Levonorgestrel

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Levonorgestrel
type of chemical entity (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na progesterone congeners (en) Fassara, steroid (en) Fassara da norgestrel (en) Fassara
Amfani magani
Stereoisomer of (en) Fassara dextronorgestrel (en) Fassara da (8S,9R,10S,13R,14R,17R)-13-ethyl-17-ethynyl-17-hydroxy-1,2,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,14,15,16-dodecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one (en) Fassara
Sinadaran dabara C₂₁H₂₈O₂
Canonical SMILES (en) Fassara CCC12CCC3C(C1CCC2(C#C)O)CCC4=CC(=O)CCC34
Isomeric SMILES (en) Fassara CC[C@]12CC[C@H]3[C@@H](CCC4=CC(=O)CC[C@H]34)[C@@H]1CC[C@@]2(O)C#C
World Health Organisation international non-proprietary name (en) Fassara levonorgestrel
Medical condition treated (en) Fassara endometriosis (en) Fassara da adenomyosis (en) Fassara
Ta jiki ma'amala da progesterone receptor (en) Fassara
Subject has role (en) Fassara synthetic oral contraceptives (en) Fassara, female contraceptive agent (en) Fassara, female reproductive toxicant (en) Fassara, emergency contraception (en) Fassara da essential medicine (en) Fassara
NCI Thesaurus ID (en) Fassara C47585

Levonorgestrel magani ne na hormonal wanda ake amfani dashi a yawancin hanyoyin hana haihuwa.[1] Ana hada shi da isrogen don yin hadin gwiwar maganin hana haihuwa.[2] A matsayin maganin hana haihuwa na gaggawa, ana siyar da shi ƙarƙashin alamar sunan Plan B da sauransu, yana da amfani a cikin sa'o'i 120 na jima'i mara kariya.[1] Yawancin lokacin da ya wuce tun lokacin jima'i, ƙananan maganin ya zama ƙasa da tasiri, kuma ba ya aiki bayan ciki (shigarwa) ya faru.[1] Yana rage yiwuwar daukar ciki da kashi 57 zuwa 93%.[3] A cikin na'urar intrauterine (IUD), irin su Mirena da sauransu, yana da tasiri don rigakafin dogon lokaci na ciki.[1] Hakanan ana samun shuka mai sakin levonorgestrel a wasu ƙasashe.[4]

Abubuwan da aka saba amfani da su sun haɗa da tashin zuciya, taushin ƙirji, ciwon kai, da ƙaruwa, raguwa, ko zubar jinin haila na yau da kullun.[1] Lokacin da aka yi amfani da shi azaman maganin hana haihuwa na gaggawa, idan ciki ya faru, babu wata shaida cewa amfani da shi yana cutar da jariri.[1] Yana da aminci don amfani yayin shayarwa. Tsarin haihuwa wanda ya ƙunshi levonorgestrel ba zai canza haɗarin cututtukan da ake ɗauka ta jima'i ba.[1] Yana da progestin kuma yana da tasiri kamar na hormone progesterone.[1] Yana aiki da farko ta hana ovulation da kuma rufe bakin mahaifa don hana wucewar maniyyi.[1]

Levonorgestrel an ba da izini a cikin 1960 kuma an gabatar da shi don amfanin likita tare da ethinylestradiol a cikin 1970.[5][6] Yana cikin Jerin Mahimman Magunguna na Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya.[7] Akwai shi azaman magani na gama-gari. Farashin farashi a cikin ƙasashe masu tasowa tsakanin $0.23 da $1.65 US don adadin da ake buƙata don hana haihuwa na gaggawa.[8] A {asar Amirka, ana samun kulawar gaggawar haihuwa mai ɗauke da levonorgestrel akan ma'auni (OTC) na kowane shekaru.[9] A cikin 2016, shi ne na 223 mafi yawan magunguna a Amurka, tare da magunguna fiye da miliyan biyu.[10]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 "Progestins (Etonogestrel, Levonorgestrel, Norethindrone)". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 2015-09-07. Retrieved Aug 21, 2015.
  2. Postgraduate Gynecology. Jaypee Brothers Medical Pub. 2011. p. 159. ISBN 9789350250822. Archived from the original on 2015-09-26.
  3. Gemzell-Danielsson, K (November 2010). "Mechanism of action of emergency contraception". Contraception. 82 (5): 404–9. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2010.05.004. PMID 20933113.
  4. "Chapter 1". Research on reproductive health at WHO : biennial report 2000-2001. Geneva: World health organization. 2002. ISBN 9789241562089. Archived from the original on 2015-09-26.
  5. Fischer, Jnos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 479. ISBN 9783527607495.
  6. Roth, Klaus (2014). Chemische Leckerbissen. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 77–. ISBN 978-3-527-33739-2. [Levonorgestrel (24): The product generated by Smith's norgestrel total synthesis was a racemate, so half of each consisted of the left- and the right-handed enantiomer. Chemists at Schering discovered that only the levorotatory enantiomer was effective [49] and developed a biotechnological process for the preparation of the pure levorotatory enantiomer. This was the active ingredient levonorgestrel born. With the single-acting enantiomer, the dose and thus the liver burden could be halved again. The resulting Neogynon® contained 0.25 mg levonorgestrel and 0.05 mg ethinylestradiol and was introduced in 1970.]
  7. World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  8. Hamilton, Richard J. (2014). Tarascon pocket pharmacopoeia : 2014 deluxe lab-pocket edition (15th ed.). Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett Learning. pp. 310–312. ISBN 9781284053999. Archived from the original on 2015-09-26.
  9. "FDA approves Plan B One-Step emergency contraceptive for use without a prescription for all women of child-bearing potential" (Press release). June 20, 2013. Archived from the original on 14 January 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  10. "Levonorgestrel - Drug Usage Statistics". ClinCalc. Retrieved 11 April 2020.