RAM

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Misali na writable maras tabbas bazuwar-access memory: synchronous Dynamic RAM kayayyaki, da farko yi amfani da matsayin babban memory a sirri kwamfutar, workstations, da kuma sabobin .
8GB DDR3 RAM sanda tare da farin heatsink

Memory-access Memory ( RAM /r æ m / ) wani nau'i ne na ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar kwamfuta wanda za'a iya karantawa da canzawa a kowane tsari, yawanci ana amfani dashi don adana bayanan aiki da lambar inji . A bazuwar-access ƙwaƙwalwar na'urar damar data abubuwa da za a karanta ko rubuta a kusan wannan adadin lokaci ba tare da la'akari da jiki wuri na data cikin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar. Sabanin haka, tare da sauran hanyoyin adana bayanai kai tsaye kai tsaye kamar su diski mai wuya, CD-RWs, DVD-RWs da tsofaffin kaset magnetic da ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa, lokacin da ake buƙata don karantawa da rubuta abubuwan bayanan ya bambanta sosai dangane da yanayin jikinsu akan rikodin matsakaici, saboda iyakance na inji kamar saurin juyawar kafofin watsa labarai da motsi hannu.

RAM ya ƙunshi kewayewa da yawaita abubuwa masu yawa, don haɗa layukan bayanai zuwa ajiyar adireshi don karantawa ko rubuta shigarwa. Galibi ana samun damar adana bayanai fiye da ɗaya ta adireshin guda, kuma na'urorin RAM galibi suna da layukan bayanai da yawa kuma ana cewa su "8-bit" ko "16-bit", da dai sauransu.

A cikin fasahar yau, ƙwaƙwalwar samun dama ba ta ɗauke da sifar kwakwalwan kwamfuta mai haɗawa (IC) tare da ƙwayoyin ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa na MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor). RAM ne kullum hade tare da maras tabbas iri memory (kamar tsauri bazuwar-access memory (DRAM) kayayyaki ), inda adana bayanai da aka rasa idan ikon da aka cire, ko da yake ba maras tabbas RAM kuma an ci gaba. Akwai wasu nau'ikan abubuwan da ba a iya canzawa ba waɗanda ke ba da damar samun dama don ayyukan karantawa, amma ko dai ba su ba da izinin ayyukan rubutu ko samun wasu nau'ikan iyakancewa a kansu. Waɗannan sun haɗa da yawancin nau'ikan ROM da nau'in ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa mai suna NOR-Flash .

Manyan nau'ikan nau'ikan ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa guda biyu masu rikitarwa sune ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar bazuwar samun dama (SRAM) da ƙwaƙwalwar samun dama ta bazuwar (DRAM). Amfani da kasuwanci na RAM na semiconductor ya koma 1965, lokacin da IBM ya gabatar da guntu na SP95 SRAM don Kwamfutar su /360 Model 95, kuma Toshiba yayi amfani da ƙwayoyin ƙwaƙwalwar DRAM don Toscal BC-1411 na lantarki na lantarki, duka biyun sun dogara ne da transistors bipolar . Memory na MOS na kasuwanci, wanda ya danganta da transistors na MOS, an haɓaka shi a ƙarshen 1960s, kuma tun lokacin shine tushen duk ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar semiconductor. An ƙaddamar da guntun DRAM IC na kasuwanci na farko, Intel 1103, a cikin Oktoba 1970. Ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya mai rikitarwa (SDRAM) daga baya an yi muhawara tare da guntuwar Samsung KM48SL2000 a cikin 1992.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Waɗannan na'urori na IBM daga tsakiyar 1930 sun yi amfani da ƙididdigar inji don adana bayanai
1 guntu Megabit (MBit), ɗayan samfura na ƙarshe da VEB Carl Zeiss Jena ya haɓaka a cikin 1989

Kwamfutocin farko sun yi amfani da relays, lissafin injin ko jinkirta layuka don manyan ayyukan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Lissafin jinkiri na Ultrasonic sune na'urorin serial waɗanda ke iya sake haifar da bayanai kawai a cikin tsari da aka rubuta. Ana iya faɗaɗa ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa a farashi mai ɗan tsada amma ingantaccen dawo da abubuwan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya yana buƙatar sanin yanayin yanayin gangar don inganta saurin. Latches gina daga injin tube triodes, kuma daga baya, daga mai hankali transistors, aka yi amfani da karami da kuma sauri tunanin kamar rajista. Irin wannan rijistar ta kasance babba kuma tana da tsada don amfani don yawan bayanai; gaba ɗaya kawai 'yan dozin ko hundredan ɗari na irin wannan ƙwaƙwalwar za a iya ba su.

The first practical form of random-access memory was the Williams tube starting in 1947. It stored data as electrically charged spots on the face of a cathode ray tube. Since the electron beam of the CRT could read and write the spots on the tube in any order, memory was random access. The capacity of the Williams tube was a few hundred to around a thousand bits, but it was much smaller, faster, and more power-efficient than using individual vacuum tube latches. Developed at the University of Manchester in England, the Williams tube provided the medium on which the first electronically stored program was implemented in the Manchester Baby computer, which first successfully ran a program on 21 June 1948. In fact, rather than the Williams tube memory being designed for the Baby, the Baby was a testbed to demonstrate the reliability of the memory.

An ƙirƙiri ƙwaƙwalwar Magnetic-core a cikin 1947 kuma ya haɓaka har zuwa tsakiyar 1970s. Ya zama silar tartsatsi na ƙwaƙwalwar samun dama, ta dogara da tsararren zoben magnetized. Ta hanyar canza ma'anar magnetization na kowane zobe, ana iya adana bayanai tare da adana bit ɗaya a kowane zobe. Tunda kowane zobe yana da haɗin wayoyin adireshi don zaɓar da karantawa ko rubuta shi, samun dama ga kowane wurin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya a kowane jerin yana yiwuwa. Magnetic core memory ya kasance da daidaitaccen nau'i na kwamfuta memory tsarin har gudun hijira da m-jihar MOS ( karfe-oxide-silicon ) semiconductor memory a hadedde haihuwarka (ICs) a lokacin farkon 1970s.

Kafin haɓaka haɓakar madaidaiciyar ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa (ROM), madaidaiciya (ko karanta-kawai ) ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar dama ana yawan gina ta ta amfani da matattarar diode ta hanyar adiresoshin adiresoshin, ko kuma musamman ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar igiya .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Memiconductor memory ya fara a cikin 1960s tare da ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa, wanda yayi amfani da transistors bipolar . Yayin da ya inganta aiki, ba zai iya yin gasa da ƙaramin ƙimar ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa ba.

MOS RAM[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙirƙiri MOSFET (ƙarfe-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor), wanda kuma aka sani da transistor MOS, na Mohamed M. Atalla da Dawon Kahng a Bell Labs a 1959, ya haifar da haɓaka ƙarfe-oxide- ƙwaƙwalwar semiconductor (MOS) ta John Schmidt a Fairchild Semiconductor a 1964. Baya ga babban aiki, ƙwaƙwalwar semiconductor na MOS ta kasance mai rahusa kuma ta cinye ƙasa da ƙarfi fiye da ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa. [1] Ci gaban fasahar silicone-gate MOS hade da kewaye (MOS IC) ta Federico Faggin a Fairchild a 1968 ya ba da damar samar da kwakwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar MOS. Ƙwaƙwalwar MOS ta mamaye ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar Magnetic azaman babbar fasahar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya a farkon 1970s. [1]

Ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa mai rikitarwa mai rikitarwa (SRAM) Robert H. Norman ya ƙirƙira shi a Fairchild Semiconductor a 1963. Ya biyo bayan ci gaban MOS SRAM na John Schmidt a Fairchild a 1964. SRAM ya zama madadin ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa, amma yana buƙatar transistors na MOS guda shida don kowane ɗan bayanai. Amfani da kasuwanci na SRAM ya fara ne a 1965, lokacin da IBM ya gabatar da guntun ƙwaƙwalwar SP95 don Tsarin/360 Model 95 .

Dynamic memory-access memory (DRAM) ya ba da damar maye gurbin madaidaiciyar madaidaicin 4 ko 6 transistor latch guda ɗaya don kowane bit na ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya, yana ƙaruwa ƙimar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ƙwarai a ƙimar canji. An adana bayanai a cikin ƙaramin ƙarfin kowane transistor, kuma dole ne a sanyaya shi lokaci -lokaci kowane 'yan mintoci kaɗan kafin cajin ya ɓace. Toshiba 's Toscal BC-1411 kalkuleta na lantarki, wanda aka gabatar a 1965, yayi amfani da wani nau'i na DRAM bipolar capacitive, yana adana bayanai 180-bit akan ƙwayoyin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya masu rarrafe, wanda ya ƙunshi transistors bipolar germanium. . [2] [3] Duk da yake yana ba da ingantaccen aiki akan ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa, DRAM na bipolar ba zai iya yin gasa tare da mafi ƙarancin ƙimar ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar magnetic-core ba.

Fasahar MOS ita ce tushen DRAM na zamani. A cikin 1966, Dr. Robert H. Dennard a Cibiyar Bincike ta IBM Thomas J. Watson yana aiki akan ƙwaƙwalwar MOS. Yayin da yake nazarin halayen fasahar MOS, ya gano yana da ikon gina masu haɓakawa, kuma adana cajin ko babu caji a kan MOS capacitor na iya wakiltar 1 da 0 na kaɗan, yayin da MOS transistor zai iya sarrafa rubuta cajin ga capacitor. Wannan ya haifar da haɓaka ƙwayar ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar DRAM guda ɗaya. A cikin 1967, Dennard ya ba da takardar izini a ƙarƙashin IBM don ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar DRAM guda ɗaya, dangane da fasahar MOS. Chip ɗin DRAM IC na kasuwanci na farko shine Intel 1103, wanda aka ƙera akan 8<span about="#mwt126" class="nowrap" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;Spaces&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./Template:Spaces&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mw0A" typeof="mw:Transclusion"><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span></span>μm MOS aiwatar da damar 1 kbit, kuma an sake shi a 1970.

Memory-synnosis dynamic memory-access memory (SDRAM) Samsung Electronics ne ya haɓaka shi. Chip ɗin SDRAM na kasuwanci na farko shine Samsung KM48SL2000, wanda ke da damar 16 Mbit . Samsung ne ya gabatar da shi a 1992, kuma aka samar da shi a 1993. [4] DDR SDRAM na kasuwanci na farko ( ƙimar ƙwaƙwalwar bayanai sau biyu SDRAM) guntu ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya shine Samsung na 64 Mbit DDR SDRAM guntu, wanda aka saki a watan Yuni 1998. GDDR (DDR graphics) wani nau'i ne na DDR SGRAM (RAM masu kama da juna), wanda Samsung ya fara fitar da shi a matsayin 16 Ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar Mbit a 1998.

Nau'ukan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nau'ikan RAM guda biyu da aka yi amfani da su su ne Static RAM (SRAM) da RAM mai ƙarfi (DRAM). A cikin SRAM, ana adana ɗan bayanai ta amfani da yanayin ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar transistor guda shida, yawanci ta amfani da MOSFET shida (ƙarfe-oxide-semiconductor filin-sakamako transistors). Wannan nau'in RAM ya fi tsada don samarwa, amma gabaɗaya yana da sauri kuma yana buƙatar ƙarancin ƙarfi fiye da DRAM. A cikin kwamfutocin zamani, galibi ana amfani da SRAM azaman ƙwaƙwalwar cache don CPU . DRAM yana adana ɗan bayanai ta amfani da transistor da capacitor biyu (yawanci MOSFET da MOS capacitor, bi da bi), wanda tare ya ƙunshi sel na DRAM. Capacitor ɗin yana riƙe da cajin babba ko ƙarami (1 ko 0, bi da bi), kuma transistor ɗin yana aiki azaman mai canzawa wanda ke ba da damar kewayon sarrafawa akan guntu ya karanta yanayin cajin capacitor ko canza shi. Da yake wannan nau'in ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ba ta da tsada don samarwa fiye da RAM ɗin da ke tsaye, ita ce mafi girman nau'in ƙwaƙwalwar kwamfuta da ake amfani da ita a cikin kwamfutocin zamani.

Dukansu a tsaye da tsayayyen RAM ana ɗaukar su marasa ƙarfi, saboda yanayin su ya ɓace ko sake saitawa lokacin da aka cire wuta daga tsarin. Sabanin haka, ƙwaƙwalwar-karanta-kawai (ROM) tana adana bayanai ta hanyar kunna ko kashe na’urorin transistor na dindindin, ta yadda ba za a iya canza ƙwaƙwalwar ba. Bambance -bambancen rubuce -rubuce na ROM (kamar EEPROM da ƙwaƙwalwar filasha ) suna raba kaddarorin duka ROM da RAM, yana ba da damar bayanai su ci gaba ba tare da iko ba kuma a sabunta su ba tare da buƙatar kayan aiki na musamman ba. Waɗannan nau'ikan dindindin na semiconductor ROM sun haɗa da kebul na filasha na USB, katunan ƙwaƙwalwa don kyamarori da na'urori masu ɗaukuwa, da daskararru masu ƙarfi . Ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar ECC (wanda zai iya zama SRAM ko DRAM) ya haɗa da kewaya ta musamman don ganowa da/ko gyara kuskuren bazuwar (kurakuran ƙwaƙwalwa) a cikin bayanan da aka adana, ta yin amfani da rabe -raben daidaituwa ko lambobin gyara kuskure .

Gabaɗaya, kalmar RAM tana nufin kawai ga na'urorin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar ƙarfi (ko DRAM ko SRAM), kuma musamman musamman babban ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya a yawancin kwamfutoci. A cikin ajiya na gani, kalmar DVD-RAM tana da ɗan kuskure tunda tunda, sabanin CD-RW ko DVD-RW baya buƙatar sharewa kafin sake amfani dashi. Duk da haka, DVD-RAM yana yin kama da rumbun diski idan ɗan hankali.

Ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ita ce ginshiƙin ginin ƙwaƙwalwar kwamfuta . Ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar ƙwaƙwalwa ta lantarki ce da ke adana ɗan bitar bayanai na binary kuma dole ne a saita ta don adana dabaru 1 (babban ƙarfin wutar lantarki) da sake saitawa don adana dabaru 0 (ƙananan ƙarfin ƙarfin lantarki). Ana kiyaye darajar sa/adana shi har sai an canza shi ta hanyar saita/sake saiti. Ana iya samun ƙima a cikin ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa ta hanyar karanta shi.

A cikin SRAM, ƙwayar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya wani nau'in juzu'in juzu'i ne, galibi ana aiwatar da shi ta amfani da FETs . Wannan yana nufin cewa SRAM yana buƙatar ƙarancin ƙarfi lokacin da ba a isa gare shi ba, amma yana da tsada kuma yana da ƙarancin ajiya.

Nau'i na biyu, DRAM, an kafa shi ne kusa da capacitor. Cajin da fitar da wannan capacitor na iya adana “1” ko “0” a cikin tantanin halitta. Koyaya, cajin da ke cikin wannan capacitor sannu a hankali yana ɓacewa, kuma dole ne a sabunta shi lokaci -lokaci. Saboda wannan tsari na wartsakewa, DRAM yana amfani da ƙarin ƙarfi, amma yana iya samun babban adadi na ajiya da ƙananan farashin raka'a idan aka kwatanta da SRAM.

SRAM Cell (6 Transistors)
DRAM Cell (1 Transistor da capacitor ɗaya)

Yin jawabi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Don zama da amfani, ƙwayoyin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya dole ne a iya karanta su kuma a iya rubuta su. A cikin na'urar RAM, ana amfani da juzu'i da juzu'i mai jujjuyawa don zaɓar ƙwayoyin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Yawanci, na'urar RAM tana da saitin adireshin A0. . . An, kuma ga kowane haɗin ragowa waɗanda za a iya amfani da su ga waɗannan layin, an kunna saitin ƙwayoyin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Saboda wannan magana, na'urorin RAM kusan koyaushe suna da ƙarfin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya wanda shine ikon biyu.

Yawanci ƙwayoyin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da yawa suna raba adireshi ɗaya. Misali, guntu na RAM mai '' bit '' 4 'yana da ƙwayoyin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya 4 ga kowane adireshin. Sau da yawa faɗin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da na microprocessor sun bambanta, don microprocessor 32 bit, za a buƙaci kwakwalwan RAM guda takwas 4.

Sau da yawa ana buƙatar adiresoshi fiye da yadda na'urar za ta iya bayarwa. A wannan yanayin, ana amfani da mahara da yawa na waje zuwa na'urar don kunna madaidaicin na'urar da ake isa.

Matsayin ƙwaƙwalwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutum na iya karantawa da sake rubuta bayanai a cikin RAM. Mutane da yawa kwamfuta tsarin da memory matsayi kunshi processor rajista, a-mutu SRAM makon jiya, inda, external makon jiya, inda, DRAM, paging tsarin da mai rumfa memory ko canza sarari a kan wani rumbun kwamfutarka. Yawancin masu haɓakawa da yawa za a iya kiran wannan ɗimbin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya a matsayin "RAM", duk da cewa tsarin haɗin gwiwa daban -daban na iya samun lokutan samun dama daban -daban, suna keta manufar asali bayan lokacin samun dama a cikin RAM. Ko da a cikin matakin matsayi kamar DRAM, takamaiman jere, shafi, banki, matsayi, tashar, ko ƙungiyoyin haɗin gwiwa na abubuwan da aka gyara suna canza lokacin samun dama, kodayake ba har zuwa lokacin samun damar yin amfani da kafofin watsa labarai na juyawa ko tef yana canzawa. . Babban burin yin amfani da tsarin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya shine samun mafi girman matsakaicin damar yin aiki yayin rage girman jimlar duk tsarin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya (gabaɗaya, tsarin ƙwaƙwalwar yana bin lokacin samun dama tare da rijistar CPU mai sauri a saman da jinkirin rumbun kwamfutarka. a kasa).

A cikin kwamfutoci masu zaman kansu da yawa na zamani, RAM yana zuwa cikin sauƙaƙe ingantattun nau'ikan kayayyaki waɗanda ake kira ƙirar ƙwaƙwalwa ko samfuran DRAM game da girman 'yan sandunan taunawa. Za'a iya maye gurbin waɗannan da sauri idan sun lalace ko lokacin canza buƙatun suna buƙatar ƙarin ƙarfin ajiya. Kamar yadda aka ba da shawara a sama, ƙaramin adadin RAM (galibi SRAM) suma an haɗa su a cikin CPU da sauran ICs akan motherboard, da kuma cikin rumbun kwamfutoci, CD-ROMs, da sauran sassan tsarin kwamfuta.

Wasu amfani na RAM[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sandar SO-DIMM na RAM kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka, kusan rabin girman RAM ɗin tebur .

Ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Yawancin tsarin aiki na zamani suna amfani da hanyar faɗaɗa ƙarfin RAM, wanda aka sani da "ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa". An keɓe wani sashi na rumbun kwamfutarka don fayil ɗin paging ko ɓangaren karce, kuma haɗuwar RAM ta zahiri da fayil ɗin paging sune babban adadin ƙwaƙwalwar tsarin. (Misali, idan kwamfutar tana da 2 GB (1024 3 B) na RAM da fayil ɗin shafi na 1 GB, tsarin aiki yana da 3 GB na ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da ke akwai. ) Lokacin da tsarin yayi ƙarancin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar jiki, zai iya " musanya " ɓangarorin RAM zuwa fayil ɗin paging don samun damar sabbin bayanai, gami da karanta bayanan da aka musanya a baya zuwa RAM. Amfani da yawa na wannan injin yana haifar da buguwa kuma gaba ɗaya yana kawo cikas ga aikin tsarin gabaɗaya, musamman saboda rumbun kwamfutoci suna da hankali fiye da RAM.

RAM faifai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Software na iya “raba” wani sashi na RAM na kwamfuta, yana ba shi damar yin aiki azaman rumbun kwamfutarka mafi sauri wanda ake kira faifan RAM . Faifan RAM yana rasa bayanan da aka adana lokacin da aka rufe kwamfutar, sai dai idan an tsara ƙwaƙwalwar don samun tushen batir mai jiran aiki.

RAM inuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wasu lokuta, ana kwafin abubuwan da ke cikin guntun ROM mai ɗan jinkiri don karantawa/rubuta ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya don ba da damar gajerun lokutan samun dama. An kashe guntu na ROM yayin da aka kunna wuraren ƙwaƙwalwar da aka fara a kan toshe adireshin (galibi ana rubuta kariya). Wannan tsari, wani lokaci ana kiranta inuwa, ya zama ruwan dare gama gari a cikin kwamfutoci da tsarin da aka saka .

A matsayin misali na yau da kullun, BIOS a cikin kwamfutoci na sirri na yau da kullun yana da wani zaɓi da ake kira "amfani da inuwa BIOS" ko makamancin haka. Lokacin da aka kunna, ayyukan da ke dogaro da bayanai daga BIOS na ROM maimakon amfani da wuraren DRAM (galibi kuma suna iya canza inuwar katin bidiyo ROM ko wasu sassan ROM). Dangane da tsarin, wannan na iya haifar da haɓaka aiki, kuma yana iya haifar da rashin daidaituwa. Misali, wasu kayan masarufi ba sa iya shiga tsarin aiki idan ana amfani da inuwa RAM. A kan wasu tsarin fa'idar na iya zama tsinkaye saboda ba a amfani da BIOS bayan an yi booting don samun damar kayan aikin kai tsaye. Ana rage ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa ta girman girman ROMs masu inuwa.

Abubuwan da ke faruwa kwanan nan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sabbin nau'ikan nau'ikan RAM <i id="mwAWI">marasa ƙarfi</i>, waɗanda ke adana bayanai yayin da aka rage su, suna kan ci gaba. Fasahohin da aka yi amfani da su sun haɗa da abubuwan nanotubes na carbon da hanyoyin amfani da ramin magnetoresistance . Daga cikin ƙarni na 1 na MRAM, an ƙera guntun 128 kbit ( 128 × 210 bytes) tare da 0.18. technologym fasaha a lokacin bazara na 2003.[ana buƙatar hujja] A cikin Yuni 2004, Infineon Technologies ta bayyana 16 MB (16 Ƙari 2 20 bytes) samfur kuma wanda ya danganci 0.18 technologym fasaha. Akwai fasahohin tsara ƙarni na biyu a halin yanzu a cikin ci gaba: sauyawa mai taimako (TAS) wanda fasahar Crocus ke haɓakawa, da jujjuyawar juyawa (STT) wanda Crocus, Hynix, IBM, da wasu kamfanoni da yawa ke aiki. . Nantero ya gina ƙirar ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar nanotube mai aiki 10 GB (10 Ƙari 2 30 bytes) a 2004. Ko wasu daga cikin waɗannan fasahohin na ƙarshe za su iya ɗaukar babban kaso na kasuwa daga ko dai DRAM, SRAM, ko fasahar ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa, duk da haka, za a gani.

Tun daga 2006, " daskararrun masu tuƙi " (dangane da ƙwaƙwalwar filasha) tare da ƙarfin da ya wuce gigabytes 256 da aikin da ya wuce diski na gargajiya ya zama akwai. Wannan ci gaban ya fara ɓarna ma'ana tsakanin ƙwaƙwalwar samun dama ta gargajiya da “diski”, yana rage banbancin aiki sosai.

Wasu nau'ikan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar samun dama, kamar " EcoRAM ", an tsara su musamman don gonar uwar garke, inda ƙarancin amfani da wutar lantarki ya fi sauri sauri.

Bango na ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

"Bangon ƙwaƙwalwa" shine haɓaka saurin haɓaka tsakanin CPU da ƙwaƙwalwa a waje da guntun CPU. Wani muhimmin dalili na wannan banbancin shine ƙarancin bandwidth na sadarwa fiye da iyakokin guntu, wanda kuma ake kira bangon bandwidth . Daga 1986 zuwa 2000, saurin CPU ya inganta a shekara -shekara na 55% yayin da saurin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya kawai ya inganta a 10%. Ganin waɗannan abubuwan, ana tsammanin jinkirin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya zai zama babban cikas a cikin aikin kwamfuta.

Haɓaka saurin CPU ya ragu sosai saboda manyan shinge na jiki kuma wani ɓangare saboda ƙirar CPU na yanzu sun riga sun bugi bangon ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ta wata ma'ana. Intel ya taƙaita waɗannan abubuwan a cikin takaddar 2005.

Da farko, yayin da geometries guntu ke raguwa kuma mitar agogo ta tashi, ƙarar transistor na yanzu yana ƙaruwa, yana haifar da yawan amfani da wuta da zafi. . . Abu na biyu, fa'idodin saurin agogo mafi girma wani ɓangare ne ta hanyar jinkirin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya, tunda lokutan samun ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ba su iya yin tafiya tare da haɓaka mitar agogo. Na uku, don wasu aikace-aikace, gine-ginen jerin shirye-shiryen gargajiya na zama ƙasa da inganci yayin da masu sarrafawa ke saurin sauri (saboda abin da ake kira ƙwallon ƙwal na Von Neumann ), yana ƙara karkatar da duk wata ribar da adadin ƙaruwa zai iya saya in ba haka ba. Bugu da kari, a wani bangare saboda iyakancewa a cikin hanyoyin samar da fitarwa a cikin ingantattun na'urori na jihar, jinkirin-ƙarfin (RC) jinkirin watsa siginar yana ƙaruwa yayin da girman sifofi ke raguwa, yana sanya ƙarin ƙalubalen da ƙara ƙaruwa baya magancewa.

An kuma lura da jinkirin RC a cikin watsa siginar a cikin "Rate Clock versus IPC: The End of the Road for Conventional Microarchitectures" wanda yayi hasashen matsakaicin ci gaban aikin CPU na shekara -shekara na 12.5% tsakanin 2000 da 2014.

Wani ra'ayi daban shine ragin aikin processor-memory, wanda za a iya magance shi ta hanyar haɗaɗɗun da'irar 3D wanda ke rage tazara tsakanin dabaru da ɓangarorin ƙwaƙwalwa waɗanda ke nesa da juna a cikin guntu na 2D. Tsarin ƙirar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya yana buƙatar mai da hankali kan rata, wanda ke ƙaruwa cikin lokaci. Babbar hanyar da ake bi don cike gibin shine amfani da caches ; ƙananan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya mai sauri wanda ke ɗauke da ayyukan kwanan nan da umarni kusa da mai sarrafawa, yana hanzarta aiwatar da waɗannan ayyukan ko umarni a lokutan da ake kiran su akai-akai. An haɓaka matakan caching da yawa don magance gibin da ke yaɗuwa, kuma aikin manyan kwamfutoci na zamani masu ɗorewa ya dogara da haɓaka dabarun caching. Za a iya samun bambanci tsakanin 53% tsakanin haɓaka cikin saurin mai sarrafawa da saurin jinkirin samun babban ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya.

Hard diski-hard hard sun ci gaba da ƙaruwa cikin sauri, daga ~ 400 Mbit/s ta SATA3 a 2012 har zuwa ~ 3 GB/s ta NVMe / PCIe a cikin 2018, yana rufe rata tsakanin RAM da saurin faifai, kodayake RAM na ci gaba da zama umarni na girma da sauri, tare da DDR4 3200 mai layi ɗaya mai iya 25 GB/s, da GDDR na zamani har ma da sauri. Mai sauri, mai arha, rumbun kwamfutoci marasa ƙarfi sun maye gurbin wasu ayyuka da RAM ke aiwatarwa, kamar riƙe wasu bayanai don samun kai tsaye a cikin gonakin uwar garke - 1 terabyte na ajiyar SSD za a iya samun $ 200, yayin da 1 TB na RAM zai kashe dubban na daloli.

Lokaci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

SRAM[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

DRAM[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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