Pico do Fogo

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Pico do Fogo da ake furtawa [ˈpiku du ˈfoɡu] shine mafi girman tsayi na Cape Verde da Yammacin Afirka, yana hawa zuwa mita 2,829 (9,281 ft) sama da matakin teku. Yana da aiki stratovolcano kwance a tsibirin Fogo. Babban mazugi na ƙarshe ya ɓarke ​​a cikin 1680, wanda ya haifar da ƙaura daga tsibirin.[1] Wani reshen reshe ya ɓarke ​​a shekarar 1995. Mummunar fashewar ce kawai a shekara ta 1847 lokacin da girgizar ƙasa ta kashe mutane da yawa.

Fogo tsibiri ne mai tsattsauran ra'ayi.[2] Fashewar sa na kwanan nan ta faru a cikin 1951, 1995 da 2014. Ita ce ƙarami kuma mafi ƙarfin dutsen mai fitar da wuta a cikin Tsibirin Cape Verde, wani ɗan gajeren jerin tsibirai masu aman wuta waɗanda galibi ƙarami ne a ƙarshen yamma, an ƙirƙira su ne yayin da Filayen Afirka ya matsa zuwa gabas a kan hotspot.[3]

Fogo ta ƙunshi dutsen mai fitad da wuta guda ɗaya, don haka tsibirin ya kusan zagaye kuma yana da kusan kilomita 25 (16 mi) a diamita. Babban taron koldera (kimanin kilomita 10 a shugabancin arewa zuwa kudu da kilomita 7 a gabas zuwa yamma) ba ya kasance a tsakiyar tsibirin ba, sai dai ya nufi kusurwar arewa maso gabas. Caldera tana da iyaka ta hanyar manyan kusurwa masu kuskure kusa da arewa, yamma, da gefen kudu amma an keta ta zuwa gabas inda lawa zata iya kwarara zuwa gabar teku.[4] Yankin arewa-arewa maso gabas da ke haifar da fashewar abubuwa ya bude ta gefen yamma na Pico, wanda ya samo asali a cikin gangaren tsakanin tsakanin 1500 da 1760.[3] Fashewa ta karshe daga sama ita ce a shekarar 1769. bangaren gabas, sakamakon zirin daga gefen gabas na dutsen mai fitar da wuta zuwa tekun.[3]

Ana amfani da gangaren dutsen don yin kofi, yayin da ake amfani da lava a matsayin kayan gini. Kusa da gangarenta wani caldera ne kuma wani ƙaramin ƙauye, Chã das Caldeiras, yana cikin wannan caldera. Ramin bakin dutse, wanda ya kai tsawan mitoci 2,700, an san shi da Bordeira

Shekaru 73,000 da suka gabata[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankin gabashin Fogo ya fada cikin teku shekaru 73,000 da suka gabata, wanda ya haifar da tsunami mai tsayin mita 170 wanda ya afkawa tsibirin Santiago da ke kusa.[5] An yi kwanan wata tsunami ne ta hanyar nazarin isotope na manyan duwatsu da aka ajiye a Santiago.

1680 fashewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1680 AD, babban fashewar taron Pico do Fogo da aka samar da babban toka ya fado kan dukkan tsibirin wanda ke ba da filayen noma na wani dan lokaci da kuma haifar da kaura da yawa daga tsibirin, zuwa Brava musamman.[1]

1995 fashewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fashewar ta 1995 ta fara ne a daren 2-3 ga Afrilu, wanda ya rufe tsibirin da gajimare na toka.[3] An kwashe mazauna daga Chã das Caldeiras, saboda an rusa gidajensu.[6]

Hoton tauraron dan adam na Fogo.

Mazauna yankin sun ba da rahoton cewa an fara samun fashewar wasu kananan girgizar kasa da suka fara kimanin kwanaki shida kafin fashewar farko na ruwan lava. Wadannan girgizar kasa sun kara girma da karfi har zuwa ranar 2 ga Afrilu, kuma an bayar da rahoto na musamman mai karfi da misalin karfe 8 na dare, sa’o’i hudu kafin a bayyana fashewar. Bayan tsakar dare, sai aka fara bude wuta a gefen Pico. Wani mazaunin garin ya ce kamar dai "an sare mazugar da wuka." Fashewar ta fara ne da aikin Strombolian, da sauri ta biyo bayanta 'labulen-wuta' marmaro wanda ya ciyar da kwarara wanda ya yanke hanyar zuwa ƙauyen Portela da ƙarfe 2 na safe. Mutum 1,300 da ke zaune a cikin caldera sun gudu cikin dare don kare lafiyar ƙauyuka a gabar arewa. Babu wanda aka kashe, amma kusan mutane 20 na buƙatar kulawa da lafiya.[3]

Da rana a ranar 3 ga Afrilu, tsibirin ya cika da wani gajimare mai duhu na toka wanda ya kai tsayin kilomita 2.5 zuwa 5. Abubuwan da aka fara farawa sune pahoehoe lava, kodayake iyakar su a bayyane yake karami. Rikicin tashin hankali ya haifar da bama-bamai na lava har zuwa mita 4 a fadin wanda aka fitar har zuwa mita 500 daga ramukan. A ranar 4 ga Afrilu, maɓuɓɓugan ruwa na lava sun kai tsayin mita 400 ƙarƙashin gajimare na toka kimanin tsayin kilomita 2. Wani sabon scoria cone da aka buɗe wanda ya buɗe wa kudu maso yamma kuma ya ciyar da kwararar ruwa mai gudana. A ranar 5 ga Afrilu, sabon kwararar ruwan ya isa bangon caldera na yamma kuma ya lalata kusan gidaje biyar da babban madatsar ruwa. A cikin wadannan ‘yan kwanakin farko, hukumomin farar hula sun kwashe kimanin mutane 3,000.[3]

Chã das Caldeiras da babban mazugi, Fogo, 2009

Fashewar ya zama mai haske bayan 'yan kwanakin farko, kuma matsakaici, maɓuɓɓugan ruwa irin na Hawaii masu tsayin mita 100-120 ya gina mazugi mai tsinkaye sama da mita 140. Gudun ya kasance lawa, kuma ya gudana zuwa yamma zuwa bangon caldera, sannan ya juya arewa. Wadannan suna gudana ne gaba daya azaman matsin da aka gina daga tabo da kaurin tafiyar. A ranar 13 ga Afrilu, kwararar ruwa ta biyu ta fara rufe wani kwararar ruwa a baya, wacce ta kasance kusan gaba daya saman tafiyar har zuwa 15 ga Afrilu, lokacin da ta bazu ta lalata wani gida. Cinder ya fadi har zuwa nisan kilomita biyu kudu da ramuka a ranar 15 ga Afrilu. A ranar 17, kwararar ta wuce zuwa kimanin mita 420 daga gidan mafi kusa a ƙauyen na Portela.[3]

A ranar 18 ga Afrilu, wani ma'aunin girgizar kasa mai motsi ya fara yin rikodin girgizar ƙasa mai ƙarfi da ƙarfi wanda ya nuna canji a cikin salon fashewa daga maɓuɓɓugan ruwa zuwa ruwan Strombolian. An bar Spatter a kowane dakika 3-8 tare da fashewar gas mai ƙarfi. Bugu da kari, yawan fashewar abubuwa ya karu kuma sama da mita 300 na tashar ya kasance pahoehoe lava. Yawan fashewar, wanda aka kiyasta daga girma da kuma yawan gudu a tashar, sun kasance tsakanin mita miliyan 4 zuwa 8.5 na cubic a kowace rana.[3]

A cikin daren Afrilu 18, jerin manyan fashewar abubuwa masu fashewa sun faru wanda wataƙila ya biyo bayan faɗuwar wasu sassan mazugi a cikin maƙogwaron da kuma fashewar abubuwan fashewar abubuwan da suka biyo baya. Da safe, aikin ya koma maɓuɓɓugar ruwa, kuma rikodin girgizar ƙasa ya fi shuru. Lawa yana gudana yana ci gaba da yin kauri, kuma ana yin lawa tare da babbar tashar.[3]

Pico de Fogo (bakin dutse).

2014-15 fashewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dutsen Fogo ya dawo aiki a cikin 2014, tun da ya fara fashewa jim kaɗan bayan ƙarfe 10 na safiyar Lahadi, 23 ga Nuwamba 2014.[7] An yi 'yan kwanaki na tsawaita aikin girgizar ƙasa,[7] amma sun taɓarɓarewa tun daga ƙarfe 8 na dare. a daren Asabar.[8]

Yawan mutanen Chã das Caldeiras, wanda yawansu ya kai kimanin mazauna 1,000, sun kwana a waje da gidajensu saboda tsananin girgizar ƙasa,[7] kuma an fara kwashe su lokacin da fashewar ta fara.[8] Kamar a 1995, wasu mutane da farko sun ƙi barin gidajensu, amma daga ƙarshe sun bi umarnin hukuma.[8]

Bruno Faria, wani masanin ilmin batanci na Cape Verde, ya ce tsananin fashewar ya zarce na shekarar 1995, kuma ya kusanci na shekarar 1951, daya daga cikin mafi karfi da aka taba rubutawa a tsibirin.[8] Fashewar da aka samu ya yi karfi sosai bayan 23 ga Nuwamba Nuwamba 2014. Yanzu haka ƙauyen Portela a cikin Chã das Caldeiras ya kasance a rufe da rafin lava wanda ya lalata kayan gidan gaba ɗaya.[9]

Bayan kwanaki 77 na aiki, fashewar ta tsaya a ranar 8 ga Fabrairu 2015.[10] Kashi 75% na gine-ginen da ke Portela, Bangaeira da Ilhéu de Losna, sassan Chã das Caldeiras, sun lalace. Yawancin waɗannan an rufe su da lava.[1]

Ilimin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Pico do Fogo ya kunshi basanite, tephrite, phonotephrite, clinopyroxene, amphibole, magnetite, olivine, melilite da leucite.[11] Babban ɗakin magma yana da zurfin kilomita 16-24, zuwa cikin ɓawon tekun da kuma kilomita 10-12 a ƙasan ɓawon burodin.[12]

Zane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Pico do Fogo tare da Henrique Teixeira da Sousa a cikin Capeverdean $ 200 escudo note

Tun daga 2014, ƙwanƙolin tare da kewayen da ke kewaye an bayyana a cikin bayanin kula na escudo na $ 200 na Capeverdean. A gefen hagu na ƙasa itacen inabi ne wanda aka shuka shi a yankin da kuma dama Henrique Teixeira de Sousa, ɗan asalin tsibirin, wurin haifuwa na wani yanki wanda ya haɗa da ƙwanƙolin.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 S. F. Jenkins; et al. (20 March 2017). "Damage from lava flows: insights from the 2014–2015 eruption of Fogo, Cape Verde". Journal of Applied Volcanology Society and Volcanoes. 6. doi:10.1186/s13617-017-0057-6.
  2. "North-East Atlantic Islands: The Macaronesian Archipelagos" (in Turanci). 2021-01-01: 674–699. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-102908-4.00027-8. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 "Volcano Watch: Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde Islands". Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. April 21, 1995. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  4. Carracedo, Juan-Carlos; Perez‐Torrado, Francisco J.; Rodriguez‐Gonzalez, Alejandro; Paris, Raphaël; Troll, Valentin R.; Barker, Abigail K. (2015). "Volcanic and structural evolution of Pico do Fogo, Cape Verde". Geology Today (in Turanci). 31 (4): 146–152. doi:10.1111/gto.12101. ISSN 1365-2451.
  5. "Island boulders reveal ancient mega-tsunami". Retrieved 2015-10-06.
  6. "Fogo Caldera". MTU Volcanoes Page. Michigan Technological University. Retrieved 2007-10-17.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "Volcano of Fogo in eruption". Oceanpress.info. 23 November 2014. Archived from the original on 23 November 2014.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Susana Salvador (23 November 2014). "Vulcão do Fogo está em erupção e obriga a evacuar Chã das Caldeiras" (in Harshen Potugis). Diário de Notícias. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014.
  9. Christophe Neff (10 December 2014). "L'éruption du Pico do Fogo du 23.11.2014 – l'éruption oublie …" (in Faransanci). Blogs le Monde on LeMonde.fr.
  10. Christophe Neff (28 April 2015). "retour sur le vieil homme – le Pico do Fogo" (in Faransanci). Blogs le Monde on LeMonde.fr.
  11. Template:Cite work
  12. Template:Cite work

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Fogo, Cape Verde Islands at NASA Earth Observatory