Kulawar haihuwa

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Wikidata.svgKulawar haihuwa
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Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na family planning (en) Fassara
Bangare na human population control (en) Fassara
Amfani prevention (en) Fassara

Kula da haihuwa, wanda kuma aka sani da hana haihuwa da kuma kula da haihuwa, hanya ce ko na'urar da ake amfani da ita don hana ciki.[1] Tun zamanin d ¯ a ake amfani da kariyar haihuwa, amma ingantattun hanyoyin hana haifuwa sun kasance a cikin ƙarni na 20 kawai.[2] Tsara, samarwa, da kuma amfani da tsarin haihuwa ana kiranta tsarin iyali.[3][4] Wasu al'adu suna iyakance ko hana samun damar haihuwa saboda suna ganin bai dace da ɗabi'a, addini, ko siyasa ba.[2]

Hanyoyi mafi inganci na hana haihuwa sune haifuwa ta hanyar vasectomy na maza da ligation na tubal a cikin mata, na'urorin ciki (IUDs), da hana haihuwa da za'a iya dasa su.[5] Wannan yana biye da wasu hanyoyin tushen hormone ciki har da kwayoyi na baka, faci, zoben farji, da allurai.[5] Hanyoyin da ba su da tasiri sun haɗa da shinge na jiki kamar kwaroron roba, diaphragms da soso na hana haihuwa da hanyoyin wayar da kan haihuwa.[5] Mafi qarancin hanyoyin da za a iya amfani da su shine maganin maniyyi da cirewar namiji kafin fitar maniyyi.[5] Bakarawa, yayin da yake da tasiri sosai, ba yawanci ake juyawa ba; duk sauran hanyoyin suna jujjuya su, mafi yawan nan da nan bayan dakatar da su.[5] Ayyukan jima'i masu aminci, kamar yin amfani da kwaroron roba na namiji ko mace, na iya taimakawa wajen hana kamuwa da cututtuka ta hanyar jima'i.[6] Sauran hanyoyin hana haihuwa ba su kariya daga cututtukan da ake ɗauka ta hanyar jima'i.[7] Tsarin haihuwa na gaggawa zai iya hana daukar ciki idan an sha cikin sa'o'i 72 zuwa 120 bayan jima'i mara kariya.[8][9] Wasu suna jayayya cewa rashin yin jima'i ma wani nau'i ne na hana haihuwa, amma ilimin jima'i-kawai ilimin jima'i na iya kara yawan ciki na samari idan an ba da shi ba tare da ilimin hana haihuwa ba, saboda rashin bin doka.[10][11]

A cikin samari, masu juna biyu suna cikin haɗari mafi girma na sakamako mara kyau.[12] Cikakken ilimin jima'i da samun damar haihuwa yana rage yawan ciki maras so a cikin wannan rukunin shekaru.[12][13] Yayin da matasa za su iya amfani da kowane nau'i na hana haihuwa gabaɗaya,[14] maganin hana haihuwa da aka daɗe ana iya jujjuyawa kamar su implants, IUDs, ko zoben farji sun fi samun nasara wajen rage yawan ciki na samari.[13] Bayan haihuwa, macen da ba ta shayarwa ba za ta iya sake samun ciki bayan makonni hudu zuwa shida.[14] Wasu hanyoyin hana haihuwa za a iya farawa nan da nan bayan haihuwa, yayin da wasu ke buƙatar jinkirta har zuwa watanni shida.[14] A cikin matan da suke shayarwa, hanyoyin progestin kawai an fi fifita fiye da hada magungunan hana haihuwa.[14] A cikin matan da suka kai ga lokacin al'ada, ana ba da shawarar ci gaba da hana haihuwa har tsawon shekara guda bayan al'ada ta ƙarshe.[14]

Kimanin mata miliyan 222 da ke son gujewa daukar ciki a kasashe masu tasowa ba sa amfani da tsarin hana haihuwa na zamani.[13][15] Yin amfani da maganin hana haihuwa a ƙasashe masu tasowa ya rage yawan mace-mace a lokacin ciki ko kuma lokacin daukar ciki da kashi 40% (kimanin mutuwar 270,000 da aka hana a 2008) kuma zai iya hana kashi 70% idan an biya cikakkiyar buƙatar hana haihuwa.[16][17] Ta hanyar tsawaita lokaci tsakanin masu juna biyu, hana haihuwa na iya inganta sakamakon haihuwar mata manya da kuma rayuwar 'ya'yansu.[16] A cikin ƙasashe masu tasowa, kuɗin da mata ke samu, kadarori, da nauyi, da kuma karatun yaransu da lafiyarsu, duk suna inganta tare da samun damar samun damar haihuwa.[18] Haihuwa yana haɓaka haɓakar tattalin arziki saboda ƙarancin yara masu dogaro, ƙarin mata da ke shiga cikin ma'aikata, da ƙarancin amfani da ƙarancin albarkatu.[18][19]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Definition of Birth control". MedicineNet. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Hanson, S.J.; Burke, Anne E. (2010). "Fertility control: contraception, sterilization, and abortion". In Hurt, K. Joseph; Guile, Matthew W.; Bienstock, Jessica L.; Fox, Harold E.; Wallach, Edward E. (eds.). The Johns Hopkins manual of gynecology and obstetrics (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 382–395. ISBN 978-1-60547-433-5.
  3. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2012.
  4. World Health Organization (WHO). "Family planning". Health topics. World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on March 18, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research (2011). Family planning: A global handbook for providers: Evidence-based guidance developed through worldwide collaboration (PDF) (Rev. and Updated ed.). Geneva: WHO and Center for Communication Programs. ISBN 978-0-9788563-7-3. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 21, 2013.
  6. Taliaferro, L.A.; Sieving, R.; Brady, S.S.; Bearinger, L.H. (2011). "We have the evidence to enhance adolescent sexual and reproductive health—do we have the will?". Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews. 22 (3): xii, 521–43. PMID 22423463.
  7. Chin, H.B.; Sipe, T.A.; Elder, R.; Mercer, S.L.; Chattopadhyay, S.K.; Jacob, V.; Wethington, H.R.; Kirby, D.; Elliston, D.B. (2012). "The Effectiveness of Group-Based Comprehensive Risk-Reduction and Abstinence Education Interventions to Prevent or Reduce the Risk of Adolescent Pregnancy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Sexually Transmitted Infections". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 42 (3): 272–94. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.11.006. PMID 22341164.
  8. Gizzo, S; Fanelli, T; Di Gangi, S; Saccardi, C; Patrelli, TS; Zambon, A; Omar, A; D'Antona, D; Nardelli, GB (October 2012). "Nowadays which emergency contraception? Comparison between past and present: latest news in terms of clinical efficacy, side effects and contraindications". Gynecological Endocrinology. 28 (10): 758–63. doi:10.3109/09513590.2012.662546. PMID 22390259.
  9. Selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use (2nd ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. 2004. p. 13. ISBN 978-92-4-156284-3. Archived from the original on September 8, 2017.
  10. DiCenso A, Guyatt G, Willan A, Griffith L (June 2002). "Interventions to reduce unintended pregnancies among adolescents: systematic review of randomised controlled trials". BMJ. 324 (7351): 1426. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7351.1426. PMC 115855. PMID 12065267.
  11. Duffy, K.; Lynch, D.A.; Santinelli, J. (2008). "Government Support for Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Education". Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 84 (6): 746–48. doi:10.1038/clpt.2008.188. PMID 18923389. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Black, A.Y.; Fleming, N.A.; Rome, E.S. (2012). "Pregnancy in adolescents". Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews. 23 (1): xi, 123–38. PMID 22764559.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Rowan, S.P.; Someshwar, J.; Murray, P. (2012). "Contraception for primary care providers". Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews. 23 (1): x–xi, 95–110. PMID 22764557.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research (2011). Family planning: A global handbook for providers: Evidence-based guidance developed through worldwide collaboration (PDF) (Rev. and Updated ed.). Geneva: WHO and Center for Communication Programs. pp. 260–300. ISBN 978-0-9788563-7-3. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 21, 2013.
  15. Carr, B.; Gates, M.F.; Mitchell, A.; Shah, R. (2012). "Giving women the power to plan their families". The Lancet. 380 (9837): 80–82. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60905-2. PMID 22784540. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013.
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  17. Ahmed, S.; Li, Q.; Liu, L.; Tsui, A.O. (2012). "Maternal deaths averted by contraceptive use: An analysis of 172 countries". The Lancet. 380 (9837): 111–25. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60478-4. PMID 22784531. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Canning, D.; Schultz, T.P. (2012). "The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning". The Lancet. 380 (9837): 165–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60827-7. PMID 22784535. Archived from the original on June 2, 2013.
  19. Van Braeckel, D.; Temmerman, M.; Roelens, K.; Degomme, O. (2012). "Slowing population growth for wellbeing and development". The Lancet. 380 (9837): 84–85. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60902-7. PMID 22784542. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013.