Rashin ji

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Rashin ji, wanda kuma aka sani da nakasar ji, wani bangare ne ko gaba daya rashin iya ji.[1] Kurma ba shi da ɗan abin ji.[2] Rashin ji yana iya faruwa a cikin kunnuwa ɗaya ko biyu.[2] A cikin yara, matsalolin ji na iya shafar ikon koyon harshen magana kuma a cikin manya yana iya haifar da matsaloli tare da hulɗar zamantakewa da kuma wurin aiki.[3] Rashin ji na iya zama na ɗan lokaci ko na dindindin. Rashin jin da ke da alaƙa da shekaru yakan shafi kunnuwa biyu kuma yana faruwa ne saboda asarar gashi na cochlear.[4] A wasu mutane, musamman tsofaffi, asarar ji na iya haifar da kadaici.[2]

Rashin ji yana iya haifar da abubuwa da yawa, ciki har da: kwayoyin halitta, tsufa, bayyanar da surutu, wasu cututtuka, matsalolin haihuwa, raunin kunne, da wasu magunguna ko guba.[2] Yanayin gama gari wanda ke haifar da asarar ji shine cututtukan kunne na yau da kullun.[2] Wasu cututtuka a lokacin daukar ciki, irin su cytomegalovirus, syphilis da rubella, na iya haifar da asarar ji a cikin yaro.[2][5] Ana gano asarar ji lokacin da gwajin ji ya gano cewa mutum baya iya jin decibels 25 a cikin aƙalla kunne ɗaya.[2] Ana ba da shawarar gwajin rashin ji ga duk jarirai.[6] Za a iya rarraba asarar ji azaman mai sauƙi (25 zuwa 40 dB), matsakaici (41 zuwa 55 dB), matsakaici-mai tsanani (56 zuwa 70 dB), mai tsanani (71 zuwa 90 dB), ko mai zurfi (fiye da 90 dB).[2] Akwai manyan nau'ikan asarar ji guda uku: asarar ji mai ɗaukar nauyi, asarar ji na ji, da gaurayewar ji.[7]

Kimanin rabin asarar ji a duniya ana iya yin rigakafin ta ta matakan kiwon lafiyar jama'a.[2] Irin waɗannan ayyukan sun haɗa da rigakafi, kulawa mai kyau game da ciki, guje wa ƙarar ƙara, da guje wa wasu magunguna.[2] Hukumar lafiya ta duniya ta ba da shawarar cewa matasa su takaita bayyanar da sauti mai ƙarfi da kuma amfani da na'urar na'urar sauti na sirri zuwa sa'a guda a rana a wani yunƙuri na rage yawan hayaniya.[8] Ganewa da wuri da tallafi suna da mahimmanci musamman ga yara.[2] Ga yawancin kayan aikin ji, yaren kurame, dasa shuki da rubutun ra'ayi suna da amfani.[2] Karatun lebe wata fasaha ce mai amfani da wasu ke haɓakawa.[2] Samun damar ji, duk da haka, yana da iyaka a yankuna da yawa na duniya.[2]

Ya zuwa 2013 hasarar ji tana shafar kusan mutane biliyan 1.1 zuwa wani mataki.[9] Yana haifar da nakasu a cikin kusan mutane miliyan 466 (5% na yawan al'ummar duniya), da matsakaita zuwa nakasa a cikin mutane miliyan 124.[2][10][11] Daga cikin wadanda ke da matsakaita zuwa matsananci nakasassu miliyan 108 suna rayuwa ne a kasashe masu karamin karfi da matsakaicin kudin shiga.[12] Daga cikin wadanda ke da raunin ji, ya fara ne a lokacin yara don miliyan 65.[13] Waɗanda suke amfani da yaren kurame da kuma al’adun kurame suna ganin cewa suna da bambanci maimakon rashin lafiya.[14] Yawancin al'adun kurame suna adawa da yunƙurin warkar da kurame[15][16][17] kuma wasu a cikin wannan al'umma suna kallon cochlear da damuwa saboda suna da damar kawar da al'adarsu.[18] Kalmar "rashin jin" sau da yawa ana kallon rashin kyau yayin da yake jaddada abin da mutane ba za su iya yi ba.[14]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Deafness". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-06-25. Retrieved 2012-02-22.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 "Deafness and hearing loss Fact sheet N°300". March 2015. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
  3. Lasak JM, Allen P, McVay T, Lewis D (March 2014). "Hearing loss: diagnosis and management". Primary Care. 41 (1): 19–31. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2013.10.003. PMID 24439878.
  4. Schilder, Anne Gm; Chong, Lee Yee; Ftouh, Saoussen; Burton, Martin J. (2017). "Bilateral versus unilateral hearing aids for bilateral hearing impairment in adults". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12: CD012665. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012665.pub2. ISSN 1469-493X. PMC 6486194. PMID 29256573.
  5. Fowler KB (December 2013). "Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: audiologic outcome". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 57 Suppl 4 (suppl_4): S182-4. doi:10.1093/cid/cit609. PMC 3836573. PMID 24257423.
  6. Lasak JM, Allen P, McVay T, Lewis D (March 2014). "Hearing loss: diagnosis and management". Primary Care. 41 (1): 19–31. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2013.10.003. PMID 24439878.
  7. Shearer AE, Hildebrand MS, Smith RJ (2014). "Deafness and Hereditary Hearing Loss Overview". In Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, Wallace SE, Bean LJ, Stephens K, Amemiya A (eds.). GeneReviews [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle. PMID 20301607.
  8. "1.1 billion people at risk of hearing loss WHO highlights serious threat posed by exposure to recreational noise" (PDF). who.int. 27 February 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 May 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  9. Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Collaborators (August 2015). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 386 (9995): 743–800. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(15)60692-4. PMC 4561509. PMID 26063472.
  10. WHO (2008). The global burden of disease: 2004 update (PDF). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. p. 35. ISBN 9789241563710. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-06-24.
  11. Olusanya BO, Neumann KJ, Saunders JE (May 2014). "The global burden of disabling hearing impairment: a call to action". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 92 (5): 367–73. doi:10.2471/blt.13.128728. PMC 4007124. PMID 24839326.
  12. WHO (2008). The global burden of disease: 2004 update (PDF). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. p. 35. ISBN 9789241563710. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-06-24.
  13. Elzouki, Abdelaziz Y (2012). Textbook of clinical pediatrics (2 ed.). Berlin: Springer. p. 602. ISBN 9783642022012. Archived from the original on 2015-12-14.
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Community and Culture - Frequently Asked Questions". nad.org. National Association of the Deaf. Archived from the original on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
  15. "Sound and Fury - Cochlear Implants - Essay". www.pbs.org. PBS. Archived from the original on 2015-07-06. Retrieved 2015-08-01.
  16. "Understanding Deafness: Not Everyone Wants to Be 'Fixed'". www.theatlantic.com. The Atlantic. 2013-08-09. Archived from the original on 2015-07-30. Retrieved 2015-08-01.
  17. Williams, Sally (2012-09-13). "Why not all deaf people want to be cured". www.telegraph.co.uk. The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-08-02.
  18. Sparrow, Robert (2005). "Defending Deaf Culture: The Case of Cochlear Implants" (PDF). The Journal of Political Philosophy. 13 (2): 135–152. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9760.2005.00217.x. Retrieved 30 November 2014.