Kwayar halitta

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Kwayar halitta
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na group (en) Fassara da genetic phenomena (en) Fassara
Bangare na organism (en) Fassara da genotype-phenotype distinction (en) Fassara
Facet of (en) Fassara genome (en) Fassara
Yana haddasa phenotype (en) Fassara
Has characteristic (en) Fassara zygosity (en) Fassara
Hannun riga da phenotype (en) Fassara
NCI Thesaurus ID (en) Fassara C16631

Genotype na kwayoyin halitta shine cikakken tsarin kwayoyin halitta. [1] Hakanan za'a iya amfani da Genotype don komawa zuwa alleles ko bambance-bambancen da mutum ke ɗauka a cikin wani takamaiman zubin halitta ko wurin kwayoyin halitta. [2] Adadin alleles da mutum zai iya samu a cikin takamaiman zubin halitta ya dogara da adadin kwafin kowane chromosome da aka samu a cikin wannan nau'in, wanda kuma ake kira ploidy . A cikin nau'in diploid kamar mutane, cikakkun nau'ikan chromosomes guda biyu suna nan, ma'ana kowane mutum yana da alleles guda biyu na kowane zubin halitta. Idan duka alleles iri ɗaya ne, ana kiran genotype a matsayin homozygous . Idan alleles sun bambanta, ana kiran genotype a matsayin heterozygous.  

Zubin halitta na gani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duk wani zubin halitta da akayi yawanci zai haifar da canji na iya gani a cikin kwayoyin halitta, wanda aka sani da phenotype. Kalmomin genotype da phenotype sun bambanta saboda aƙalla dalilai biyu:

  1. Don bambance tushen ilimin mai kallo (wanda zai iya sani game da genotype ta hanyar lura da DNA; wanda zai iya sani game da phenotype ta hanyar lura da bayyanar kwayoyin halitta).

2.Genotype da phenotype ba koyaushe suna da alaƙa kai tsaye ba. Wasu kwayoyin halitta suna bayyana nau'in halitta ne kawai a wasu yanayi na muhalli. Sabanin haka, wasu phenotypes na iya zama sakamakon nau'ikan genotypes da yawa. A genotype yawanci haɗe da phenotype wanda ke bayyana ƙarshen sakamakon duka kwayoyin halitta da abubuwan muhalli suna ba da bayanin da aka lura (misali idanu shuɗi, launin gashi, ko cututtuka daban-daban na gado)[3]

Misali mai sauƙi don kwatanta genotype kamar yadda ya bambanta da phenotype shine launin fure a cikin tsire-tsire (duba Gregor Mendel ). Akwai nau'ikan genotypes guda uku, PP ( mafi girman homozygous ), Pp (heterozygous), da pp (homozygous recessive). Dukansu ukun suna da nau'ikan genotype daban-daban amma biyun farko suna da nau'in halitta iri ɗaya (purple) wanda ya bambanta da na uku (fararen fata).

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Misali mai sauƙi don kwatanta genotype kamar yadda ya bambanta da phenotype shine launin fure a cikin tsire-tsire (duba Gregor Mendel ). Akwai nau'ikan genotypes guda uku, PP ( mafi girman homozygous ), Pp (heterozygous), da pp (homozygous recessive). Dukansu ukun suna da nau'ikan genotype daban-daban amma biyun farko suna da nau'in halitta iri ɗaya (purple) wanda ya bambanta da na uku (fararen fata).
  2. "Genotype". Genome.gov. Retrieved 2021-11-09
  3. Pierce, Benjamin (2020). Genetics A Conceptual Approach. NY, New York: Macmillian. ISBN 978-1-319-29714-5