Munich

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Munich babban birnin kasar Bavaria (jiha), kudancin Jamus. Birni ne mafi girma a Bavaria kuma birni na uku mafi girma a Jamus (bayan Berlin da Hamburg). Munich, birni mafi girma a kudancin Jamus, yana da nisan mil 30 (kilomita 50) arewa da ƙarshen tsaunin Alps da kuma gefen kogin Isar, wanda ke ratsa tsakiyar birnin. Pop. (2011) 1,348,335; (2015 mai zuwa) 1,450,381.[1]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Munich, ko München ("Gidan Sufaye"), ya samo asali ne daga gidan sufi na Benedictine da ke Tegernsee, wanda an kafa shi a cikin 750 CE.  A cikin 1157 Henry the Lion, Sarkin Bavaria, ya ba sufaye 'yancin kafa kasuwa inda hanyar Salzburg ta haɗu da Kogin Isar.  An gina gada a Isar Saboda a Kara bunk as a kasuwar,  kuma kasuwar ta kasance tana da ƙarfi.[2]
A 1255 Munich ta zama gidan dangin Wittelsbach, wanda ya yi nasara zuwa duchy na Bavaria a 1180. Sama da shekaru 700 Wittelsbachs za su kasance da alaƙa ta kud da kud da makomar garin.  A farkon karni na 14 na farkon layin Wittelsbach na sarakunan Romawa masu tsarki, Louis IV (Louis the Bavarian), ya fadada garin zuwa girman da ya kasance har zuwa karshen karni na 18.

A karkashin zaɓen Bavarian Maximilian I (1597–1651), shugaba mai ƙarfi da inganci, Munich ta ƙaru cikin wadata da girma kuma ta ci gaba har zuwa Yaƙin Shekaru Talatin. Swedes ne suka mamaye shi a ƙarƙashin Gustav II Adolf (Gustavus Adolphus) a shekarar 1632, kuma a cikin 1634 annoba ta yi sanadin mutuwar kusan kashi ɗaya bisa uku na al'ummarta.[3] Wittelsbach na uku wanda ya bar alamarsa a cikin al'umma shine Louis I, Sarkin Bavaria daga 1825 zuwa 1848. Louis ya tsara kuma ya kirkiro Munich ta zamani, kuma masu ginin gine-ginensa sun kafa halayen birnin a cikin gine-ginen jama'a da suka tsara. Karni na 19 shine mafi girman lokacin girma da ci gaba na Munich. Furotesta  sun zama 'yan ƙasa a karon farko a cikin abin da ya kasance har zuwa lokacin ƙauyen Roman Katolika. Yawan jama'ar birnin 100,000 a 1854 ya karu zuwa 500,000 zuwa 1900. Muhimmancin al'adun Munich a Turai ya kasance da ɗa Louis II, ta gwarzon mawakin Richard Wagner, ya farfado da shahararsa a matsayin birnin kiɗa da wasan kwaikwayo.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. https://www.tripadvisor.com/Tourism-g187309-Munich_Upper_Bavaria_Bavaria-Vacations.html
  2. https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/germany/munich
  3. https://www.germany.travel/en/cities-culture/munich.html