Kalangu na Ngoma

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Kalangu na Ngoma a Jamus Gabashin Afirka a 1906

Ngoma (wanda kuma ake kira engoma ko ng'oma ko ingoma) kayan kida ne da wasu al'ummar Bantu na Afirka ke amfani da su. An samo Ngoma daga kalmar Kongo don "kalangu". Yankunan Bantu daban-daban suna da nasu al'adun kaɗa, tare da sunaye daban-daban na kayan kida. A Kikongo, ana amfani da "ngoma" ta tsawaita don nuna takamaiman raye-raye, lokutan zamantakewa da kari. A cikin Swahili, ana amfani da kalmar Ngoma don kwatanta ganguna da kansu da kuma kida da raye-raye tare a matsayin al'adar hadin gwiwa.

Amfani a cikin Manyan Tafkuna da Kudancin Afirka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalangu na Ngoma a Tanzania.

An san kalangu na ngoma da engoma a ko'ina cikin yankin Manyan Tafkunan Afirka. A cikin Swahili, ngoma ya haifar saboda rashin jin daɗin furta engoma ta hanyar jefar da harafin e.

Banyankore na rike da ganguna da daraja; musamman irin gangunan sarauta da Bagyendanwa ke jagoranta, wanda in ba haka ba wani basarake bai taba yin da'awar sarauta ba.

Baganda na Uganda na da dangantaka ta musamman da ganguna na ngoma, ta yadda mutane da yawa ke tunanin cewa kasarsu ce kasar da ainihin irin wannan ganga ta samo asali. Ana jin daɗin Baganda a matsayin ƴan Ngoma. Ana amfani da ngoma don sadarwa da bikin kuma alama ce ta iko. Hakanan ana amfani da Ngoma wajen ba da labari.

An yi ngoma da itace, wanda aka lulluɓe da fatar saniya da aka fesa a ƙofofin biyu, kodayake kuma za ku sami nau'ikan yawon buɗe ido na waɗannan ganguna da aka rufe da fatun zebra. Yawanci, ana buga su rukuni-rukuni na ganguna bakwai, kowane ganga yana da muryarsa da aikinsa a cikin rukunin. An yi wani sanannen tsari tare da aƙalla ganguna huɗu. Ana ɗaukar kowanne ɗayan waɗannan ganguna a matsayin daidaikun mutane, don haka kowannensu yana da takamaiman suna. Babban ganga ana kiransa bakisimba kuma yana yin ƙarar bass. Wasu suna kiransa Drrum na Jagora. Empuunya ya ɗan ƙarami kuma yana samar da sautin bass mafi girma. Nankasa wani ɗan ƙaramin ganga ne da ake bugawa da sanduna kuma yana fitar da sauti mai ƙarfi sosai. Na ƙarshe, amma ba kalla ba shine engalabi. Engalabi ya fi kama da ainihin ngoma kuma yana da tsayi kuma ya fi sauran ganguna a cikin wannan saitin. Hakanan yana da fata a gefe ɗaya kawai. Duk sauran ganguna an rufe su da fatar saniya a sama da kasa ta hanyar amfani da tsarin lacing mai rikitarwa, yayin da engalabi yana da kan fata kadangare tare da kananan turakun katako. Wannan ganga yana yin sauti mafi girma a cikin tarin. Shahararrun ganguna na Afirka sun haɗa da Djembe, Dundun, Bata, da Bougarabou don kawai haskaka kaɗan. Djembe na nufin "kowa ya taru cikin kwanciyar hankali" a cewar mutanen Mali.

A ko'ina cikin Afirka ta Tsakiya da ta Kudu, ana amfani da bukukuwan ngoma don taimakawa wajen warkarwa yayin bukukuwan. Ayyukan al'ada sun haɗa da kiɗa da raye-raye, kuma suna iya haifar da "rage damuwa, goyon bayan zamantakewa, goyon bayan halayen zamantakewa, ci gaban psychodynamic, da tasirin placebo". Ngoma yakan zama kayan aiki don haɗa ƙabilar, kuma yana taimakawa a cikin lafiya ko canjin rayuwa da hanyar sadarwa ga ruhohi. Ana kuma amfani da gangunan ngoma a Zimbabwe, musamman don raye-rayen gargajiya da bukukuwa.

Ana iya buga dukkan ganguna da sanduna ko hannaye, sai dai Nankasa da aka fi yi da sanduna biyu.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Mutwa, Credo Vusa'mazulu: My People, My Africa, New York: John Day (1969).
  • Mutwa, Credo Vusa'mazulu: Indaba My Children: African Folktales, Grove Press (1964).
  • University Musical Society's Youth Education Program: "Children of Uganda Teacher Resource Guide" by Bree Juarez. Edited by Bree & Ben Johnson (2005).
  • Berliner, Paul. (1978). The Soul of Mbira: music and traditions of the Shona people of Zimbabwe. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Howard, Joseph H. (1967). Drums in the Americas. New York: Oak Publications.
  • Mutwa, Credo Vusa'mazulu. (1969). My People: the incredible writings of Credo Vusa'mazulu Mutwa. Johannesburg : Blue Crane Books, 1969.
  • Tracey, Andrew. (1970). "The Matepe Mbira Music of Rhodesia". Journal of the African Music Society, IV: 4, 37-61.
  • Tracey, Andrew. (1970). How to Play the Mbira (dza vadzimu). Roodepoort, Transvaal, South Africa: International Library of African Music.
  • Tracey, Hugh. (1961). The Evolution of African Music and its Function in the Present Day. Johannesburg: Institute for the Study of Man in Africa.
  • Tracey, Hugh. (1969). "The Mbira class of African Instruments in Rhodesia". African Music Society Journal, 4:3, 78-95.

Rikodi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Rikodin Columbia: Drums of Passion. Litattafan rubutu na Akinsola Akiwowo (1958).

Karin karatu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Chamisa, V. (2017). Approaches to the adaptation of Shona ngoma styles in Zimbabwean popular music. African Music, vol. 10, no. 3.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]