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Kogon Lu'ulu'u

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Kogon Lu'ulu'u
Gypsum crystals in the Naica cave. Note person for scale
Kasar asali Naica, Saucillo Municipality, Chihuahua, Mexico

Kogon Lu'ulu'u ko Giant Crystal Cave (Spanish) wani kogo ne da ke da alaƙa da ma'adinan Naica a zurfin 300 metres (980 ft), in Naica, Chihuahua, Mexico.

Yana ɗaukar nau'i na ɗaki a cikin dutsen mai masaukin baki na ma'adinan,kuma yana da kusan 109 metres (358 ft) tsayi mai girma daga 5,000 to 6,000 cubic metres (180,000 to 210,000 cu ft).[1]

Gidan ya ƙunshi manyan lu'ulu'u na selenite (gypsum, CaSO4· 2 H2O), wasu daga cikin manyan lu'ulu'u na halitta da aka taba samu. Mafi girma shine 11.40 metres (37.4 ft), tare da girma na kusan 5 cubic metres (180 cu ft), da kuma kiyasin yawan tan 12.[1]

Lokacin da ba a yi ambaliya ba, kogon yana da zafi sosai, inda zafin iska ya kai 58 °C (136 °F)tare da zafi 90 zuwa 99.

Wannan yana kama da bayanan zafin jiki a cikin kwarin Mutuwa, amma tare da iska mai ruwa mai yawa. Kogon ba a binne shi ba saboda waɗannan dalilai. Idan ba tare da ingantaccen kariya ba, mutane za su iya jurewa kusan mintuna goma na fallasa lokaci ɗaya.

An gano kogon ne a watan Afrilu na shekara ta 2000 ta hanyar 'yan uwan Juan da Pedro Sánchez yayin da suke tonowa a cikin ma'adinai a watan Oktoba na shekara ta 2015, ma'adinin ya sake cikawa kuma kogon ya cika sau ɗaya da ruwa mai wadata da ma'adanai da ake buƙata don lu'ulu'u su girma.

Ƙungiyar masana kimiyya a cikin Naica Project, sun yi nazarin waɗannan kogo.

Samuwar lu'ulu'u[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Naica ta ta'allaka ne akan laifi sama da dakin magma na karkashin kasa wanda ke da nisan 3–5 kilometres (1.9–3.1 mi) kasa kogon.

Magma ta dumama ruwan ƙasa wanda ya cika da sulfide ions (S 2- ).

Ruwan saman da ke da sanyi mai sanyi ya tuntuɓi ma'adinan mai zafi mai zafi, amma su biyun ba su haɗu ba saboda bambancin yawansu.

Oxygen din ya bazu a hankali a cikin ruwan zafi kuma ya sanya sulfides (S 2- ) zuwa sulfates ( SO2-).</br> SO)wanda ya haɓaka azaman anhydrite (CaSO4).

Lokacin da gabaɗayan zafin kogon ya fara raguwa ƙasa da 56°C (133 °F),da hydrothermal da sedimentary anhydrite lu'ulu'u narkar da, da gypsum (CaSO4· 2H2O) lu'ulu'u kafa.[2] Sulfate gypsum mai ruwa ya yi crystallized a cikin matsanancin jinkirin tsawon shekaru aƙalla shekaru 500,000, yana samar da manyan lu'ulu'u da aka samu a yau.

Ganowa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wurin takuba da kogon kristal tare da lu'ulu'u na gypsum a cikin kyakkyawan tsari na toshe zane na Naica mine.
Selenite crystal mai tsabta mai tsabta "mai iyo" daga Naica Mine . Girman: 18 by 14 by 13 centimetres (7.1 in × 5.5 in × 5.1 in) nauyi 2.6 kilograms (5.7 lb)

A cikin 1910, masu hakar ma'adinai sun gano wani kogon da ke ƙarƙashin aikin Naica Mine, Kogon Takobi (Spanish).

Tana cikin zurfin 120 metres (390 ft), sama da Kogon Lu'ulu'u,kuma ya ƙunshi ban mamaki, ƙarami ( 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) dogon) lu'ulu'u.

Ana hasashen cewa a wannan matakin, yanayin canjin yanayi na iya faɗuwa da sauri da sauri,wanda zai haifar da ƙarshen ci gaban lu'ulu'u.

An gano Giant Crystal Cave a cikin Afrilu 2000 ta masu hakar ma'adinai da suka tono sabon rami na kamfanin hakar ma'adinai na Industrias Peñoles da ke Naica, Mexico, yayin da suke hakowa ta hanyar laifin Naica, wanda suka damu zai mamaye ma'adinan. Rukunin hakar ma'adinai a Naica ya ƙunshi dumbin adibas na azurfa, zinc da gubar.

Kogon lu'ulu'u wani rami ne mai siffar takalmi a cikin dutsen farar ƙasa. Kasan sa an lullube shi da ingantattun tubalan lu'ulu'u.

Manyan katakon kristal suna fitowa daga duka tubalan da bene. Lu'ulu'u suna tabarbarewa a cikin iska, don haka aikin Naica ya yi ƙoƙari ya rubuta lu'ulu'u a gani kafin su kara lalacewa.

An kuma gano wasu ƙananan kogo guda biyu a cikin 2000, Kogon Idon Sarauniya da Kogon Candles, kuma an sami wani ɗaki a cikin aikin hakowa a cikin 2009. Sabon kogon mai suna Fadar Ice, yana da 150 metres (490 ft) mai zurfi kuma ba a ambaliya ba, amma nau'in lu'ulu'unsa sun fi ƙanƙanta, tare da ƙananan nau'in "farin kabeji'' da kyau, lu'ulu'u masu kama da zaren.

Bincike da binciken kimiyya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Selenite "takobin", 22.6 by 2.6 by 1.6 centimetres (8.90 in × 1.02 in × 0.63 in) . Ƙananan sigar manyan lu'ulu'u, mai yiwuwa ana samun su a cikin rami na halitta a cikin ma'adinan.

Tawagar kimiyya da Paolo Forti, kwararre kan ma'adinan kogo kuma masanin kiristalographer a Jami'ar Bologna (Italiya), ta yi bincike dalla-dalla a cikin kogon a cikin 2006.

Don tsira da samun damar yin aiki a cikin matsanancin zafin jiki da yanayin ɗanɗano wanda ke hana tsawaita kutse a cikin ɗakin crystal, sun haɗu tare da Ferrino da La Venta don haɓaka nasu kwat da wando da tsarin numfashi mai sanyi (wanda aka yiwa lakabi da Tolomea suit da kuma Sinusit respirator).

An saka kayan kogon na musamman tare da katifa na bututun firiji da aka sanya ko'ina cikin jiki kuma an haɗa su da jakar baya mai nauyin 20 kilograms (44 lb)mai dauke da tafki mai cike da ruwan sanyi da kankara. Sanyaya da aka samar ta hanyar narkewar ƙanƙara ya isa ya samar da kusan rabin sa'a na cin gashin kansa.

Bayan nazarin ma'adinai da crystallographic, an yi nazarin halittun halittu da ƙwayoyin cuta na gypsum giant crystals.Stein-Erik Lauritzen (Jami'ar Bergen, Norway) ya yi uranium-thorium dating don sanin iyakar shekarun giant lu'ulu'u, kimanin shekaru 500,000.[3]Tawagar da AES Van Driessche ke jagoranta ta auna girman girman waɗannan manyan lu'ulu'u na gypsum ta amfani da ruwan Naica na yau. Sun sami ƙimar girma na (1.4± 0.2)×10 -5 nm/s,wanda shine mafi saurin auna ƙimar girma na yau da kullun don kowane tsarin ci gaban crystal.Yin la'akari da wannan ƙimar, mafi girman lu'ulu'u zai ɗauki kusan shekaru miliyan 1 don isa girmansu na yanzu.[4]

Penelope Boston (Cibiyar Ma'adinai da Fasaha ta New Mexico), masanin ilimin kimiya da fasaha na geomicrobiologist na kwayoyin extremophile,sun gano samfurin bakararre na gypsum drillcores ta hanyar yin ƙananan rijiyoyin burtsatse a cikin manyan lu'ulu'u a ƙarƙashin yanayin aseptic.

Manufar ita ce a gano yuwuwar kasancewar tsoffin ƙwayoyin cuta da ke cikin ruwa da ingantattun abubuwan da ke cikin matrix sulfate na calcium daga samuwar sa.

Abubuwan da aka haɗa da ƙarfi sun ƙunshi magnesium da baƙin ƙarfe oxy-hydroxide, amma ba za a iya samun kwayoyin halitta mai alaƙa da tsayayyen hydroxides.

Babu DNA daga tsoffin ƙwayoyin cuta da za'a iya fitar da su daga ƙwaƙƙwaran haɗawa da haɓaka ta PCR, nazarin ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta game da haɗa ruwa ana sa ran yin ƙoƙarin tabbatar da kasancewar tsoffin ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta a cikin asalin maganin ruwa wanda lu'ulu'u suka haɓaka.

A taron 2017 na Ƙungiyar Ƙwararrun Ƙwararru, masu bincike, ciki har da Dr. Ta hanyar amfani da hanyoyin da ba su da kyau, masu binciken sun sami damar cirewa da sake raya waɗannan kwayoyin halitta, waɗanda ba su da alaƙa da wani abu a cikin sanannun bayanan kwayoyin halitta.

Sauran bincike sun rufe fannonin ilimin palynology (binciken pollen), ilimin kimiyyar lissafi, ilimin kimiyyar ruwa da yanayin jiki da ke cikin Kogon Crystals.

Rufewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An nuna kogon a cikin shirin Ganowa Channel Naica: Bayan Kogon Crystal a cikin Fabrairu 2011. Tun da farko, an nuna shi a cikin shirin Tashar Tarihi na Rayuwa Bayan Mutane, a cikin shirin "Tsarin Rushewa" na kakar wasa ta biyu.

Bugu da ƙari, an kuma nuna waɗannan kogo a cikin shirin Angry Planet, a cikin kashi na 311, bincike ya ba da tabbaci ga wanzuwar ƙarin ɗakuna, amma ƙarin bincike zai buƙaci cire lu'ulu'u masu mahimmanci, kamar yadda isar da kogon ya dogara da fanfunan ruwa na ma'adinan, da zarar an daina ayyukan hakar ma'adinai, an bar kogon su sake ambaliya a watan Oktobar 2015.

Idan kamfanin hakar ma'adinai ya yanke shawarar bude wata hanyar shiga, masu bincike za su iya sake shiga don ci gaba da aikinsu, in ji wani rahoto na Fabrairun shekarar 2019.[5][6]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Nombre de Dios Grottoes - cave system in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico
  • Nombre de Dios Grottoes – Cave system in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico
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  5. Naica’s crystal cave captivates chemists
  6. Preserving nature’s wonders 13 July 2018

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]