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Yaren Saa

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
(an turo daga Sa'a harshe)
Yaren Saa
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 sax
Glottolog saaa1241[1]

Harshen Sa ko Saa, yaren Austronesian ne da ake magana da shi a Kudancin Tsibirin Fentikos, Vanuatu . Tana da masu magana kusan 2,500 a cikin shekara ta 2000.

Yaruka da kewayo

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sa yana da yaruka da yawa, ba tare da ingantattun sunaye ko iyakoki ba. A taron da aka yi a shekara ta 2008, masu iya magana sun gane manyan yaruka huɗu, tare da bambancin ƙananan yare da cakuɗewar yaruka a wasu wurare.

Yarukan tsakiya guda biyu sun yi kama da juna kuma duk masu magana da Sa suna fahimtar su gaba ɗaya. Yawancin rubuce-rubuce da bincike a cikin Sa sun kasance cikin ɗayan waɗannan yarukan:

  • Yare na yamma ("Saa" mai tsawo a ) ana magana da shi a gabar tekun yamma kusa da Panas, Wali, Panngi da Ranputor.
  • Yaren gabas ("Sa" mai gajeren a ) ana magana da shi a kudu maso gabas a kusa da Ranwas. Bambancin wannan yare mai dogayen wasula a wasu kalmomi ana magana da shi a Poinkros a kudu mai nisa, kuma ana amfani da shi a cikin fassarorin Linjila na Society of Bible na baya-bayan nan.

Haka kuma akwai wasu yarukan da ba a san su ba, waxanda suke da banbance-banbance da wahala ga masu magana da wasu yarukan su fahimta:

  • Yaren arewa ("Yaren F"), wanda ke da kasancewar sautin f, ana magana da shi a arewacin yankin Sa, a St Henri (Fatsare) da kuma wasu a Ran'gusuksu. Yana da kusanci da yaren Ske maƙwabta kuma tare da Doltes, yaren ƙauyen Hotwata.
  • Yaren kudanci ("Ha"), sananne ga yaɗuwar maye gurbin s tare da h, ana magana da shi a cikin Bay Martelli (Harop) da Londar, kuma yana da kusanci da harsunan tsibirin Ambrym maƙwabta.

Kalmomin musamman na ƙauyuka kamar Bunlap, Bay Barrier (Ranon) da Wanur da alama sun ƙunshi gaurayawan yaruka maƙwabta.

Mutanen da ke kudancin Fentakos suna tunawa da wanzuwar ƙarin yarukan da suka shuɗe.

Fassarar sauti

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Baƙaƙen Sa sun haɗa da b, d, g, h, k, l, m, n, ng (kamar yadda a cikin Turanci "mawaƙi"), p, r, s, t, da w . A yawancin yarukan akwai kuma j (wani lokaci ana rubuta "ts"), wanda ga alama allophone na t ne da ake samu a gaban wasulan i da u ko da yake masu iya magana suna kallonsa daban. Yawancin masu iya magana kuma suna amfani da labiovelar bw, mw da pw, ko da yake daga wasu masu magana da yarukan da ba za a iya bambanta su da na al'ada b, m da p . Baya ga waɗannan baƙaƙe, yaren arewa yana da bilabial f . A cikin wannan yaren s ana iya kiran su kamar Turanci sh .

Consonants
Labial Labiovelar Alveolar Bayan Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
M mara murya p t k
murya b d g
Haɗin kai ( t͡s )
Mai sassautawa ( f ) s ( ʃ ) h
Kusanci w l
Trill r

As a general rule, clusters of consonants do not occur within a syllable. Word roots may begin with a pair of consonants, but in speech the first of these consonants is usually either dropped or attached to the final syllable of the preceding word.

Baya ga ma'auni guda biyar ( a, e, i, o da u ), Sa gaba ɗaya an yarda da shi.  don samun ƙarin wasulan tsakiya masu girma ê (matsakaici tsakanin e da i ) da ô (tsakanin o da u ). Ba duka marubuta ba ne suka gane waɗannan karin wasulan, amma malaman gida na ilimin harshe sun karɓe su kuma ana amfani da su a cikin fassarorin Bishara na Societyungiyar Littafi Mai Tsarki na baya-bayan nan. Ana bambanta wasula na tsawon tsayi, tare da dogayen wasulan ( aa, ee, da sauransu) galibi suna faruwa inda baƙon ya ɓace a tarihi. Wasulan suna iya faruwa su kaɗai ko a haɗe-haɗe daban-daban.

Damuwa yawanci yana kan madaidaicin saƙon kalma. Duk da haka, kalmomin da suka ƙare da baƙar fata ko dogon wasali suna ɗaukar damuwa a gaban sauran maƙallan.

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yaren Saa". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.