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Muhalli, Lafiya da kariya

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Muhalli, Lafiya da kariya
class (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na management system (en) Fassara

Muhalli (E), kiwon lafiya (H) da Kariya (S), Environmental Health and Safety, kalma ce ta tsarin da ke nazari da aiwatar da abubuwan da suka dace na kare muhalli da kiyaye lafiya da amincin aiki. A cikin saukakkiyar magana shi ne abin da ƙungiyoyi dole su yi don tabbatar da cewa ayyukansu ba su cutar da kowa ba. Yawancin lokaci, inganci - tabbacin inganci & kulawa mai kyau - an haɗa shi don ƙirƙirar ƙungiyar kamfanin da aka sani da HSQE .

Daga mahangar kariya, ya haɗa da ƙirƙirar tsararren ƙoƙari da matakai don gano haɗarin wuraren aiki da rage haɗari da haɗuwa da halaye da abubuwa masu cutarwa. Hakanan ya haɗa da horar da ma'aikata kan rigakafin haɗari, amsar haɗari, shirye-shiryen gaggawa, da yin amfani da riguna masu kariya da kayan aiki.

Ingantaccen lafiya a zuciyarta, yakamata ya sami ci gaba mai aminci, mai inganci, da kuma lamuran muhalli, ayyukan aiki da ayyukan tsari waɗanda ke hana ko rage haɗarin cutarwa ga mutane gaba ɗaya, masu aiki, ko marasa lafiya.

Daga mahanga ta muhalli, ya haɗa da ƙirƙirar tsari na tsari don bin ƙa'idodin muhalli, kamar gudanar da sharar gida ko hayaƙin iska duk hanyar taimakawa shafin ta rage sawun ƙarancin kamfanin.

Abubuwan buƙatun ƙa'ida suna taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin horo na Tsaftan muhalli kuma dole ne manajan EHS su gano da kuma fahimtar ƙa'idodin EHS masu dacewa, waɗanda kuma dole ne a sanar da abubuwan da ke tattare da su ga gudanarwar zartarwa don haka kamfanin zai iya aiwatar da matakan da suka dace. Ungiyoyi masu tushe a Amurka suna ƙarƙashin dokokin EHS a cikin Ka'idodin Dokokin Tarayya, musamman CFR 29, 40, da 49. Duk da haka, gudanar da EHS ba'a iyakance ga bin doka ba kuma yakamata a karfafa kamfanoni suyi fiye da yadda doka ta buƙata, idan ya dace.

Wasu sunaye[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duk da mahimmancin halayen waɗannan alamurra, cibiyoyi daban-daban da marubuta sun ba da alamar kalmomin daban. Shirye-shiryen HSE masu nasara sun haɗa da matakan magance ergonomics, ingancin iska, da sauran fannoni na amincin wurin aiki waɗanda zasu iya shafar lafiyar da jin daɗin ma'aikata da sauran alumma. Wani mai binciken ya canza shi kamar SHE a 1996, yayin da yake bincika "tunanin 'ingancin mutum' dangane da matsayin rayuwa wanda dole ne ya biyo baya fiye da kiwon lafiya ..... [kamar yadda yake a cikin tsarin SHEQ, .... mahimmancin muhalli har zuwa 'lafiyar mutane a matsayin abin la'akari' '. Dalilin shi ne saboda "Farkon Tsaro" an kira shi don ƙaddamar da sauya al'adun kiyaye zaman lafiya na ƙasashe. Inganci shine "dacewa da manufa", [1] kuma in ba tare da wannan ba kowane ɗayan aiki zai zama banza.

Bayan ESH, SHE, HSE, SHEQ, ana amfani da wasu karin kalmomi kaman haka .

Kananan kalmomi Suna Rukuni
OHS Kiwan lafiya da aminci Kiwan lafiya da aminci
WHS Aiki lafiya da aminci Aiki lafiya da aminci
HSE Lafiya, aminci da muhalli Lafiya, aminci da muhalli
EHS / EH&S Muhalli, lafiya da aminci
TA Tsaro, lafiya da muhalli
QHSE Inganci, lafiya, aminci, da muhalli Inganci, lafiya, aminci, da muhalli
HSEQ Lafiya, aminci, muhalli da inganci
HSSE Lafiya, aminci, tsaro da muhalli Lafiya, aminci, tsaro da muhalli
QHSSE Inganci, lafiya, aminci, tsaro, da muhalli Inganci, lafiya, aminci, tsaro, da muhalli
HSSEQ Lafiya, aminci, tsaro, muhalli, da inganci

Hukumomin kula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Masarautar Ingila[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Lafiya da Tsaro Executive
  • Hukumar Kula da Muhalli
  • Authoritiesananan hukumomi

Amurka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Tarayya / duniya
    • Kasuwancin Kasuwanci da Kula da Lafiya (OSHA)
    • Hukumar Kare Muhalli (EPA)
    • Hukumar Kula da Nukiliya (NRC)
    • Ma'aikatar Tsaro da Kula da Lafiya (MSHA), da sauransu.
    • Tarayyar Turai (Ka'idodin EU) - Lafiya da Tsaro A Dokar Aiki
    • Ofishin Tsaro da Karfafa Muhalli (BSEE)
  • Jiha
    • Majalisar Tsaro da Lafiya ta Arewacin Carolina, Hukumar Kula da Nukiliya ta Massachusetts, da sauransu.
  • Na gari
    • Ma'aikatan kashe gobara na birni (binciken lambar gini)
    • Hukumar Kula da Muhalli (EMA)

Janar bangarori[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ka'idodin Muhalli, lafiya da Kariya sun ƙunshi nau'ikan keɓaɓɓe ga kowane masana'antu da waɗanda ke gaba ɗaya ga yawancin sassan masana'antu. Misalan janar rukuni da ƙananan rukuni sune:

1. Muhalli
1.1 Haɗar iska da yanayin iska mai kyau

1.2 Tanadin makamashi

1.3 Ruwa mai ƙazanta da yanayin ruwa mai kyau

1.4 Tanadin ruwa

1.5 Gudanar da kayan haɗari

1.6 Gudanar da shara

1.7 Surutu

1.8 Contasasshiyar ƙasa

2. Kiwan lafiya da aminci
2.1 Babban kayan aiki da aiki

2.2 Sadarwa da horo

2.3 Haɗarin jiki

2.4 Haɗarin haɗari

2.5 Hadarin halittu

2.6 Hadarin radiyo BG

2.7 Kayan aikin sirri (PPE)

2.8 Muhallin haɗari na musamman

2.9 Kulawa

3. Community lafiya da aminci
3.1 Ingancin ruwa da samuwar su

3.2 Tsarin lafiya na abubuwan more rayuwa

3.3 Rayuwa da lafiyar wuta (L&FS)

3.4 Tsaron hanya

3.5 Shigo da kayan haɗari

3.6 Rigakafin cututtuka

3.7 Shirye-shiryen gaggawa da martani

4. Ginawa da daina aiki
4.1 Muhalli

4.2 Kiwan lafiya da aminci

4.3 Lafiya da lafiyar al'umma

Takamaiman rukunnai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masana'antun sunadarai sun gabatar da tsarin gudanarwa na Muhalli, Lafiya da kariya na farko a cikin 1985 a matsayin sakamako ga yawancin haɗarin haɗari (kamar bala'in Seveso na Yuli 1976 da bala'in Bhopal na Disamba 1984). Wannan yunƙurin na son rai a duk duniya, wanda ake kira " Kula da Hakki ", wanda Industryungiyar Masana'antu ta Kimiyyar Chemistry ta Kanada ta fara (a da can Canadianungiyar masu samar da sinadarai ta Kanada - CCPA), tana aiki a cikin ƙasashe kusan 50, tare da haɗin kai na tsakiya wanda Councilungiyar ofasashen Duniya na Chemicalungiyoyin Chemical (ICCA) suka samar. ). Ya ƙunshi fasali masu mahimmanci guda takwas waɗanda ke tabbatar da shuke-shuke da amincin samfura, lafiyar sana'a da kare muhalli, amma kuma suna ƙoƙarin nunawa ta hanyar kamfen- ƙirar hoto cewa masana'antar sunadarai suna aiki yadda ya kamata. Kasancewa wani yunƙuri na ICCA, an taƙaita shi zuwa masana'antar sinadarai.

Tun daga shekarar 1990s, hanyoyin gaba daya game da gudanar da EHS wanda zai iya dacewa da kowane irin ƙungiya sun bayyana a cikin ƙa'idodin ƙasashen duniya kamar: Ka'idodin Valdez, [2] waɗanda aka tsara don jagorantar da kimanta halayen kamfanoni game da yanayin.

  • Tsarin Kula da Lafiya da Kulawa (EMAS), wanda Hukumar Tarayyar Turai ta haɓaka a cikin 1993
  • ISO 14001 don kula da muhalli a cikin 1996
  • ISO 45001 don kula da lafiyar ma'aikata da kiyaye lafiya a cikin 2018, wanda ya gabata daga OHSAS 18001 1999

A shekara1998 Kamfanin Kasuwanci na Duniya ya kafa jagororin EHS.

Misali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

misali, ayyukan kungiyar lafiya, aminci da muhalli (HSE) na iya mai da hankali kan:

  • musayar sani game da lafiya, aminci da kuma mahalli na kayan
  • inganta kyawawan ayyuka na aiki, kamar tattara kayan bayan-amfani don sake amfani da su

Littattafai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Gudanar da Aiki da Gudanar da Lafiya (Amurka)
  • Americanungiyar Injiniyan Tsaro ta Amurka
  • Cibiyar Kanada don Kiwan lafiya da Tsaro na Aiki (CCOHS)
  • EHS A Yau
  • Tsaro + Mujallar Lafiya - Majalisar Tsaron Kasa
  • Jagoran Muhalli
  • EU-OSHA
  • ISHN
  • NIOSH
  • OH & S

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Aiki na lafiya da lafiya
  • Majalisar Tsaro ta Kasa
  • Robert W. Campbell Award, Kyauta don Businesswarewar Kasuwanci ta hanyar Gudanar da EHS.
  • Injiniyan lafiya


 

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Joseph M Juran, Joseph Defeo. Juran's Quality Handbook: The Complete Guide to Performance Excellence, Mcgraw Hill, 2000
  2. Sanyal, R. N. and J. S. Neves: 1991, 'The Valdez Principles: Implications for Corporate Social Responsibility', Journal of Business Ethics 10, 883- 890.