Lamu

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Duban bakin teku, Garin Lamu

Garin Lamu ko Lamu ƙaramin gari ne a tsibirin Lamu, wanda kuma wani yanki ne na tsibiran Lamu a ƙasar Kenya. Yana da nisan kilomita 341 (212 mi) ta titin arewa maso gabashin Mombasa wanda ya ƙare a Mokowe Jetty, daga inda za a ketare tashar teku don isa tsibirin Lamu. Ita ce hedkwatar gundumar Lamu kuma Cibiyar Tarihi ta UNESCO.

Garin ya ƙunshi katangar Lamu da ke bakin teku, wanda aka gina a ƙarƙashin Fumo Madi ibn Abi Bakr, sarkin Pate, kuma an kammala shi bayan rasuwarsa a farkon shekarun 1820. Lamu kuma yana da masallatai 23 da suka hada da masallacin Riyadha da aka gina a shekarar 1900, da kuma wurin jaki.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tarihin farko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Asalin sunan garin Amu,[1] wanda larabawa suke kira Al-Amu (آامو) da kuma Portuguese "Lamon". Portuguese sun yi amfani da sunan ga dukan tsibirin saboda Amu shine babban mazaunin.

Garin Lamu da ke tsibirin Lamu shi ne birni mafi tsufa a Kenya da ake ci gaba da zama, kuma ya kasance ɗaya daga cikin asalin matsugunan Swahili da ke gabar tekun gabashin Afirka. An yi imani da cewa an kafa shi a cikin 1370.[2]

A yau, yawancin mutanen Lamu Musulmi ne.[3]

Wani Balarabe matafiyi Abu-al-Mahasini ne ya fara ba da shaidar garin a rubuce, wanda ya gamu da wani alkali daga Lamu da ya ziyarci Makka a shekara ta 1441.

A shekara ta 1506, jiragen ruwa na Portuguese karkashin Tristão da Cunha sun aika da jirgin ruwa don tarewa Lamu, bayan 'yan kwanaki sauran jiragen ruwa sun isa inda ya tilasta wa sarkin garin da sauri ya amince ya biya musu haraji na shekara-shekara tare da Meticals 600 nan da nan.[4] Matakin na Portuguese ya samo asali ne sakamakon nasarar nasarar da al'ummar kasar suka yi na kula da harkokin kasuwanci a gabar tekun Indiya. Tsawon lokaci mai tsawo, Portugal tana da ikon jigilar kayayyaki a gabar tekun gabashin Afirka kuma ta sanya harajin fitar da kayayyaki a kan hanyoyin kasuwanci na cikin gida da suka kasance a baya. A cikin 1580s, sakamakon hare-haren Turkiyya, Lamu ya jagoranci tawaye ga Portuguese. A cikin 1652, Oman ta taimaka wa Lamu don tsayayya da ikon Portuguese.[5]

"Shekarun Zinariya"[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kagara na Lamu

Shekarun Lamu a matsayin kariyar Omani daga karshen karni na 17 zuwa farkon karni na 19 sun nuna tarihin garin na zinare. An gudanar da mulkin Lamu a matsayin jamhuriya a karkashin majalisar dattawa da aka fi sani da Yumbe wanda ya yi mulki daga wani fada a garin; kadan daga cikin fadar a yau in banda rugujewar fili.[6] A wannan lokacin, Lamu ta zama cibiyar wakoki, siyasa, fasaha da fasaha gami da kasuwanci. Yawancin gine-ginen garin an yi su ne a wannan lokacin cikin salo na gargajiya na musamman. Baya ga bunkasuwar kasuwancinta na fasaha da fasaha, Lamu ta zama cibiyar adabi da ilimi. Marubutan mata irin su mawaƙiya Mwana Kupona - wacce ta shahara saboda Advice on the Wifely Duty - tana da matsayi mafi girma a Lamu fiye da taron da aka yi a Kenya a lokacin.[6]

A shekara ta 1812, sojojin hadin gwiwa na Pate-Mazrui sun mamaye tsibirin a lokacin yakin Shela. Sun sauka ne a Shela da nufin kame Lamu tare da kammala ginin katangar da aka fara ginawa, amma mutanen yankin sun danne musu karfi a cikin kwale-kwalen da suke gabar teku a lokacin da suke kokarin guduwa.[6] A cikin fargabar hare-haren da ake kaiwa nan gaba, Lamu ya roki 'yan Omani da su samar da wani sansanin Busaidi da zai yi aiki a sabon sansanin tare da taimakawa wajen kare yankin daga 'yan tawayen Mazrui da ke gabar tekun Kenya.[6]

Zaman mulkin mallaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A tsakiyar karni na 19, Lamu ya shiga karkashin siyasar Sarkin Zanzibar. Jamusawa sun yi iƙirarin Wituland a watan Yuni 1885.[7] Jamusawa sun ɗauki Lamu a matsayin muhimmiyar dabara kuma wuri ne mai kyau don tushe.[8] Daga 22 ga Nuwamba 1888 zuwa 3 Maris 1891, akwai ofishin gidan waya na Jamus a Lamu don sauƙaƙe sadarwa a cikin ma'aikatar tsaron Jamus a cikin sultanate. Ita ce gidan waya na farko da aka kafa a gabar tekun gabashin Afirka; a yau akwai gidan tarihi a Lamu da aka keɓe don shi: Gidan adana kayan tarihin gidan waya na Jamus.[9] A cikin 1890, Lamu ta shiga ƙarƙashin mulkin mallaka na Birtaniyya kamar yadda aka tsara a cikin yarjejeniyar Heligoland-Zanzibar. Kenya ta samu 'yancin kai a siyasance a shekarar 1963, ko da yake tasirin gwamnatin tsakiyar Kenya bai yi kadan ba, kuma Lamu na ci gaba da samun 'yancin cin gashin kai na cikin gida.

Lamu na zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin wani rahoto na 2010 mai suna Saving Our Vanishing Heritage, Global Heritage Fund ya bayyana Lamu a matsayin daya daga cikin shafuka 12 na duniya da suka fi "Gaba" na asara da lalacewa da ba za a iya gyarawa ba, yana mai nuni da rashin isasshen kulawa da matsin lamba na ci gaba.[10]

Yayin da kungiyar ta'addanci ta Al Shabaab ta sanya dokar hana fita a Lamu a watan Satumbar 2011, a farkon shekarar 2012 ana daukar tsibirin a cikin hadari. A ranar 4 ga Afrilu, 2012, Ma'aikatar Harkokin Wajen Amurka ta dage takunkumin tafiye-tafiyen Lamu.[11] Sai dai wasu hare-hare guda biyu da aka kai a kusa da Lamu a watan Yulin 2014, wanda kungiyar Al Shabaab ta dauki alhakinsu, ya yi sanadiyar mutuwar mutane 29.[12]

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lamu tana da yanayi mai bushewa na savanna (Köppen climate classification As).

Climate data for Lamu
Watan Janairu Fabrairu Maris Afrilu Mayu Yuni Yuli Ogusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba Shekara
Average high °C (°F) 30.9
(87.6)
31.3
(88.3)
32.1
(89.8)
31.1
(88.0)
29.0
(84.2)
28.0
(82.4)
27.4
(81.3)
27.5
(81.5)
28.3
(82.9)
29.5
(85.1)
30.8
(87.4)
31.2
(88.2)
29.8
(85.6)
Average low °C (°F) 24.5
(76.1)
24.7
(76.5)
25.5
(77.9)
25.6
(78.1)
24.5
(76.1)
23.7
(74.7)
23.2
(73.8)
23.1
(73.6)
23.5
(74.3)
24.3
(75.7)
24.6
(76.3)
24.6
(76.3)
24.3
(75.7)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 6
(0.2)
4
(0.2)
25
(1.0)
130
(5.1)
329
(13.0)
164
(6.5)
75
(3.0)
40
(1.6)
39
(1.5)
40
(1.6)
39
(1.5)
28
(1.1)
919
(36.3)
Average rainy days 1 1 3 10 15 15 11 8 7 5 6 3 85
Source: World Meteorological Organization[13]

Tattalin Arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ayyuka a bakin ruwa

Tattalin arzikin Lamu ya dogara ne kan cinikin bayi har zuwa shekarar 1907.[14] Sauran kayayyakin da aka saba fitar da su na gargajiya sun hada da hauren giwa, da mangoro, harsashi na kunkuru da kahon karkanda, wadanda ake jigilar su ta tekun Indiya zuwa Gabas ta Tsakiya da Indiya. Baya ga kawar da bautar, gina titin dogo na Uganda a shekarar 1901 (wanda aka fara daga tashar jiragen ruwa ta Mombasa) ya kawo cikas ga tattalin arzikin Lamu.

Yawon shakatawa ya kara habaka tattalin arzikin kasar a 'yan kwanakin nan, kuma wuri ne da ya shahara ga masu safarar kaya. Yawancin mazauna wurin suna ba da tafiye-tafiye a kan tafiye-tafiye zuwa masu yawon bude ido.[15] Harambee Avenue an santa da kayan abinci, kuma tana da shaguna da dama da suka haɗa da shagon halwa da ake siyar da kayan abinci masu daɗi da ƙananan kebabs na naman naman da ake sayar da su da daddare.[16] Kwakwa, mango da innabi da abincin teku kamar kaguwa da lobster kayan abinci ne na gama gari.[16] Garin ya ƙunshi babbar kasuwa, kantin Gallery Baraka da Shagon Zane na Shumi, da kantin sayar da Littattafai na Mwalimu.[17]

Duba daga Stone House Hotel

Otal mafi tsufa a garin, Petley's Inn, yana bakin ruwa.[2] Sauran otal din sun hada da Amu House da Amurka ta mayar da su, otal din Bahari mai daki 20, Doda Villas, gidan Jannat mallakar Sweden, da Lamu Palace Hotel mai hawa 3 mai daki 23, da Petley's Inn, da Stone House mai daki 13, wanda An canza shi daga wani gida na ƙarni na 18, da Otal ɗin Sunsail mai daki 18, gidan tsohon ɗan kasuwa a bakin ruwa mai tsayi.[18]

Ana girbe itatuwan Mangroves don gina sanduna, kuma Lamu tana da ɗimbin al'umma masu sana'a, gami da kafintoci waɗanda ke yin aikin ginin kwale-kwale da yin ƙofofi da kayan daki.[2]

Asibitin Lamu ne ke kula da garin a kudancin babbar cibiyar, wanda ma’aikatar lafiya ke gudanarwa. An kafa ta a cikin 1980s,[19] kuma yana ɗaya daga cikin mafi kyawun asibitocin da ke gabar tekun Kenya.[20]

Kasar Sin ta fara nazarin yiwuwar sauya Lamu zuwa tashar jiragen ruwa mafi girma a gabashin Afirka, a wani bangare na dabarunta na String of Pearls.[21]

Fitattun alamomin ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An kafa garin a ƙarni na 14 kuma yana ɗauke da kyawawan misalai da yawa na gine-ginen Swahili. An rubuta tsohon birnin a cikin jerin abubuwan tarihi na duniya a matsayin "mafi tsufa kuma mafi kyawun mazaunin Swahili a gabashin Afirka".

Da zarar wata cibiya ce ta cinikin bayi, al’ummar Lamu na da kabilu daban-daban. Lamu na kan manyan hanyoyin kasuwanci na Larabawa, kuma a sakamakon haka, al'ummar musulmi ne.[22] Don mutunta mazaunan musulmi, ana sa ran masu yawon bude ido a garin su sanya wando fiye da guntun wando ko bikini.

Akwai gidajen tarihi da yawa, ciki har da gidan kayan tarihi na Lamu, gidan ƙaho na bikin tsibirin (wanda ake kira siwa);[23] sauran gidajen tarihi an sadaukar da su ga al'adun Swahili da sabis na gidan waya na gida. Manyan gine-gine a garin Lamu sun hada da:

Kagara Lamu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Garin Lamu kagara ne a garin. Fumo Madi bn Abi Bakr, sarkin Pate, ya fara gina katanga a bakin teku, domin kare ’yan gwamnatinsa da ba ta da farin jini. Ya mutu a shekara ta 1809, kafin a kammala rukunin farko na katangar. An kammala katangar a farkon shekarun 1820.

Masallacin Riyadh[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masallacin Riyadh

Habib Salih, Sharif mai alaƙar dangi da Hadramaut, Yemen, ya zauna a Lamu a cikin 1880s, kuma ya zama babban malamin addini da ake girmamawa. Habib Salih ya samu gagarumar nasara wajen tara dalibai a kusa da shi, kuma a shekarar 1900 aka gina masallacin Riyadha.[24] Ya gabatar da Habshi Maulidi, inda dalibansa suka rera baituka tare da tambura. Bayan rasuwarsa a shekara ta 1935 'ya'yansa maza sun ci gaba da makarantar sakandare, wadda ta zama daya daga cikin manyan cibiyoyin karatun addinin Musulunci a gabashin Afirka. Masallacin dai shi ne cibiyar Maulidi da ake gudanarwa duk shekara a cikin makon karshe na watan Maulidin Manzon Allah (saww). A yayin wannan biki, mahajjata daga kasashen Sudan, Kongo, Uganda, Zanzibar da Tanzaniya sun bi sahun jama'ar yankin domin rera wa Muhammad yabo. Masallacin Mnarani shima abin lura ne.

Wurin jaki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun da tsibirin ba shi da ababen hawa, ana yin sufuri da sauran manyan ayyuka tare da taimakon jakuna. Akwai jakuna kusan 3000 a tsibirin.[8] Dokta Elisabeth Svendsen na Gidan Jakin Jaki a Ingila ya fara ziyartar Lamu a 1985. Don damuwa da yanayin jakuna, an buɗe Wuri a 1987.[22] Wurin yana ba da magani ga duk jakuna kyauta.

Al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gasar Dhows yayin bikin al'adun Lamu na 2012

Lamu ne ake gudanar da bikin Maulidi, wanda ake gudanarwa a watan Janairu ko Fabrairu, wanda ake bikin haihuwar Mohammed. Yana fasalta ayyuka iri-iri tun daga "tseren jakuna zuwa wasan tuƙi da kuma gasar ninkaya".[25] Bikin al'adun Lamu, bikin karnival kala-kala,[26] ana gudanar da shi ne a cikin makon da ya gabata na watan Agusta, wanda tun shekara ta 2000 ake gudanar da raye-rayen gargajiya, da sana'o'in hannu da suka hada da kwalliyar kofia, da kuma tseren jiragen ruwa.[27] Kyautar Donkey, tare da kyaututtukan da aka ba wa jakuna mafi kyau, ana bayar da su a cikin Maris/Afrilu.[27] Kade-kaden mata a garin ma sun shahara kuma suna yin chakacha, rawan aure. Maza suna yin hanzua (rawar takobi) kuma suna sa kanzus.[28]

An sanya tsohon garin Lamu a matsayin wurin tarihi na UNESCO a cikin 2001, bisa sharudda 3:

  • Tsarin gine-gine da tsarin birane na Lamu a hoto yana nuna tasirin al'adu da suka taru a can sama da shekaru ɗari da yawa daga Turai, Larabawa, da Indiya, suna amfani da dabarun Swahili na gargajiya don samar da al'adu daban-daban.
  • Haɓaka da faɗuwar tashoshin jiragen ruwa a gabar tekun gabashin Afirka da hulɗar da ke tsakanin Bantu, Larabawa, Farisa, Indiyawa, da Turawa suna wakiltar wani gagarumin al'adu da tattalin arziki a tarihin yankin wanda ya fi yin fice a garin Lamu.
  • Babbar rawar da take takawa ta kasuwanci da kuma jan hankalin malamai da malamai sun baiwa Lamu wani muhimmin aiki na addini a yankin, wanda har ya zuwa yau.

Sufuri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jama'ar gari suna amfani da jaki wajen sufuri

A cikin 2011, an ƙaddamar da shawarwari don gina tashar ruwa mai zurfin ruwa wanda zai fi ƙarfin gaske ta fuskar zurfin ruwa, adadin wuraren kwana, da ikon jiragen ruwa na isa da tashi a lokaci guda fiye da babbar tashar ruwa ta ƙasar a Mombasa.[29]

Filin jirgin saman Manda yana tsibirin Manda a cikin tsibiran Lamu na gundumar Lamu a yammacin gabar tekun Indiya, a gabar tekun Kenya yana hidimar Lamu da lardin.

Wurin da yake wurin yana da kusan kilomita 450 (280 mi) ta iska, kudu maso gabas da filin jirgin saman Nairobi, filin jirgin saman farar hula mafi girma a ƙasar. Kamfanonin jiragen sama da yawa suna hidimar yankin da suka hada da, Air Kenya, Safari Link da Fly 540 - akwai jirage na yau da kullun zuwa Malindi, Mombasa da Nairobi.

A cikin shahararrun al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Waƙar "Lamu"[30] ta mawakin Kirista Michael W. Smith ta samu wahayi daga tsibirin. A cikin waƙar, Smith ya kira Lamu a matsayin "maɓoyar tsibiri ... wurin da za mu sake haifuwa nan ba da jimawa ba daga halakar rayuwa ... inda duniya ta kasance har yanzu". Wakar tana magana ne akan gujewa matsalolin rayuwa.

Lamu shine saitin gajeren labari na Anthony Doerr mai suna "The Shell Collector" daga tarin labaransa mai suna.

Wani ɓangare na abubuwan da suka faru a cikin littafin Our Wild Sex in Malindi (Babi na 14 da 15) na Andrei Gusev yana faruwa a Lamu da kuma tsibirin Manda maƙwabta.[31][32]

Hari na 2022[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kwanan nan gundumar Lamu ta kasance wurin wani laifi inda wasu da ba a san ko su waye ba suka kashe mutum shida a ranar 3 ga watan Janairun 2022. An caka wa daya daga cikin mutanen wuka aka fille kansa sannan aka harbe daya, hudu daga cikin gawarwakin sun kone.[33]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Littafi Mai Tsarki

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  • Beckwith, Carol and Fisher, Angela, Text: Hancock, Graham: "African Ark, People and Ancient Cultures of Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa," New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc, 1990. ISBN 0-8109-1902-8
  • Briggs, Philip (2010). Kenya Highlights. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1-84162-267-5.
  • Couffer, Jack: "The Cats of Lamu." New York: The Lyons Press, c1998. ISBN 1-85410-568-X
  • Eliot, Charles (1966). The East African Protectorate. Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-1661-3.
  • Engel, Ulf; Ramos, Manuel João (17 May 2013). African Dynamics in a Multipolar World. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-25650-7.
  • Fitzpatrick, Mary (2009). East Africa. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-769-1.
  • Ghaidan, Usam: Lamu: A study of the Swahili town. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau, 1975.
  • Ham, Anthony; Butler, Stuart; Starnes, Dean (1 June 2012). Lonely Planet Kenya. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74321-306-3.
  • Jackson, Guida M. (2009). Women Leaders of Africa, Asia, Middle East, and Pacific: A Biographical Reference. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 978-1-4415-5843-5.Template:Self-published inline
  • McIntyre, Chris; McIntyre, Susan (1 April 2013). Zanzibar. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1-84162-458-7.
  • Naipaul, Shiva: North of South, An African Journey, 1978. Page 177 ff, Penguin Travel,
  • Prins, A.H.J.: Sailing from Lamu: A Study of Maritime Culture in Islamic East Africa. Assen: van Gorcum & Comp., 1965.
  • Romero, Patricia W.: Lamu: history, society, and family in an East African port city. Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener, c1997. 08033994793.ABA
  • Senoga-Zake, George W. (1986). Folk Music of Kenya. Uzima Publishing House. ISBN 978-9966-855-02-2.
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  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 This is Kenya. Struik. 2005. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-84537-151-7.
  3. Oded, Arye (2000).
  4. Strandes, Justus (1971).
  5. Jackson 2009, p. 89.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Trillo 2002, p. 555.
  7. McIntyre & McIntyre 2013, p. 22.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Fitzpatrick 2009, p. 330.
  9. "Lamu: German Post Office Historical – Background". National Museums of Kenya. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  10. "GHF". Global Heritage Fund. Archived from the original on 20 August 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  11. "Security message and Travel Warning (April 4, 2012) | Embassy of the United States". Nairobi.usembassy.gov. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  12. Akwiri, Joseph. "Gunmen kill at least 29 in latest raids on Kenyan coast". Reuters. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
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  14. Transafrican Journal of History. East African Publishing House. 1980. p. 110.
  15. Trillo 2002, p. 565.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Trillo 2002, p. 568.
  17. Trillo 2002, p. 558.
  18. Trillo 2002, p. 561.
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  21. "Future Kenya Port Could Mar Pristine Land". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
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  23. Fitzpatrick 2006, p. 343.
  24. Briggs 2010, p. 204.
  25. Bain, Bruyn & Williams 2010, p. 284.
  26. Ham, Butler & Starnes 2012, p. 215.
  27. 27.0 27.1 Parkinson, Phillips & Gourlay 2006, p. 219.
  28. Senoga-Zake 1986, p. 68.
  29. African Business, May 2011
  30. "Artist, Christian, Worship Leader – Community, News, Tour Dates, Cruise and More". Michael W. Smith. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  31. Review of "Our Wild Sex in Malindi" on the site of public fund "Union of writers of Moscow", 2020
  32. “Наш жёсткий секс в Малинди” (Our Wild Sex in Malindi) by Andrei Gusev, 2020.
  33. Reuters (2022-01-03). "Bodies burnt and one victim beheaded in Kenyan village near Somalia - police". Reuters (in Turanci). Retrieved 2022-01-05.