Osteoarthritis

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Osteoarthritis (OA) wani nau'in ciwon haɗin gwiwa ne wanda ke haifar da rushewar guringuntsi na haɗin gwiwa da kuma ƙashin da ke ciki.[1] Mafi yawan bayyanar cututtuka sune ciwon haɗin gwiwa da taurin kai.[2] Yawancin lokaci alamun suna ci gaba a hankali a cikin shekaru.[2] Da farko suna iya faruwa ne kawai bayan motsa jiki, amma suna iya zama dindindin na tsawon lokaci.[2] Sauran alamomin na iya haɗawa da kumburin haɗin gwiwa, rage yawan motsi, kuma, lokacin da aka shafa baya, rauni ko raƙuman hannuwa da ƙafafu.[2] Abubuwan da aka fi sani da haɗin gwiwa sune biyu kusa da ƙarshen yatsu da haɗin gwiwa a gindin manyan yatsan hannu; haɗin gwiwa da gwiwa; da haɗin gwiwar wuya da ƙananan baya.[2] Hanyoyin haɗin gwiwa a gefe ɗaya na jiki sun fi tasiri fiye da wadanda ke gefe.[2] Alamun na iya tsoma baki tare da aiki da ayyukan yau da kullum.[2] Ba kamar wasu nau'ikan cututtukan fata ba, haɗin gwiwa kawai, ba gabobin ciki ba, abin ya shafa.[2]

Dalilan sun haɗa da raunin haɗin gwiwa da ya gabata, rashin haɓakar haɗin gwiwa ko ci gaban gaɓa, da abubuwan da aka gada.[2][3] Haɗari ya fi girma a cikin waɗanda ke da kiba, suna da ƙafafu masu tsayi daban-daban, ko kuma suna da ayyukan da ke haifar da matsanancin damuwa na haɗin gwiwa.[2][3][4] An yi imani da ciwon osteoarthritis yana haifar da damuwa na inji akan haɗin gwiwa da ƙananan matakai masu kumburi.[5] Yana tasowa yayin da guringuntsi ya ɓace kuma ƙashin da ke ciki ya zama abin shafa.[2] Kamar yadda zafi zai iya sa ya zama mai wuyar motsa jiki, asarar tsoka na iya faruwa.[3][6] Ganowa yawanci bisa alamu da alamu, tare da hoton likita da sauran gwaje-gwajen da ake amfani da su don tallafawa ko kawar da wasu matsalolin.[2] Ya bambanta da rheumatoid amosanin gabbai, a cikin osteoarthritis haɗin gwiwa ba sa yin zafi ko ja.[2]

Jiyya ya haɗa da motsa jiki, rage damuwa na haɗin gwiwa kamar ta hutawa ko amfani da sanda, ƙungiyoyin tallafi, da magungunan ciwo.[2][7] Rage nauyi na iya taimakawa ga waɗanda ke da kiba.[2] Magungunan ciwo na iya haɗawa da paracetamol (acetaminophen) da kuma NSAIDs kamar naproxen ko ibuprofen.[2] Ba a ba da shawarar yin amfani da opioid na dogon lokaci ba saboda rashin bayanai kan fa'idodi da kuma haɗarin jaraba da sauran illolin.[2][7] Yin aikin maye gurbin haɗin gwiwa na iya zama zaɓi idan akwai nakasa mai gudana duk da wasu jiyya.[3] Haɗin wucin gadi yawanci yana ɗaukar shekaru 10 zuwa 15.[8]

Osteoarthritis shine mafi yawan nau'in amosanin gabbai, wanda ke shafar kusan mutane miliyan 237, ko kashi 3.3% na al'ummar duniya.[9][10] A Amurka, mutane miliyan 30 zuwa 53 ne abin ya shafa,[11][12] kuma a Ostiraliya, kusan mutane miliyan 1.9 ne abin ya shafa.[13] Yana zama gama gari yayin da mutane suka tsufa.[2] Daga cikin wadanda suka haura shekaru 60, kusan kashi 10% na maza da 18% na mata suna fama da cutar.[3] Osteoarthritis shine sanadin kusan kashi 2% na shekaru suna rayuwa tare da nakasa.[10]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Arden N, Blanco F, Cooper C, Guermazi A, Hayashi D, Hunter D, Javaid MK, Rannou F, Roemer FW, Reginster JY (2015). Atlas of Osteoarthritis. Springer. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-910315-16-3. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 "Osteoarthritis". National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. April 2015. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Glyn-Jones S, Palmer AJ, Agricola R, Price AJ, Vincent TL, Weinans H, Carr AJ (July 2015). "Osteoarthritis". Lancet. 386 (9991): 376–87. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60802-3. PMID 25748615.
  4. Vingård E, Englund M, Järvholm B, Svensson O, Stenström K, Brolund A, Hall C, Kedebring T, Kirkeskov L, Nordin M (1 September 2016). Occupational Exposures and Osteoarthritis: A systematic review and assessment of medical, social and ethical aspects. SBU Assessments (Report). Graphic design by Anna Edling. Stockholm: Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services (SBU). p. 1. 253 (in Swedish). Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  5. Berenbaum F (January 2013). "Osteoarthritis as an inflammatory disease (osteoarthritis is not osteoarthrosis!)". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 21 (1): 16–21. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2012.11.012. PMID 23194896.
  6. Conaghan P (2014). "Osteoarthritis – Care and management in adults". Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  7. 7.0 7.1 McAlindon TE, Bannuru RR, Sullivan MC, Arden NK, Berenbaum F, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Hawker GA, Henrotin Y, Hunter DJ, Kawaguchi H, Kwoh K, Lohmander S, Rannou F, Roos EM, Underwood M (March 2014). "OARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritis". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 22 (3): 363–88. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2014.01.003. PMID 24462672.
  8. Di Puccio F, Mattei L (January 2015). "Biotribology of artificial hip joints". World Journal of Orthopedics. 6 (1): 77–94. doi:10.5312/wjo.v6.i1.77. PMC 4303792. PMID 25621213.
  9. GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577. PMID 27733282.
  10. 10.0 10.1 March L, Smith EU, Hoy DG, Cross MJ, Sanchez-Riera L, Blyth F, Buchbinder R, Vos T, Woolf AD (June 2014). "Burden of disability due to musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders". Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology. 28 (3): 353–66. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2014.08.002. PMID 25481420.
  11. "Arthritis-Related Statistics: Prevalence of Arthritis in the United States". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services. 9 November 2016. Archived from the original on 29 December 2016.
  12. Cisternas MG, Murphy L, Sacks JJ, Solomon DH, Pasta DJ, Helmick CG (May 2016). "Alternative Methods for Defining Osteoarthritis and the Impact on Estimating Prevalence in a US Population-Based Survey". Arthritis Care & Research. 68 (5): 574–80. doi:10.1002/acr.22721. PMC 4769961. PMID 26315529.
  13. Elsternwick (2013). "A problem worth solving". Arthritis and Osteoporosis Victoria. Archived from the original on 28 April 2015.