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Jean-Jacques Dessalines

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Jean-Jacques Dessalines( Haitian Creole : Jan-Jak Desalin ;French pronunciation: ​ ʒɑ̃ ʒak dɛsalin];20 Satumba 1758 - 17 Oktoba 1806)ya kasance jagoran juyin juya halin Haiti kuma shugaban farko na Haiti mai cin gashin kanta a karkashin tsarin mulkin 1805.Da farko ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin gwamna-janar,daga baya Dessalines aka naɗa shi Sarkin Haiti a matsayin Jacques I (1804-1806)ta janar-janar sojojin juyin juya halin Haiti kuma ya yi mulki a wannan mukamin har sai an kashe shi a 1806.An kira shi uban al'ummar Haiti.

Dessalines yana da alhakin ƙasar kai tsaye kuma a ƙarƙashin mulkinsa,Haiti ta zama ƙasa ta farko a cikin Amurka don kawar da bautar har abada.Dessalines ya yi aiki a matsayin jami'i a cikin sojojin Faransa lokacin da mulkin mallaka ke kare hare-haren Spain da Birtaniya.Daga baya ya tashi ya zama kwamanda a tawaye ga Faransa.A matsayinsa na babban Laftanar Toussaint Louverture,ya jagoranci ayyuka masu nasara da yawa,gami da Yaƙin Crête-à-Pierrot.

A cikin 1802 Louverture ya ci amana kuma aka kama shi,kuma aka tura shi kurkuku a Faransa inda ya mutu.Bayan haka,Dessalines ya zama jagoran juyin juya hali da Général-Chef de l' Armée Indigéne a ranar 18 ga Mayu 1803.Sojojinsa sun fatattaki sojojin Faransa a yakin Vertières a ranar 18 ga Nuwamba 1803.An ayyana Saint-Domingue mai cin gashin kansa ne a ranar 29 ga Nuwamba sannan a matsayin jamhuriyar Haiti mai cin gashin kanta a ranar 1 ga Janairun 1804,karkashin jagorancin Dessalines,wanda majalisar janar-janar ta zaba don karbar mukamin gwamna-janar.

Ya ba da umarnin kisan kiyashin da aka yi a shekara ta 1804 ga sauran al'ummar Turai a Haiti,yawancinsu Faransawa ne, wanda ya yi sanadiyar mutuwar mutane tsakanin 3,000 zuwa 5,000,ciki har da mata da yara. Ya keɓe Legionnaires na Poland da suka tsira,waɗanda suka fice daga ƙungiyar Faransa don zama ƙawance tare da ’yan Afirka da aka bautar, da kuma Jamusawa waɗanda ba su shiga cikin cinikin bayi.Ya ba su cikakken zama ɗan ƙasa a ƙarƙashin tsarin mulki kuma ya sanya su a matsayin Noir, sabuwar ƙabila mai mulki.Tashin hankali ya ci gaba da kasancewa tare da ƴan tsirarun ƙabilun ƙabilu ko kuma ƴancin launin fata,waɗanda suka sami ilimi da dukiya a lokacin mulkin mallaka. </link>

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Jean-Jacques Duclos a cikin bauta akan Cormier,wani shuka kusa da Grande-Riviere-du-Nord,Saint-Domingue.[1] Mahaifinsa bawa ya karɓi sunan suna daga mai shi Henri Duclos. Ba a san sunayen iyayen Jean-Jacques,da kuma yankinsu na asali a Afirka ba.Yawancin bayi da aka yi safarar su zuwa Saint-Domingue ana fitar da su ne daga yamma da tsakiyar yammacin Afirka.Daga baya ya ɗauki sunan suna Dessalines,bayan wani ɗan adam mai launi wanda ya saya shi.

Yin aiki a cikin filayen sukari a matsayin ma'aikaci,Dessalines ya tashi zuwa matsayi na kwamanda,ko kuma shugaban kasa.Ya yi aiki a gonar Duclos har sai da ya kai kimanin shekaru 30.Duk da haka yana bautar,Jean-Jacques ya sayi wani mutum mai suna Dessalines,ɗan afranchi ko mai kyauta mai launi,wanda ya sanya sunan nasa ga Jean-Jacques.Daga nan aka kira shi Jean-Jacques Dessalines.Dessalines ya rike wannan suna bayan ya sami 'yancinsa.Ya yi aiki da wannan ubangida har na tsawon shekaru kusan uku.

Lokacin da tashin bayi na 1791 ya fara,ya bazu ko'ina cikin Plaine-du-Nord .Wannan yanki ne na manyan gonakin rake,inda ɗimbin bayi na Afirka ke rayuwa kuma suke aiki.Yawan mace-mace ya yi yawa har masu shukar ’yan mulkin mallaka na Faransa suka ci gaba da shigo da sabbin bayi daga Afirka a ƙarni na sha takwas.Dessalines ya samu horon aikin soja na farko daga wata mata mai suna Victoria Montou ko kuma Akbaraya Tòya.

Dessalines ya ƙara jin haushin fata da gens de couleur libres (mazaunan Saint-Domingue) a cikin shekarun rikici a lokacin juyin juya hali. 'Yan tawayen Haiti sun gwabza da 'yan mulkin mallaka na Faransa da sojojin kasashen waje a Saint-Domingue. A cikin shekarun yaƙi da sauye-sauyen mulki,waɗannan sun haɗa da sojojin Faransa,Birtaniya,da Spain.Dukan ƙasashen Turai uku suna da mazauna yankin Caribbean,inda juyin juya halin Haiti ya yi barazana ga ikon su da kudaden shiga.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>

Bayan korar da sojojin Faransa suka yi a lokaci na karshe na juyin juya halin Haiti,Dessalines ya ba da umarnin kashe duk wasu Turawa da suka rage (Mutanen Faransanci) a sabuwar jamhuriyar Haiti,tare da la'akari da su a matsayin barazana ga rayuwar sabuwar al'ummar.An kuma kashe mutane da dama masu launin fata.Duk da haka,bayan ya bayyana kansa Gwamna-for-Life a 1804,Jean-Jacques Dessalines ya dauki tsohon ubangidansa Dessalines a cikin gidansa kuma ya ba shi aiki.

Iyali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dessalines ta auri Marie-Claire Heureuse Félicité Bonheur daga birnin Léogane.An gudanar da bikin auren a Cocin St-Marc kuma Toussaint Louverture ne ya shaida.Marie-Claire ta kasance sarki a karkashin tsarin mulki na 1805,kuma an ba ta lambar yabo tare da haɗin miya na lendepandans ko Miyan Independence Soup, yanzu UNESCO Patrimoine. Ta girmi mijinta kuma ta rasu tana da shekara 100 a duniya.An kira ta a matsayin matar da ta karbe ta a cikin wata wasika da Pétion ta rubuta bayan kisan Sarkin.Ma'auratan suna da ko karɓar adadin yara 16 ciki har da yaran Jacques daga dangantakar da ta gabata.Innocent,daya daga cikin 'ya'yansa,yana da kagara mai suna don girmama shi.Dessalines ya ba da daya daga cikin 'ya'yansa mata ga Pétion amma Pétion ta ki yarda a karkashin cewa tana da dangantaka da Chancy,daya daga cikin yayan Toussaint.

Euphémie Daguile,ɗaya daga cikin mashahuran ƙwaraƙwaransa, shi ne mawaƙin mawaƙa na rawan Karabiyen wanda aka fi sani da rawan da Jacques ya fi so.Har yanzu dangin Haiti suna rawa a duk faɗin ƙasar.

Dessalines yana da 'yan'uwa biyu,Louis da Joseph Duclos,wanda kuma daga baya ya ɗauki sunan sunan Dessalines.Biyu daga cikin ’ya’yan ’yan uwansa sun zama manyan jami’an gwamnatin Haiti bayan juyin juya hali.

Juyin Juya Hali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙarshen bauta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin 1791,tare da dubban sauran bayi, Jean-Jacques Dessalines ya shiga tawayen bawa na filayen arewa karkashin jagorancin Jean François Papillon da Georges Biassou.Wannan tawaye shine aikin farko na abin da zai zama juyin juya halin Haiti. Dessalines ya zama Laftanar a cikin sojojin Papillon kuma ya bi shi zuwa Santo Domingo,wanda ke mamaye gabashin tsibirin tsibirin,inda ya shiga aikin soja na Spain a kan mulkin mallaka na Faransa na Saint-Domingue.

A wannan lokacin,mDessalines ya sadu da babban kwamandan soja Toussaint Bréda (wanda BBC sani da Toussaint Louverture ), wani balagagge mutum kuma an haife shi cikin bauta. Yana fada da sojojin Spain akan Hispaniola .Waɗannan mutanen sun so sama da duka su kayar da bautar.A shekara ta 1794,bayan da Faransa ta ayyana kawo ƙarshen bauta a sakamakon juyin juya halin Faransa, Toussaint Louverture ya sauya sheka zuwa Faransanci.[2] Ya yi yaƙi da Jamhuriyar Faransa da Spain da Birtaniya,waɗanda ke ƙoƙarin samun iko da mulkin mallaka mai riba na Saint-Domingue.Dessalines ya biyo baya,ya zama babban laftanar Toussaint Louverture kuma ya tashi zuwa matsayi na brigadier janar ta 1799.

  1. "Jean Jacques Dessalines", Educando, March 2007.
  2. Peabody, Sue. French Emancipation https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199730414/obo-9780199730414-0253.xml Accessed 27 October 2019.