1936). "P'". Publications du Bureau Central Séismologique International. A14 (3): 87–115.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Inge Lehmann – Biography, Facts and Pictures". Famous Scientists. The Art of Genius. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  2. "Lehmann; Inge (1888–1993)". The Royal Society: Past Fellows. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  3. Bolt, Bruce A. (January 1994). "Inge Lehmann". Physics Today. 47 (1): 61. Bibcode:1994PhT....47a..61B. doi:10.1063/1.2808386.
  4. "WiP: Herstory: Spotlight Scientist: Inge Lehmann". Purdue University. Archived from the original on 26 March 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  5. Knopoff, Leon. "Lehmann, Inge". UCLA. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2013.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  6. Stomberg, Joseph (May 13, 2015). "How Inge Lehmann usedearthquakes to discoverthe Earth'sinner core". Vox. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  7. "Lehmann had a younger sister, Harriet, who became an actress and who had family and children in contrast to Lehmann, who lived by herself all her life; from google (Inge Lehmann married) result 2".
  8. "She sacrificed marriage and family for her career, since women at that time could almost never have both; from google (Inge Lehmann married) result 1".
  9. "She had not married and had no children; from google (Inge Lehmann married) result 3".
  10. Figure patterned after Don L Anderson (2007). New Theory of the Earth (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 102, Figure 8.6. ISBN 978-0-521-84959-3.; Original figure attributed to Grand and Helmberger (1984)
  11. Maiken, Lolck (2008). ""Lehmann, Inge." Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography". Gale Virtual Reference Library. Vol. 22: Gale. pp. 232–236. Retrieved 22 May 2015.CS1 maint: location (link)[permanent dead link]
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Inge Lehmann". Famous Scientists.
  13. "Inge Lehmann: Discoverer of the Earth's Inner Core". American Museum of Natural History.
  14. Lehmann, I. (1936): P', Publications du Bureau Central Seismologique International, Série A, Travaux Scientifique, 14, 87–115.
  15. Martina Kölbl-Ebert (December 2001). "Inge Lehmann's paper: " P' " (1936)" (PDF).
  16. Bolt, Bruce A. (1987). "50 years of studies on the inner core". EOS. 68 (6): 73, 80–81. Bibcode:1987EOSTr..68Q..73B. doi:10.1029/EO068i006p00073-01.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Dahlmann, Jan (23 January 2005). "Inge Lehmann og Jordens kerne" [Inge Lehmann and the core of the Earth]. Ingeniøren (in Danish). Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  18. "Fellowship of the Royal Society". Royal Society. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  19. "A New Species of Globicornis (Hadrotoma) (Coleoptera, Dermestidae, Megatominae) From Baltic Amber". amber-inclusions.dk. Archived from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  20. "Inge Lehmann Medal". American Geophysical Union.
  21. "Inge Lehmann". Encyclopedia.com.
  22. Gander, Kashmira (12 May 2015). "Inge Lehmann's 127th Birthday: Pioneering seismologist celebrated by Google Doodle". The Independent. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  23. Kevin McSpadden (13 May 2015). "New Google Doodle Honors Pioneering Seismologist Inge Lehmann". Time. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  24. "Inge Lehmann's 127th Birthday".
  25. "Skulptur på Frue Plads i København er et minidrys feministisk retfærdighed". Politiken (in Danish). Retrieved 8 July 2017.