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Muna harshen

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

 

Muna yare ne na Austronesian wanda ake magana da shi musamman a tsibirin Muna da kuma Tsibirin Buton na Arewa maso yamma, a kudu maso gabashin Sulawesi a Indonesia. tsibirin Tobea Besar . Harshen yana da rubuce-rubuce sosai, musamman daga masanin harshe René van den Berg. shekara ta 2010, yaren yana da kusan masu magana 270,000.

Rarraba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mu[1] na cikin Ƙungiyar Muna-Buton, wanda reshe ne na Ƙungiyar Celebic mafi girma. A cikin yarukan Muna-Buton, Muna ita ce mafi girma a cikin subbranch na Munic, wanda ya haɗa da ƙananan harsuna kamar Pancana, Kioko, Liabuku, Kaimbulawa, da Busoa.

Muna ta samar da yanar gizo na yare tare da sauran harsunan Sulawesi da Buton.

Harsuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Muna tana da yare uku:

  • Muna "Standard" shine mafi yawan magana, wanda aka samo a arewa da tsakiyar tsibirin Muna, da kuma arewa maso yammacin tsibirin Buton kuma a cikin 1989 yana da kusan masu magana 150,000
  • yaren Tiworo, ana magana da shi a Muna a arewa maso yammacin gundumar Tikep tare da kimanin masu magana 10,000
  • kudancin Muna, tare da ƙananan yare guda biyu: da Siompu (~ masu magana 7,000) da kuma yarukan Gumas daban-daban (~ masu sadarwa 60,000)

Bambance-bambance tsakanin waɗannan yarukan galibi suna ƙamus, amma kuma suna da sauti.

Lafiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin bayanan Ethnologue, Muna an rarraba shi "mai barazana" a cikin rukuni na 6b, ma'ana "Ana amfani da harshe don sadarwa fuska da fuska a cikin dukan tsararraki, amma yana rasa masu amfani. " Harshen koyarwa a cikin ilimi a yankunan Muna-mai magana a Indonesian, sai dai a cikin ƙananan siffofi amma ana koyar da Muna a wasu makarantun firamare kuma ta haka ƙarni na gaba ke samun shi.

Duk da gaskiyar cewa ana amfani da Indonesian a makarantu, Muna shine harshen da ya fi dacewa kuma ana magana da shi a duk sauran yankuna. Yawancin jama'ar Muna suna da ƙwarewa a cikin harsuna, amma ba duk suna da ƙarancin Indonesian ba Duk da ƙaranciyar jama'arta da gaskiyar cewa ba a amfani da ita azaman babbar hanyar koyarwa a makarantu, yaren Muna ba ya cikin haɗari. Yawan masu magana [2] kyau a tsibirin sun kasance masu kwanciyar hankali tsakanin 1989 da 2007.

Fasahar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sautin da aka yi amfani da shi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Muna tana da alamomi masu zuwa.

Sautin da aka yi amfani da shi
Labari Lamino-dental
hakora
Alveolar Palatal Velar Rashin ƙarfi Gishiri
Plosive voiceless plain p t (c) k
prenasalized mp nt Yin wasan kwaikwayo
voiced plain b d̪ ̆ ̆Sanya d (ɟ) g
prenasalized mb nd Gãnuwa
implosive Sashin sautinSanya ta
Fricative voiceless plain f s h
prenasalized Nassara
voiced ʁ yi amfani da shi a matsayinYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya
Hanci m n ŋ kamata a yi amfani da shiYa shafiSanya
Trill r
Hanyar gefen l
Kusanci Ya kamata a yi la'akari da shiYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya (j) SanyaYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya
  • Ana gane sautin /ʋ/ a matsayin kusanci na labiodental [ʋ] a gaban wasula marasa zagaye, kuma a matsayin kusantar bilabial [βń] a gaban sautunan da aka zagaye.
  • A cikin magana mai sauri, jerin /bu, pu, mbu, mpu/ sun yi amfani da allophones a cikin matsayi mai mahimmanci.
  • cikin shafi na alveolar, /t/ da /ⁿt/ a zahiri apico-dental ne.

Sautin sautin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jerin wasula ya ƙunshi wasula biyar: /a/, /i/, /u/, /e/, /o/. Za su iya haɗuwa cikin jerin wasula biyu ko uku. [tu:] furta jerin wasula guda biyu kamar sautin a matsayin dogon wasali, misali tuu [tu:] 'kurciya'. cikin jerin wasula guda uku, akwai zaɓi mai tsauri wanda ba na sauti ba bayan wasula ta farko, misali nokoue [noko(ʔ)ue] 'yana da jijiyoyi'.

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