Rashin hankali na rashin ƙarfi

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Rashin hankali na rashin ƙarfi (ADHD) cuta ce ta tabin hankali na nau'in ci gaban neurodevelopment.[1][2] Ana siffanta shi da wahalar kulawa, wuce gona da iri, da aiki ba tare da la'akari da sakamakon ba, wanda in ba haka ba bai dace da shekarun mutum ba.[3][4] Wasu mutane tare da ADHD kuma suna nuna wahalar daidaita motsin rai ko matsaloli tare da aikin zartarwa.[5][6][7][4] Don ganewar asali, bayyanar cututtuka ya kamata ya bayyana kafin mutum ya kai shekaru goma sha biyu, ya kasance fiye da watanni shida, kuma ya haifar da matsala a akalla wurare biyu (kamar makaranta, gida, ko ayyukan nishaɗi).[8][9] A cikin yara, matsalolin kulawa na iya haifar da rashin aikin makaranta.[3] Bugu da ƙari, akwai haɗin gwiwa tare da wasu cututtuka na tunani da rashin amfani da kayan aiki.[10] Kodayake yana haifar da rashin ƙarfi, musamman a cikin al'ummar zamani, mutane da yawa tare da ADHD na iya ci gaba da kula da ayyukan da suka sami ban sha'awa ko lada (wanda aka sani da hyperfocus).[11][12]

Duk da kasancewar mafi yawan bincike da gano cutar tabin hankali a cikin yara da matasa, ba a san ainihin musabbabin hakan ba a mafi yawan lokuta.[13] An kiyasta abubuwan da ke tattare da kwayoyin halitta sun hada da kusan kashi 75% na hadarin.[14] Bayyanar nicotine yayin daukar ciki na iya zama haɗarin muhalli.[15] Ga alama baya da alaƙa da salon tarbiyya ko tarbiyya.[16] Yana rinjayar kusan 5-7% na yara lokacin da aka gano su ta hanyar ka'idodin DSM-IV[4][17] da 1-2% lokacin da aka gano ta hanyar ka'idodin ICD-10.[18] Ya zuwa shekarar 2015, an kiyasta zai shafi mutane miliyan 51.1 a duniya.[19] Farashin yana kama da juna tsakanin ƙasashe kuma ya dogara galibi akan yadda ake gano shi.[20] Ana bincikar ADHD kusan sau biyu sau da yawa a cikin yara maza fiye da na 'yan mata,[4] kodayake galibi ana yin watsi da cutar a cikin 'yan mata saboda alamun su sun bambanta da na maza.[21][22][23] Kimanin kashi 30-50% na mutanen da aka gano a lokacin ƙuruciya suna ci gaba da samun alamun bayyanar har zuwa girma kuma tsakanin 2-5% na manya suna da yanayin.[24][25][26] A cikin manya rashin natsuwa na ciki maimakon hyperactivity na iya faruwa.[27] Sau da yawa suna haɓaka ƙwarewar jurewa waɗanda ke haifar da wasu ko duk nakasarsu.[28] Yanayin na iya zama da wahala a gano baya ga wasu yanayi, da kuma bambanta daga manyan matakan aiki waɗanda har yanzu suke cikin kewayon halaye na yau da kullun.[9]

Shawarwari na gudanarwa na ADHD sun bambanta ta ƙasa kuma yawanci sun haɗa da wasu haɗakar shawarwari, canje-canjen salon rayuwa, da magunguna.[3] Jagoran Birtaniya kawai ya ba da shawarar magunguna a matsayin magani na farko a cikin yara masu fama da cututtuka masu tsanani da kuma magani da za a yi la'akari da su a cikin wadanda ke da matsakaicin bayyanar cututtuka waɗanda ko dai sun ƙi ko sun kasa inganta tare da shawarwari, ko da yake ga manya magungunan magani ne na farko.[29] Jagororin Kanada da Amurka suna ba da shawarar layin farko na sarrafa ɗabi'a a cikin yaran da ba su kai makaranta ba yayin da ake ba da shawarar magunguna da jiyya tare bayan haka.[30][31][32] Jiyya tare da abubuwan kara kuzari yana da tasiri na akalla watanni 14; duk da haka, ba a san tasirinsu na dogon lokaci ba kuma akwai yuwuwar illar illa.[33][34][35][36][37][38][39]

Littattafan likitanci sun bayyana alamun alamun kama da na ADHD tun ƙarni na 18.[40] An yi la'akari da ADHD, ganewar asali, da kuma maganin sa masu rikitarwa tun daga 1970s.[41] Rigingimun sun shafi likitoci, malamai, masu tsara manufofi, iyaye, da kuma kafafen yada labarai. Batutuwa sun haɗa da abubuwan da ke haifar da ADHD da kuma amfani da magungunan ƙara kuzari a cikin jiyya.[42] Yawancin ma'aikatan kiwon lafiya sun yarda da ADHD a matsayin rashin lafiya na gaske a cikin yara da manya, kuma muhawara a cikin al'ummomin kimiyya sun fi mayar da hankali kan yadda ake gano shi da kuma bi da shi.[43][44][45] An san yanayin a hukumance da rashin hankali (ADD) daga 1980 zuwa 1987, yayin da kafin wannan an san shi da halayen hyperkinetic na yara.[46][47]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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