Kirki

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Wikidata.svgKirki
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na moral quality (en) Fassara
Bangare na psychology terminology (en) Fassara
Hannun riga da vice (en) Fassara
Kadinal da Tiyolojin Nasihu daga Raphael, 1511

Kirki itace cikakkiyar ɗabi'a. Kirki [ɗabi'a] ce ko kamala da ake ganinsa mai kyau dan haka ake martabawa amatsayin mafarin nagarta da cikakkiyar rayuwa nagari ga ɗan'adam kirki ga mutum wasu halaye ne dake da martaba da nuna girma da tattarar mutuncin mutum. A wasu zancen, ta kasance ɗabi'a ce dake nuna cikakkiyar hali nagari. Aiwatar da abunda ke da kyau da kuma barin abinda bashi da kyau. Kishiyar kirki itace mugunta.

Akwai tsaftattun ingantattun halayen kirki guda hudu a addini kirista ( da turanci wato cardinal virtues) Christianity sune temperance, prudence, jarunta (or fortitude), da adalci.. Kiristanci ta gina addinin ta faith, muradi da ƙauna (taimako) daga 1 Corinthians 13. Duka waɗannan sune suka haɗa seven virtues. Addinin Buddhism's huɗu daga cikin brahmavihara ("Divine States") za'a iya ganin su amatsayin halayen kirki in the European sense. A littafin Nitobe Inazō's book Bushido: The Soul of Japan, Japanese Bushidō code is characterized by eight main virtues, including honesty, heroic courage, and righteousness.

Asalin samo sunan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masana na nan sune binciken akan sanin sanadiyyar samun kirki a hausance. Amma kalmar ta turanci wato Bitrus ta samo asali daga roman

Tsohuwar Misra[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Maat, to ancient Egyptians, personified the virtue of truth and justice. Her feather represents truth.

A lokacin wayewar Masar, Maat ko Ma'at (waɗanda aka ambata an ambata * [muʔ.ʕat]), wanda kuma aka yiwa ma'anar ma'asumi ko mayt, shine tsohuwar manufar Masarawa ta gaskiya, daidaito, tsari, doka, ɗabi'a, da adalci . Maat an kuma siffanta mutum da allahn da yake tsara taurari, yanayi, da ayyukan mutane da na alloli. Alloli sun tsara tsari na duniya daga hargitsi a lokacin halittar. Abokiyar hamayyar ta Isfet ita ce wacce ke nuna hargitsi, qarya, da rashin adalci.

Quarfin Greco-Roman[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Keɓaɓɓiyar nagarta ( Greek Ἀρετή ) a ɗakin karatu na Celsus a cikin Epsos, Turkiyya

Platonic nagarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin kyawawan dabi'u guda hudu sune: [1]

  • kamunkai : σωφροσύνη ( sōphrosynē )
  • hankali : φρόνησις ( phronēsis )
  • ƙarfin hali : ἀνδρεία ( Andreia )
  • adalci : δικαιοσύνη ( dikaiosynē )

Wannan lissafin an samo shi ne daga falsafancin Girka kuma Plato ya lissafa shi ban da takawa : ὁσιότης (hosiotēs), ban da hikimar da aka maye gurbin hikima a matsayin nagarta. [2] Wasu malamai [3] ɗauka ɗayan ɗayan abubuwan da muka tara a sama masu girma a matsayin mai ragewa ne sabili da haka ba Cardinal.

Ba'a san ko kyawawan kyawawan halaye sun kasance daga baya ba, kuma idan Plato ya yi rajista don ɗaukar ra'ayi na kyawawan halaye. [4] A cikin Protagoras da Meno, alal misali, ya faɗi cewa halaye na dabam ba za su iya zama da kansu ba kuma yana ba da hujjoji masu saɓani na aiki da hikima, duk da haka ta hanya mara kyau; ko aikatawa tare da ƙarfin hali (ƙarfin hali), amma ba tare da hikima ba.

A cikin aikinsa na Nicomachean icsabi'a, Aristotle ya bayyana ɗabi'ar adalci a matsayin ma'ana tsakanin rashi da wuce ɗabi'ar halayen. Batun mafi girman kirki ba ya kasance a tsakiyar tsakiya ba, amma a ma'anar zinare wani lokacin kusanci da ɗayan ɗayan. Koyaya, aikin kirki ba shine kawai ake nufi ba (ma'ana ta hanyar lissafi) tsakanin tsaka-tsakin sabanin biyu. Kamar yadda Aristotle ya ce a cikin Ka'idodin Nicomachean: "a lokacin da ya dace, game da abubuwan da suka dace, ga mutanen da suka dace, don ƙarshen gaskiya, kuma a madaidaiciyar hanya, shine matsakaici da mafi kyawun yanayin, kuma wannan ya dace da nagarta." Wannan bawai kawai rarrabewa bane tsakanin tsattsauran ra'ayi biyu. Misali, karimci abu ne mai kyau tsakanin tsaran rashin gaskiya da nuna fifiko. Examplesarin misalai sun haɗa da: ƙarfin zuciya tsakanin matsoraci da wauta, da amincewa tsakanin rashin kai da lalaci . A tunanin Aristotle, nagarta shine kyakkyawan zama mutum.

Epicurean nagarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Epicurean ɗabi'a suna kira don bin kyakkyawan nishaɗi tare da taimakon kyawawan halaye. Epicureans suna koyar da cewa motsin rai, ra'ayoyi da dabi'un da suka danganci nagarta (da mataimakin) suna da kayan aiki na hankali kuma sun dogara ne akan imani na gaskiya (ko karya). Ta hanyar tabbatar da cewa abubuwan da ya yi imani sun yi daidai da dabi'a kuma ta hanyar kawar da ra'ayoyin marasa amfani, Epicurean ya haɓaka halayen kirki gwargwadon yanayi, kuma hakan yana taimaka masa ya more rayuwa da jin daɗi.

Pyrrhonist nagarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masanin Falsafar ilimin Pyrrhonist Sextus Empiricus ya bayyana Pyrrhonism a matsayin "hanyar rayuwa wacce, ta dace da bayyanar, ta biye da wasu dalilai, inda wannan ma'anar ta nuna yadda zai yuwu ga yin rayuwa da gaskiya (" da gaskiya "ana ɗauka, ba kamar yadda ake magana kawai ba nagarta, amma a mafi ma'ana ta hankali) kuma yana jin daɗin fitar da halayyar don dakatar da hukunci . . . . " [5] Watau, ta hanyar ba da gaskiya (watau karnuka ) mutum zai rayu daidai da nagarta.

Hakuri da nagarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Seneca, mutumin Roman Stoic, ya ce cikakkiyar basira ba za a iya rarrabe ta da nagarta ba. Don haka, idan aka yi la’akari da duk abin da zai biyo baya, mai hankali zai yi daidai da mutumin kirki.   A wannan ma'ana aka bayyana ta Plato a Protagoras, a lõkacin da ya rubuta cewa mutane kawai aiki a hanyoyi da cewa su sansancẽwa zai kawo su matsakaicin kyau. Rashin hikima ce ke haifar da yin mummunar zaba maimakon mai hankali. Ta wannan hanyar, hikima itace babban ɓangaren nagarta. Plato ya fahimci cewa saboda nagarta yana da ma'anar daidai da hikima ana iya koyar da shi, da yiwuwar ya yi ragi da farko. Sannan ya kara da cewa "imani madaidaiciya" azaman madadin ilimi, yana ba da shawara cewa ilimi kawai daidai imani ne wanda aka yi tunani akai kuma "ya hadu".

Kyawawan halayen Romawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalmar "nagarta" kanta ta samo asali ne daga Latin "nagarta" (cancanta wanda allahntaka Virtus ), kuma tana da ma'anar "ladabi", "girmamawa", cancantar girmamawa, da kuma aikin jama'a kamar duka ɗan ƙasa da soja . Wannan nagarta dai tana ɗaya daga cikin kyawawan halaye waɗanda Romawa kyawawan halaye suke tsammanin za su misalta kuma su tsallaka tsararraki, a zaman wani ɓangare na Mos Maiorum ; al'adun kakanninmu waɗanda suka ayyana "Roman-ness" . Romawa sun bambanta tsakanin ɓangarori na rayuwar masu zaman kansu da na jama'a, don haka, an raba kyawawan halaye tsakanin waɗanda aka ɗauka a cikin rayuwar rayuwar dangi masu zaman kansu (kamar yadda suka rayu da koyarwar paterfamilias ), da waɗanda ake tsammanin ɗan asalin Rome ne .

Yawancin ra'ayoyin Romawa game da nagarta suma an ma siffanta su da allahntaka mai ƙididdigewa . Muhimmiyar kyawawan dabi'un Rome, na jama'a da na masu zaman kansu, sun kasance:

  • Abundantia: "Yawancin wadata, wadatacce" Tsarin kasancewa akwai wadataccen abinci da wadatar arziki ga kowane yanki na al'umma. A jama'a nagarta.
  • Auctoritas - "ikon ruhaniya" - ma'anar matsayin zamantakewar mutum, an gina shi ta hanyar kwarewa, Pietas, da Masana'antu. An dauki wannan da mahimmanci don ikon alkalin alkalai na aiwatar da doka da oda.
  • Comitas - "walwala" - saukin hali, ladabi, buɗewa, da kuma abokantaka.
  • Constantia - "juriya" - ƙarfin halin soja, kazalika janar na gaba ɗaya da juriya ta fuskar fuskantar wahala.
  • Clementia - "jinƙai" - tawali'u da ladabi, da kuma ikon barin abubuwan da suka gabata.
  • Dignitas - "mutunci" - ma'anar mutuntaka, girmama kai da mutunta kai.
  • Rashin ladabi - "horo" - an dauki mahimmanci don ƙimar soja; Har ila yau, yana ishara da bin tsarin shari'a, da kuma aiwatar da ayyukan 'yanci.
  • Fides - "kyakkyawar imani" - amincewa da juna da ma'amala ta aiki a cikin gwamnati da kasuwanci (al'amuran jama'a), cin amanar yana nufin sakamakon doka da na addini.
  • Firmitas - "karimci" - karfin hankali, da kuma ikon tsaya wa manufar mutum a hannu ba tare da wata damuwa ba.
  • Frugalitas - "frugality" - tattalin arziki da sauƙi a cikin salon rayuwa, suna so don abin da dole ne mu kasance da shi, ba abin da muke buƙata ba, ba tare da la'akari da kayanmu, ikonsa ko abin da mutum yake so ba, mutum koyaushe yana da matakin daraja. Frugality shine kauda abin da bashi da amfanin amfani idan anyi amfani dashi kuma idan hakan yafadi sauran kyawawan halaye.
  • Gravitas - "nauyi" - ma'anar mahimmancin lamarin a kusa; nauyi, da kasancewa da himma.
  • Honestas - "mutuntawa" - hoto da martabar da mutum yake gabatarwa a matsayinsa na memba mai mutunta al'umma.
  • Humanitas - "bil'adama" - tsaftacewa, wayewar kai, ilmantarwa, kuma gabaɗayan al'adu ne.
  • Masana'antu - "aiki tuƙuru" - aiki tuƙuru.
  • Innocencia - "ba da son kai" - sadaka ta Roman, koyaushe ba tare da tsammanin karɓuwa ba, koyaushe ba yayin da ba tsammani wani riba na mutum ba, rashin daidaituwa shine ƙyamar sanya dukkan iko da tasiri daga ofisoshin gwamnati don ƙara yawan amfanin mutum don jin daɗin rayuwarmu ko rayuwar jama'a da nesantar da al'ummarmu game da lafiyarsu, mutuncinmu da tunaninmu na kyawawan dabi'un, wannan cin mutuncin kowane Bahaushe ne.
  • Laetitia - "Farin Ciki, Jin daɗi" - Bikin godiya, godiya sau da yawa na warware rikicin, nagartar jama'a.
  • Nobilitas - "Nobility" - Mutumin da yake kyakkyawa, ya cancanci girmamawa, ya sami daraja a wurin zamantakewar jama'a, da, ko, darajar haihuwa, kyakkyawar jama'a.
  • Justitia - "adalci" - ma'anar halin kirki don aiki; an tsara shi ta hanyar allahn Iustitia, takwaransa na Roman Themis Themis .
  • Pietas - "amintacce" - fiye da tsoron ibada; girmamawa ga tsari na dabi'a: cikin jama'a, siyasa, da addini. Ya hada da dabarun kishin kasa, cikar wajibai masu ibada ga alloli, da girmama wasu mutane, musamman dangane da matattakala da dangantakar abokin ciniki, wadanda ake ganin suna da mahimmanci ga al'umma mai tsari.
  • Prudentia - "hankali" - hankali, hikima, da hankali na mutum.
  • Salubritas - "daidaitawa" - kiwon lafiya da tsabta, keɓaɓɓe cikin allah Salus .
  • Severitas - "tsananin" - kame kai, wanda aka ɗauka an ɗaure shi kai tsaye da darajar gravitas.
  • Veritas - "faɗin gaskiya" - gaskiya cikin ma'amala da wasu, waɗanda allah ya ba shi Veritas . Veritas, kasancewa mahaifiyar Virtus, an ɗauke shi tushen tushen nagarta; mutumin da ke rayuwa mai gaskiya yana ɗaure ya zama kyakkyawa.
  • Virtus - "mutumtaka" - ƙaƙƙarfan ƙarfi, kyakkyawan, ƙarfin hali, hali, da daraja. 'Vir' Latin ne don "mutum".

Halaye bakwai na Samaniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 410 AZ, Aurelius Prudentius Clemens ya lissafa "kyawawan halaye na sama" guda bakwai a cikin littafinsa Psychomachia (Battle of Souls) wanda labarin labarin rikice-rikice ne tsakanin ayyukan mugunta da kyawawan halaye. Al'adun da aka nuna sun kasance:

  • kamewa
  • tsantsaini
  • sadaka
  • himma
  • haƙuri
  • kyautatawa
  • tawali'u.

Kyakkyawan kyawawan halaye na Chivalric a cikin Turai ta tsakiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A karni na 8, a yayin bikin nada shi sarki mai alfarma na Roman, Charlemagne ya buga jerin kyawawan halaye:

  • Son Allah
  • Ka so maƙwabta
  • Bayar da sadaka ga matalauta
  • Yi baƙi baƙi
  • Ziyarci mara lafiya
  • Ka kasance mai jin ƙai ga fursunoni
  • Kada ku cuci kowa, kuma kada ku yarda da irin wannan
  • Ku yafe kamar yadda kuke fatan za a gafarta muku
  • Auke waɗanda suka kama
  • Taimaka wa wanda aka zalunta
  • Kare dalilin gwauruwa da marayu
  • Ku yi hukunci da adalci
  • Karka yarda da wani laifi
  • Kada ka ci gaba da fushi
  • Ka guji yawan ci da sha
  • Kasance mai tawali'u da kirki
  • Ku bauta wa maigidanku da aminci
  • Kada ka yi sata
  • Kada ku ɓata kanku, ko ku bar wasu su yi hakan
  • Kishi, ƙiyayya da tashin hankali sun raba tsakanin maza da Mulkin Allah
  • Kare Ikilisiya da kuma inganta ta dalilin.

Hadisai daga addinai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bangaran Bahá'í[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin imanin Bahá'í, kyawawan halaye halaye ne na ruhaniya kai tsaye wanda ran dan Adam ya mallaka, ya gado daga duniyar Allah. Haɓaka da bayyanar waɗannan kyawawan dabi'u sune taken ɓoyayyun kalmomin Bahá'u'lláh kuma an yi magana dalla-dalla a matsayin abubuwan da jama'a suka yi wahayi zuwa ga Allah daga 'Abdu'l-Bahá a cikin littattafan kamar Asirin Allahntaka. Wayewa.

Buddha[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A addinin Buddha kamar yadda aka ayyana a cikin Hanyar Hanyar Kyauta ta mutum Noble ana iya ɗaukarsa azaman jerin kyawawan kyawawan halaye.

  1. Ra'ayin da ya dace - Gane gaskiya Huɗun (samyag-vyāyāma, sammā-vāyāma).
  2. Dama tunanin mutum - abilityarfin tunani don ganin abubuwa don abin da suke tare da ƙwaƙwalwar hankali (samyak-smṛti, sammā-sati).
  3. Daidai Karantarwar - Kyakkyawan tunani daya (samyak-samādhi, sammā-samādhi).

Budhma ta hudu brahmavihara ("Allahntaka ta Kasa ") za'a iya ɗaukarta daidai kamar kyawawan halaye a cikin tunanin Turai. Su ne:

  1. Metta / Maitri: ƙauna ta alheri ga duka; fatan mutum zai kasance lafiya; ƙauna ta alheri ita ce fata da dukkanin abubuwan halitta, ba tare da wani togiya ba, su yi farin ciki.
  2. Karuṇā : tausayi; bege cewa wahalar mutum zai ragu; tausayi shine bege ga dukkan halittun da zasu kasance daga wahala.
  3. Mudita : farin ciki na altruistic a cikin ayyukan mutum, kai ko wasu; Murmushin juyayi shine halin kirki na murna da farin ciki da kyawawan halayen dukkan ma'abota hankali.
  4. Upekkha / Upeksha : daidaito, ko koyon karɓar hasara da cin nasara, yabo da zargi, nasara da gazawa tare da ɓoyewa, daidai, don kai da sauransu. Neman daidaito na nufin banbanci tsakanin aboki, abokin gaba ko baƙon, amma a ɗauki kowane wanda yake da daidai yake. Hankali ne na nutsuwa mai zurfin tunani - ba a rinjaye shi ta hanyar zubewa ba, raunin hankali ko tashin hankali.

Haka kuma akwai Paramitas ("kammala"), waɗanda sune ƙarshen samun kyawawan halaye. A Theravada addinin Buddha 's canonical Buddhavamsa [6] akwai Ten zabinsa (dasa pāramiyo). A Mahayana Buddhism, Lotus Sutra ( Saddharmapundarika ), akwai Kammala shida; yayin da ke cikin matakan Goma ( Dasabhumika ) Sutra, an sanya ƙarin Paramitas huɗu.

Kiristanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nasihu na yaƙi da munanan ayyuka, taga gilashin da aka ƙera (karni na 14) a cikin Ikilisiyar Niederhaslach

A cikin Kiristanci, kyawawan dabi'u guda uku sune bangaskiya, bege da ƙauna, jeri wanda ya fito daga 1 Korantiyawa 13 : 13 ( νυνὶ δὲ μένει πίστις pistis (imani), ἐλπίς elpis (fatawa), ἀγάπη agape (soyayya), τὰ τρία ταῦτα· μείζων δὲ τούτων ἡ ἀγάπη ). Wannan babi ya kwatanta ƙauna a matsayin mafi girma daga cikin ukun, ya kuma fassara ma'anar ƙauna a matsayin "mai haƙuri, mai kirki, ba mai nuna hassada, mai alfahari, ko girman kai." (Kyakkyawar ƙauna ta Kirista wani lokaci ana kiranta sadaka kuma a wasu lokuta ana amfani da kalmar Helenanci agape don bambanta ƙaunar Allah da ƙaunar ɗan adam daga wasu nau'in ƙauna kamar abokantaka ko ƙaunar jiki. )

Malaman addinin kirista koyaushe suna kara kyawawan dabi'un mutanen Girka guda hudu (hankali, adalci, tsinkaye, da karfin gwiwa) ga kyawawan dabi'un tiyoloji don bayar da kyawawan halaye guda bakwai ; Misali, waɗannan bakwai sune waɗanda aka bayyana a cikin Karatun cocin Katolika, sashi na 1803–1829.

Littafi Mai-Tsarki ya ambaci ƙarin kyawawan halaye, kamar su a cikin “ruita ofan Ruhu Mai-tsarki ,” wanda aka samu a cikin Galatiyawa 5: 22-23: “Da bambanci, fruita ofan ruhu yana da alheri - ƙauna, salama, haƙuri, kyautatawa, alheri, aminci, tawali'u, da kamun kai. Tabbas babu wata doka da ta saba da irin wannan. " [7]

Tsarin tsakiya da na lokacin gyara sun ga wasu halaye na zunubi wadanda suka jera zunubai bakwai masu kisa da kyawawan halaye da suka sabawa juna.

(Zunubi) Harshen Latin Nagari (Latin)
Girman kai Superbia Tawali'u Humilitas
Kishi Invidia Tausayi Benevolentia
Mai yawan ci Gula Haushi Temperantia
Muguwar sha'awa Luxuria Tsira da aminci Castitas
Fushi Ira Haƙuri Mai haƙuri
Nasihu Avaritia Soyayya Caritas
Sloth Acedia Ilarfafawa Masana'antu

Daoism[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

"Nagarta", fassara daga Sin de ( ), shi ne kuma wani muhimmin ra'ayi a kasar Sin falsafa, musamman Daoism . De ( Chinese ) asalin ma'anar "kyawawan dabi'u" ta ma'anar "halin mutum; ƙarfin ciki; aminci", amma an canza shi zuwa ɗabi'a "nagarta; kirki; ɗabi'a". Lura da na ginin jumla a layi daya ga Turanci nagarta, tare da wani tsaoho ma'anar "ciki iko. Ikon allahntaka" (kamar yadda a "ta nagarta na") da kuma na zamani daya daga "halin kirki kyau. Alheri". A farkon zamanin Confucianism, bayyananniyar halaye na "nagarta" sun haɗa da ren (" ɗan adam "), xiao (" ɗaukar nauyi "), da li (" halayen da suka dace, aiwatar da al'adun gargajiya "). Wannan mas'ala ta ren - a cewar Simon Leys - na nufin "ɗan adam" da "nagarta". Ren asali yana da ma'anar archaic a cikin Littafin Confucian na Poems na "budurwa", amma sai a hankali aka fara ɗauka ma'anar ɗabi'a mai ma'ana. [8] Wasu masana suna ganin nagartattun halaye da aka bayyana a farkon zamanin Confucian a matsayin falsafar da ba ta hanyar tunani ba.

Tunanin Daoist na De, idan aka kwatanta shi da Confucianism, ya fi dabara, ya danganta da "nagarta" ko ikon da mutum ya fahimta ta bin Dao ("Hanyar"). Importantaya daga cikin mahimman ƙimar al'ada a yawancin tunanin Sin shi ne cewa, halin zamantakewar mutum ya samo asali ne daga yawan kyawawan halayen da mutum yake nunawa, maimakon haihuwar mutum. A cikin Analects, Confucius ya yi bayanin de kamar haka: "Duk wanda ya yi amfani da gwamnati ta hanyar nagarta, za a iya kwatanta shi da tauraron ɗan arewa, wanda yake riƙe matsayinsa kuma duk taurari sun juya zuwa gareshi." A zamanin da, musamman daga zamanin daular Tang, zamanin Confucianism kamar yadda ake yi, ya samu kuma ya daidaita tunaninsa na kyawawan halaye tare da wadanda suka fito daga Daoism da Buddha.

Addinin Hindu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nagartacciyar muhawara ce kuma ra'ayi mai canzawa cikin tsoffin litattafan Hindu. [9] An bayyana asalin, bukata da darajar nagarta a cikin falsafar Hindu a matsayin wani abu da ba za a iya sanya shi ba, amma wani abu da aka cimma da son rai ya cika kowane mutum. Misali, Apastamba yayi bayanin sa kamar haka: "nagarta da mataimakin sa basa tafiya suna cewa - ga mu! Yana buƙatar tunani da cikakkiyar kulawa ta kowane namiji da mace kafin ta iya zama wani ɓangare na rayuwar mutum.

Nasihu suna haifar da punya ( Sanskrit : पुण्य, [10] rai mai tsarki) a cikin wallafe-wallafen Hindu; yayin da mugayen ayyuka ke haifar da pap (Sanskrit: पाप, [11] zunubi ). Wasu lokuta, ana amfani da kalmar punya ta musaya tare da nagarta.

Dabi'o'in da ke tattare da rayuwar tsararru - wato rayuwa ce ta ɗabi'a, ɗabi'a, kyawawan halaye - sun fito ne a asasas da fitina . A kwana a tashi, sai sabon mashahurin Hindu ya bazu ya kara inganta su, wasu suka maye gurbinsu, wasu suka hade. Alal misali, Manusamhita farko da aka jera goma falalan zama dole ga wani mutum zuwa rayuwa a dharmic rai: Dhriti (ƙarfin hali), Kshama ( gãfara ), Dama (kamunkai), Asteya (Non-da kwaɗayi / Non-sata), Saucha (ciki tsarki), Indriyani-graha (iko da hankula), dhi (tunani mai zurfi), vidya (hikima), satyam (gaskiya), akrodha (yanci daga fushi). A cikin ayoyin da suka gabata, wannan masanin ya rage shi zuwa kyawawan halaye guda biyar ta wannan masanin, ta hanyar haɗawa da ƙirƙirar mafi fa'ida ra'ayi. Jerin takaitattun kyawawan halaye sun zama: Ahimsa ( Ba tashin hankali ), Dama ( kamewar kai ), Asteya (Rashin son kai / mara sata), Saucha (tsarkin ciki), Satyam (gaskiya). [12]

Bhagavad Gita - wanda aka ɗauka a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin tushen tattaunawa na tarihi na Hindu game da nagarta da muhawara game da abin da ke daidai da abin da ba daidai ba - ya faɗi cewa wasu kyawawan halaye ba lallai ba ne su zama cikakke, amma wani lokacin ma'anar juna; Misali, ya yi bayanin wani nagarta kamar Ahimsa dole ne a sake yin nazari yayin da mutum zai fuskanci yaki ko tashin hankali daga taurin kai, rashin hankali ko jahilcin wasu. [13] [14]

Musulunci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Islama, an yi imanin Alqurani kalmar Allah ce ta zahiri, kuma tabbataccen bayanin kyawawan halaye yayin da ake daukar Muhammadu kyakkyawan misali na nagarta a cikin yanayin mutum. Tushen fahimtar Musulunci game da nagarta ita ce fahimta da fassarar Alqur’ani da ayyukan Muhammadu. Ma'anarta koyaushe tana cikin yanayin mika wuya ga Allahntaka ta hanyar al'umma gaba daya. Motsin dalili shine ra'ayi cewa muminai suyi " umarni da kyakkyawa kuma suna hani daga mummuna " ( al-amr bi-l-maʿrūf wa-n-nahy ʿani-l-munkar ) a dukkan bangarorin rayuwa ( Quran ). Wani muhimmin mahimmanci shine imani da cewa an baiwa dan adam ikon fahimtar nufin Allah kuma ya cika shi. Wannan fannin mafi yawancin alamu tana tattare da tunani kan ma'anar rayuwa. Saboda haka, komai yanayin mu, ana imanin mutane suna da ɗabi’a na ɗabi’a don mi a kai ga nufin Allah. Wa'azin Muhammadu ya haifar da "canji mai tsayi a cikin kyawawan dabi'u dangane da takunkumin sabon addini da addinin yanzu, da tsoron Allah da na Karshe". Daga baya Malaman musulmai suka fadada koyarwar addini na litattafai daki-daki.

A cikin Hadisin ( Hadisin Musulunci), An-Nawwas bin Sam'an ne ya ruwaito shi:

Wabisah bin Ma'bad ya ruwaito:

Kyakkyawan, kamar yadda aka gani a cikin saba wa zunubi, ana kiransa thawāb ( falalar ruhaniya ko lada) amma akwai wasu sharuɗan Islama don bayyana kyawawan halaye kamar su faḍl ("falala"), taqwa ("ibada") da tsalā righteousness ("adalci"). Ga musulmai na cika hakkokin wasu ana darajarsu a zaman muhimmin gini na addinin Musulunci. A cewar gaskatawar musulinci, Allah zai yafe wa mutum zunubai amma mummunan zaluntar mutane da rashin adalci da wasu zai yi musu kawai Allah zai yafe masa.

Jaini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Parshwanatha, mai bibiyar ahimsa .

A cikin Jainiyanci, samun haskaka mai yiwuwa ne kawai idan mai neman yana da wasu halaye na kwarai. Dukkanin Jains yakamata suyi alwashi biyar na ahimsa (ba tashin hankali), satya (gaskiya), asteya (ba sata), aparigraha (rashin haɗin kai) da brahmacharya (ƙin ɗaure kai) kafin su zama surar mutum. Tirthankaras ne waɗannan wa'adin . Sauran kyawawan dabi'u wadanda yakamata a bi su duka biyun da kuma wadanda suka yanke hukuncin sun hada da gafara, da ladabi, da kamun kai da kuma nuna gaskiya. Waɗannan alƙawarin suna taimaka wa mai neman tserewa daga kangin karm ta hanyar tserewa daga yanayin haihuwa da mutuwa don samun 'yanci. [15]

Yahudanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Loaunar Allah da yin biyayya ga dokokinsa, musamman ma Dokoki Goma, sune tushen abubuwan kirki na Yahudawa. An tsara hikima a farkon surori takwas na littafin Misalai kuma ba kawai asalin kyawawan halaye bane amma ana nuna su a matsayin farkon halitta mafi kyau na Allah (Misalai 8: 12-31).

Bayani mai kyau na ofaunar Zinare ya zo daga ƙarni na farko Rabbi Hillel Dattijon . Aka sake shi a cikin al'adar Yahudawa a matsayin sage kuma malami, yana da alaƙa da haɓakar Mishnah da Talmud kuma, saboda haka, ɗaya daga cikin manyan mutane a tarihin Yahudawa . Da aka nemi bayanin taƙaitaccen tsarin addinin Yahudanci, Hillel ya amsa (ana ta lasafta yayin da yake tsaye a ƙafa ɗaya): “Abin da ƙin ƙi ne, kada ku yi wa ɗan'uwanku. Wannan ita ce duka Attaura. Sauran sune sharhi; je ku koya. " [16]

Samurai nagarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Hagakure, Yamamoto Tsunetomo ya ba da damar ɗaukar ra'ayinsa game da 'aikata nagarta' a cikin alkawura huɗu da ya yi kowace rana:

  1. Kada a taɓa yin amfani da hanyar samurai ko dajiido .
  2. Yin amfani da kyau ga maigida.
  3. Zama fili ga iyayena.
  4. Domin nuna tausayi da aiki domin dan Adam.

Yamamoto ya ci gaba da cewa:

Idan mutum ya sadaukar da waɗannan alkawaran nan huɗu ga gumaka da Buddha kowace safiya, zai sami ƙarfin mutane biyu ba zai taɓar da baya ba. Mustaya daga cikin tilas ne yaci gaba kamar inchworm, kadan-kadan. Alloli da Buddha, kuma, sun fara da rantsuwa.

Ana nuna lambar Bushidō ta kyawawan halaye bakwai: [17]

  • Magana (義, gi)
  • Urage ƙarfin hali (勇, yuu)
  • Sabani (仁, jin)
  • Mutunta (礼, rei)
  • Gaskiya (誠, sei)
  • Girmama (誉, yo)
  • Aminci (忠, chuu)

Sauran wadanda a wasu lokuta ake kara wa wadannan:

  • Tsoron Allah (孝, kō)
  • Hikima (智, chi)
  • Kula da tsofaffi (悌, tei)

Ra'ayoyin Falsafa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Valluvar (Statue a SOAS, Jami'ar London ).

Valluvar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duk da yake nassosi na addini gaba ɗaya suna la'akari da dharma ko aṟam (kalmar Tamil don nagarta) a matsayin halayen allahntaka, Valluvar ya bayyana shi a matsayin hanyar rayuwa maimakon ɗayan ibada, hanyar da ta dace da rayuwa wanda ke haifar da farin ciki na duniya. A saboda wannan dalili, Valluvar yana riƙe da aṟam a matsayin babban dutsen tushe a duk lokacin rubuce-rubucen littattafan Kural . Valluvar ya ɗauki adalci a matsayin facet ko samfurin kayan fata . Yayinda masana ilimin falsafa na zamanin da irin su Plato, Aristotle, da zuriyarsu suka yi niyyar cewa ba za a iya bayyana adalci ba kuma asirin Allah ne,   Valluvar ya ba da shawara da kyau cewa ba a buƙatar asalin asalin Allah don ayyana manufar adalci. A cikin kalmomin VR Nedunchezhiyan, adalci bisa ga Valluvar "yana zaune a cikin zuciyar waɗanda suka san matsayin gaskiya da abin da ke daidai; saboda haka yaudarar yakan kasance cikin tunanin da ke haifar da zamba."

René Descartes[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ga masanin falsafar Rationalist René Descartes, nagarta ta ƙunshi madaidaiciyar hujjar da yakamata ta jagoranci ayyukanmu. Ya kamata mazaje su nemi alherin da Descartes, bin Zeno, ke nunawa da nagarta, saboda wannan yana haifar da ingantacciyar albarka ko jin daɗinsu. Ga Epicurus maɗaukakin sarki abin farin ciki ne, Descartes ya ce a zahiri wannan bai saba wa koyarwar Zeno ba, saboda nagarta tana haifar da yardar ruhaniya, wannan ya fi jin daɗin jiki. Game da ra'ayin Aristotle cewa farin ciki ya danganta da kayan sa'a, Descartes ba ya musun cewa waɗannan kayayyaki suna ba da gudummawa ga farin ciki, amma maganganun cewa suna cikin matsayi mai girma a waje da ikon mutum, amma tunanin mutum yana ƙarƙashin cikakken iko na mutum.

Immanuel Kant[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Immanuel Kant, a cikin Lurarsa da Jin Dadin Kyawawa da ɗaukaka, ya nuna kyawawan halaye na dabam da wanda aka san shi da wannan halin ɗabi'a. A ra'ayin Kant, don kasancewa da zuciyar kirki, kirki da tausayawa ba a ɗauke su azaman halaye na gaskiya ba. Iyakar abin da kawai zai sa ɗan adam ya zama mai kyawawan halaye shi ne nuna hali daidai da ƙa'idodin ɗabi'a. Kant ya kawo misali don ƙarin bayani; a ce da kun haɗu da wani matalauci a titi; idan tausayin ka ya kai ka ka taimaka wa mutumin, abin da ka ba da alama ba zai nuna nagartarka ba. A cikin wannan misalin, tunda ba ku iya ba duk taimakon mabukata, kun yi rashin gaskiya, kuma ya kasance daga yanki na ƙa'idoji da ɗabi'ar gaskiya. Kant yana amfani da tsarin kula da halin mutuntaka huɗu don bambance mutanen kirki da gaske. A cewar Kant, a tsakanin duk mutanen da ke da yanayin nuna bambanci, mutumin da ke da halin niyya shi ne ya fi kyau wanda tunani, maganganunsa da ayyukana ɗaya daga cikin ka'idoji ne.

Friedrich Nietzsche[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ra'ayin Friedrich Nietzsche game da nagarta ya samo asali ne daga ra'ayin tsari na daraja tsakanin mutane. Ga Nietzsche, kyawawan abubuwa masu ƙarfi ana ganin su ƙazaman ƙazamai ne da masu ƙima, don haka kyawawan halayen Nietzsche ya ginu ne kan rarrabewarsa tsakanin ɗabi'a da ɗabi'ar bayi . Nietzsche yana haɓaka kyawawan halayen waɗanda ya kira "mafi girma maza", mutane kamar Goethe da Beethoven. Abubuwan kyawawan halaye da ya yabe a cikinsu shine ikonsu na kirkira (“mutanen kirkira” - “manyan mutane gwargwadon fahimta na”) (WP 957). A cewar Nietzsche ire-iren wadannan manyan nau'ikan sune kadai, ka da a kira “wani aiki na haɗin kai,” da kansu kuma suna da koshin lafiya. Saboda hadawa da garken yana da tushe guda, babban nau'in "yana ƙoƙari cikin sa'o'i don gidan ciko da rufin asiri inda aka sami ceto daga taron, da yawa, da masu girma ..." (BGE 26). '' Mafi girman nau'in '' kuma "a hankali suke neman nauyi mai nauyi" (WP 944) a cikin "tsara ra'ayi" don rayuwar su, wanda ke motsa su zuwa zane-zane da aikin kirkirarwa kuma yana basu lafiya ta hankali da ƙarfi. Gaskiyar cewa nau'ikan mafi girma suna "lafiya" ga Nietzsche ba yana nufin lafiyar jiki ba kamar ƙarfin halayyar mutum da ƙarfin zuciya. A ƙarshe, nau'in mafi girma ya tabbatar da rayuwa saboda yana shirye ya yarda da dawowar rayuwa ta har abada kuma ya tabbatar da wannan har abada kuma ba tare da wani sharaɗi ba.

A sashi na karshe na Abinda ya gabata da Mugunta, Nietzsche ya bayyana tunaninsa game da kyawawan kyawawan halaye da matsayin kadaici a matsayin daya daga cikin kyawawan kyawawan halaye:

Kuma don kiyaye iko akan kyawawan ɗabi'unka guda huɗu: ƙarfin hali, hankali, tausayi, kaɗaita. Saboda kadaici abu ne mai kyau a gare mu, tunda dabi'a ce ta daukaka da sha'awa ga tsabta wanda ke nuna cewa saduwa tsakanin mutane ("jama'a") babu makawa yana sa abubuwa su ƙazantu. Wani wuri, wani lokaci, kowace al'umma ta sa mutane - "tushe." (BGE §284)

Nietzsche kuma yana ganin gaskiya a matsayin nagarta:

Gaskiya mai gaskiya, muna ɗauka wannan shine halayenmu na kirki kuma baza mu iya kawar da shi ba, muna da 'yanci na ruhohi - don haka, zamu so yin aiki da shi da dukkan ƙauna da ƙiyayya a kanmu amma kuma ba mu gaji da' kammalawa 'kanmu a cikin alherin mu, shi kaɗai muka rage: bari ɗaukakarsa ta huta kamar walƙiya, shudin maraice mai banƙyama game da wannan al'adar tsufa da lalacewar ɗabi'arta da mummunan rauni! ( Bayan Abin kirki da Mugunta, §227)

Benjamin Franklin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kyakkyawan, mashin a hannu, tare da ƙafarta a kan hanyar karɓar Tyranny akan Babban alabi'ar Virginia

Waɗannan kyawawan halaye ne [18] wanda Benjamin Franklin yayi amfani da shi wajen haɓaka abin da ya kira 'kammala halin ɗabi'a'. Yana da jerin abubuwan bincike a cikin littafin rubutu don auna kowace rana yadda yake rayuwa har zuwa kyawawan halayensa.

Ya zama sananne ta hanyar tarihin ɗan littafin Benjamin Franklin .

  1. Temperance: Ku ci kada kuyi rauni. Sha ba da gori.
  2. Shiru: Kada kuyi magana amma abin da zai amfani wasu ko kanku. Guji Tattaunawa mai ban tsoro.
  3. Umarni : Bari duk Abubuwanku suna da Wurarensu. Bari kowane bangare na Kasuwancinku ya sami lokacinta.
  4. Resolution: yanke shawara don aiwatar da abin da ya kamata. Yi ba tare da faɗuwa abin da kuka warware ba.
  5. Frugality: Kada kuzari sai dai don kyautatawa wasu ko kanku; watau Kashe komai.
  6. Masana'antu: Rasa Lokaci. Koyaushe a yi aiki a wani abu mai amfani. Yanke duk Ayyukan da ba dole ba.
  7. Zuciya: Yi Amfani da Babu yaudara. Yi tunani marar gaskiya da adalci; Kuma idan kun faɗi magana, ku faɗi daidai.
  8. Adalci: Kuskuren ba wani bane, ta hanyar Rauni ko watsi da fa'idodin da suke Aikin ku.
  9. Matsakaici: Guji Wuya kai. Rashin fushi game da raunin da kuka ji kuna cancanta.
  10. Tsabta: Yin haƙuri da Rashin Tsabta a Jiki, Tufafi ko Halin zama.
  11. Nasihu: Kar a rikita ka a Trifles, ko a Hatsari na gama gari ko ba makawa.
  12. Tsanani: Amfani da Venery da sauki amma ga Lafiya ko Zuriya; Kullum kada kuyi rauni, Rashin rauni, ko Raunin kanku ko kuma Zaman lafiyar wani ko ragi.
  13. Tawali'u: Yi koyi da Yesu da Socrates.

Ra'ayoyin zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nasihu kamar motsin zuciyarmu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Marc Jackson a cikin littafinsa Emotion da Psyche ya gabatar da sabon ci gaba na kyawawan halaye. Ya gano ayyukan alheri kamar yadda abin da ya kira mai kyau motsin zuciyarmu "The farko kungiyar kunshi soyayya, tausayi, farin ciki, da bangaskiya, dõmin tsoronsa da kuma tausayi ne mai kyau" Wadannan ayyukan alheri bambanta daga mazan asusun na cikin falalan saboda ba su da halayya da bayyana Ta hanyar aiki, amma motsin zuciyar da za a ji da ci gaba ta hanyar jin ba yin aiki.

A cikin Objectivism[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ayn Rand ta riƙe cewa ɗabi'arta, ɗabi'un dalili, tana ɗauke da ƙa'ida guda ɗaya: wanzuwar akwai, kuma zaɓi ɗaya: rayuwa. Duk kyawawan dabi'u da kyawawan halaye sun ci gaba daga waɗannan. Don rayuwa, dole ne mutum ya riƙe kyawawan dabi'u guda uku waɗanda mutum yayi haɓakawa da cimma nasara a rayuwa: Dalili, Dalili, da -auki. Darajoji shine "abin da mutum yakeyi don samun shi da / ko kiyaye shi ... kuma kyawawan halaye [su] sune aikin da ions anon wanda mutum ya samu ya samu / ta kiyaye shi." Kyakkyawan nagarta a cikin ɗabi'un Objectivist hankali ne, wanda kamar yadda Rand yake nufi shi ne "amincewa da yarda da hankali a matsayin tushen tushen ilimi, kawai alkalin ƙa'idodi ne kawai kuma jagorar aikin kawai." [19] Wadannan dabi'u ana samun su ta hanyar son rai da aiki tukuru kuma kyawawan dabi'u sune manufofin cimma wadannan ka'idodi na asali. [20] Ayn Rand ya bayyana kyawawan halaye guda bakwai: hankali, aiki, alfahari, yanci, mutunci, gaskiya da adalci. Uku na farko suna wakiltar kyawawan kyawawan dabi'un guda uku waɗanda suka dace da mahimman ƙimar uku, yayin da hudun ƙarshe zasu samo asali daga halayen hankali. Tana mai cewa kyawawan dabiu ba karshensa bane, cewa kyawawan dabiu ba nasa bane ko kuma abin yanka a kan ladan mugunta, rayuwa shine ladan kyautatawa kuma farin ciki shine manufa da kuma ladan rayuwa. Mutum na da zabi na asali guda daya: yin tunani ko a'a, kuma wannan shine ma'aunin kyawunsa. Kammalar dabi'un tunani ce wacce bata da matsala, ba matsayin kwarewarku ba amma cikakkiyar amfani da tunanin ku, ba girman ilimin ku ba amma karban dalilin a matsayin cikakke. [21]

A cikin ilimin halayyar dan adam[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Christopher Peterson da kuma Martin Seligman, biyu manyan masu bincike a cikin m Psychology, gane da rashi muhimmi a Psychology 's hali ya mayar da hankali a kan tabarbarewa maimakon a kan abin da ke sa lafiya da kuma barga hali, tashi wajen samar da wani jerin " Character karfi da kuma falalar " . Bayan shekaru uku na binciken, an gano halaye 24 (wadanda aka kasafta cikin wurare shida masu nagarta), suna da "abin mamakin kamanceceniya a cikin al'adu gaba daya kuma mai nuna babbar alama ce ta tarihi da al'adu tsakanin al'adu." Wadannan nau'ikan kyawawan halaye guda shida sune ƙarfin hali, adalci, bil'adama, kamewa, wucewa, da hikima. Wasu masana ilimin halayyar dan adam sun nuna cewa wadannan kyawawan dabi'un an wadatasu sosai zuwa kananan abubuwa; Misali, halaye iri guda guda 24 an kasu cikin sauki: Strearfi mai ƙarfi, Strearfin Temperance, da Socialarfin zamantakewa. [22]

Mataimakin azaman akasin haka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sabanin nagarta shine mataimakin . Mataimakin abu al'ada ne, maimaita aikata kuskure. Hanya daya ta tsara ayyukan batsa ita ce lalata rashawa.

Kamar yadda Aristotle ya lura, duk da haka, kyawawan halayen na iya samun akasi da yawa. Za'a iya yin la'akari da nagarta a matsayin ma'ana tsakanin matuƙa biyu, kamar yadda Latin maxim ya ba da labari a cikin medio stat virtus - a tsakiyar akwai kyawawan halaye. Misali, tsoro da taurin kai sun sabawa karfin gwiwa; sabanin hankali shine duka bi-bi da hankali da kuma rashin isashen hankali; abokan adawa na girman kai (nagarta) su ne kaskantattu da girman kai. Kyakkyawan "ingantacciya" ta zamani, haƙuri, ana iya ɗaukar ma'ana tsakanin matuƙar ƙwaraƙwalwar shaƙatawa a ɗaya hannun kuma yarda da ɗayan. Sabili da haka ana iya gano ayyukan mugunta a matsayin tsayayya da kyawawan halaye - amma tare da ɓacin rai cewa kowane kyawawan halaye na iya samun sabani daban-daban, duk sun bambanta da juna.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Stanley B. Cunningham (2002), Review of Virtues and Vices and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy, Dialogue, Volume 21, Issue 01, March 1982, pp. 133–37
  2. Den Uyl, D. J. (1991), The virtue of prudence, P. Lang., in Studies in Moral Philosophy. Vol. 5 General Editor: John Kekes
  3. Carr, D. (1988), The cardinal virtues and Plato's moral psychologym The Philosophical Quarterly, 38(151), pp. 186–200
  4. Gregory Vlastos, The Unity of the Virtues in the "Protagoras", The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 25, No. 3 (Mar., 1972), pages 415-458
  5. Sextus Empiricus Outlines of Pyrrhonism Book I Chapter 8 Sections 16-17.
  6. Buddhavamsa, chapter 2. For an on-line reference to the Buddhavamsa's seminality in the Theravada notion of parami, see Bodhi (2005).
    In terms of other examples in the Pali literature, Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 454, entry for "Pāramī," (retrieved 2007-06-24) cites Jataka i.73 and Dhammapada Atthakatha i.84. Bodhi (2005) also mentions Acariya Dhammapala's treatise in the Cariyapitaka-Atthakatha and the Brahmajala Sutta subcommentary (tika).
  7. Barbara Aland, Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger and Allen Wikgren, The Greek New Testament, 4th ed. (Federal Republic of Germany: United Bible Societies, 1993, c1979)
  8. Lin Yu-sheng: "The evolution of the pre-Confucian meaning of jen and the Confucian concept of moral autonomy," Monumenta Serica, vol.31, 1974-75
  9. Crawford, S. Cromwell (1982), The evolution of Hindu ethical ideals, Asian Studies Program, University of Hawaii Press
  10. puNya Spoken Sanskrit English Dictionary, Germany (2010)
  11. search for pApa Monier-Williams' Sanskrit-English Dictionary, University of Koeln, Germany (2008)
  12. Gupta, B. (2006). BHAGAVAD GĪTĀ AS DUTY AND VIRTUE ETHICS. Journal of Religious Ethics, 34(3), 373-395.
  13. Subedi, S. P. (2003). The Concept in Hinduism of ‘Just War’. Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 8(2), pages 339-361
  14. Bakker, F. L. (2013), Comparing the Golden Rule in Hindu and Christian Religious Texts. Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses, 42(1), pages 38-58
  15. https://medium.com/bliss-of-wisdom/जैन-धर्म-के-पाँच-मूलभूत-सिद्धांत-bfc9b756d509
  16. Babylonian Talmud, tractate Shabbat 31a. See also the ethic of reciprocity or "The Golden rule."
  17. see Random House's Japanese-English, English-Japanese Dictionary
  18. Franklin's 13 Virtues Extract of Franklin's autobiography, compiled by Paul Ford.
  19. Rand, Ayn The Virtue of Selfishness: A New Concept of Egoism, p. 27
  20. Gotthelf, Allan On Ayn Rand; p. 86
  21. Rand, Ayn (1961) For the New Intellectual Galt’s Speech, "For the New Intellectual: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand", pp. 131, 178.
  22. Jessica Shryack, Michael F. Steger, Robert F. Krueger, Christopher S. Kallie. 2010. The structure of virtue: An empirical investigation of the dimensionality of the virtues in action inventory of strengths. Elsevier.

Karin karatu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Newton, John, Ph.D. Cikakkun ciplesa'idodin Gudanarwa na ƙarni na 21, 2000.   ISBN   0967370574 .
  • Hein, Dauda. "Kiristanci da Daraja." Cocin mai rai, 18 ga Agusta, 2013, pp.   8-10.
  • Den Uyl, Douglas (2008). "Nagari" . A Hamowy, Ronald (ed.). Encyclopedia of Libertarianism . Dubu Oaks, CA: SAGE ; Cibiyar Cato . pp.   521-22. doi : 10.4135 / 9781412965811.n318 . ISBN   Den Uyl, Douglas Den Uyl, DouglasLCCN   2008009151 . OCLC   750831024 .

Haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]