Sepsis

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Sepsis wani yanayi ne mai barazana ga rayuwa wanda ke tasowa lokacin da martanin jiki ga kamuwa da cuta yana haifar da rauni ga kyallensa da gabobinsa.[1] Wannan matakin farko yana biye da tsarin garkuwar jiki.[2] Alamomi da alamomi na yau da kullun sun haɗa da zazzabi, ƙara yawan bugun zuciya, ƙara yawan numfashi, da rudani.[3] Hakanan ana iya samun alamun da ke da alaƙa da wata cuta ta musamman, kamar tari mai ciwon huhu, ko fitsari mai radadi tare da ciwon koda.[4] Matasa, tsofaffi, da mutanen da ke da raunin garkuwar jiki na iya zama ba su da alamun kamuwa da cuta ta musamman, kuma zafin jiki na iya zama ƙasa ko al'ada maimakon zazzabi.[4] Sepsis mai tsanani shine sepsis yana haifar da rashin aikin gabobin jiki ko jini.[5] Kasancewar ƙarancin hawan jini, hawan jini mai lactate, ko ƙarancin fitar fitsari na iya ba da shawarar ƙarancin jini.[6] Septic shock shine ƙananan hawan jini saboda sepsis wanda baya inganta bayan maye gurbin ruwa.[6]

Sepsis shine amsawar rigakafi mai kumburi wanda kamuwa da cuta ya jawo.[4][7] Cututtukan ƙwayoyin cuta sune sanadi na yau da kullun, amma cututtukan fungal, ƙwayoyin cuta, da cututtukan protozoan kuma na iya haifar da sepsis.[4] Wuraren gama gari don kamuwa da cuta na farko sun haɗa da huhu, ƙwaƙwalwa, urinary fili, fata, da gabobin ciki.[4] Abubuwan haɗari sun haɗa da kasancewa ƙanana, tsufa, raunin tsarin rigakafi daga yanayi kamar kansa ko ciwon sukari, babban rauni, ko kuna.[3] A baya can, ganewar asali na sepsis yana buƙatar kasancewar aƙalla ma'auni guda biyu na ƙwayar cuta mai kumburi (SIRS) a cikin yanayin da ake zaton kamuwa da cuta.[4] A cikin 2016, ƙimar ƙimar gazawar gabobin gabobin jeri (cikin SOFA), wanda aka sani da saurin SOFA (qSOFA), ya maye gurbin tsarin SIRS na ganewar asali.[1] Ma'auni na qSOFA na sepsis sun haɗa da aƙalla biyu daga cikin uku masu zuwa: ƙara yawan numfashi, canji a cikin matakin sani, da ƙananan hawan jini.[1] Jagororin Sepsis sun ba da shawarar samun al'adun jini kafin fara maganin rigakafi; duk da haka, ganewar asali baya buƙatar jinin ya kamu da cutar.[4] Hoto na likita yana taimakawa lokacin neman wuri mai yuwuwar kamuwa da cuta.[6] Sauran abubuwan da za su iya haifar da irin wannan alamu da alamun sun haɗa da anaphylaxis, rashin isashen adrenal, ƙarancin jini, gazawar zuciya, da ciwon huhu.[4]

Sepsis na buƙatar magani nan da nan tare da ruwan jijiya da maganin ƙwayoyin cuta.[3][8] Ci gaba da kulawa sau da yawa yana ci gaba a cikin sashin kulawa mai zurfi.[3] Idan isasshen gwaji na maye gurbin ruwa bai isa ba don kula da hawan jini, to amfani da magungunan da ke tayar da hawan jini ya zama dole.[3] Ana iya buƙatar samun iskar inji da dialysis don tallafawa aikin huhu da koda, bi da bi.[3] Za a iya sanya catheter na tsakiya da kuma na'urar jijiya don samun damar shiga jini da kuma jagoranci magani.[6] Wasu ma'auni masu taimako sun haɗa da fitarwar zuciya da mafi girman yanayin iskar oxygen na vena cava.[6] Mutanen da ke da sepsis suna buƙatar matakan kariya don thrombosis mai zurfi, ƙumburi na damuwa, da ƙumburi na matsa lamba sai dai idan wasu yanayi sun hana irin wannan tsoma baki.[6] Wasu mutane na iya amfana daga tsauraran matakan sukari na jini tare da insulin.[6] Yin amfani da corticosteroids yana da rikici,[9][10] tare da wasu sake dubawa suna samun fa'ida, wasu kuma ba.[11]

Mummunan cuta a wani bangare yana ƙayyade sakamakon.[12] Haɗarin mutuwa daga sepsis ya kai 30%, yayin da mai tsanani sepsis ya kai kashi 50%, kuma bugun jini 80%.[12] Sepsis ya shafi kusan mutane miliyan 49 a cikin 2017, tare da mutuwar miliyan 11 (1 cikin 5 ya mutu a duk duniya).[13] A cikin ƙasashen da suka ci gaba, kusan 0.2 zuwa 3 mutane a cikin 1000 suna fama da sepsis kowace shekara, wanda ke haifar da kimanin lokuta miliyan a kowace shekara a Amurka.[12][14] Yawan cututtuka na karuwa.[6] Sepsis ya fi yawa a tsakanin maza fiye da mata.[4] Bayanin sepsis ya koma lokacin Hippocrates.[15] An yi amfani da kalmomin "septicemia" da "guba jini" ta hanyoyi daban-daban kuma ba a ba da shawarar ba.[16][17]

Takaitacciyar Bidiyo (rubutun)

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Singer M, Deutschman CS, et al. (February 2016). "The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3)". JAMA. 315 (8): 801–10. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.0287. PMC 4968574. PMID 26903338.
  2. Chao C, Muming Y, Yanfen C (2019). "Pathological Alteration and Therapeutic Implications of Sepsis-Induced Immune Cell Apoptosis". Cell Death & Disease. 10 (10): 782. doi:10.1038/s41419-019-2015-1. PMC 6791888. PMID 31611560.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 "Sepsis Questions and Answers". cdc.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 22 May 2014. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Jui, Jonathan; et al. (American College of Emergency Physicians) (2011). "Ch. 146: Septic Shock". In Tintinalli, Judith E.; et al. (eds.). Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 1003–14. ISBN 9780071484800.
  5. Dellinger RP, Levy MM, et al. (February 2013). "Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". Critical Care Medicine. 41 (2): 580–637. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31827e83af. PMID 23353941.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Dellinger RP, Levy MM, et al. (February 2013). "Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". Critical Care Medicine. 41 (2): 580–637. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31827e83af. PMID 23353941.
  7. Deutschman CS, Tracey KJ (April 2014). "Sepsis: Current dogma and new perspectives". Immunity. 40 (4): 463–75. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2014.04.001. PMID 24745331.
  8. Rhodes A, Evans LE, et al. (March 2017). "Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2016". Intensive Care Medicine. 43 (3): 304–377. doi:10.1007/s00134-017-4683-6. PMID 28101605.
  9. Annane, D; Bellissant, E; Bollaert, PE; Briegel, J; Keh, D; Kupfer, Y; Pirracchio, R; Rochwerg, B (6 December 2019). "Corticosteroids for treating sepsis in children and adults". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12: CD002243. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002243.pub4. PMC 6953403. PMID 31808551.
  10. Fang F, Zhang Y, et al. (February 2019). "Association of corticosteroid treatment with outcomes in adult patients with sepsis: A systematic review and meta-analysis". JAMA Internal Medicine. 179 (2): 213–223. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.5849. PMC 6439648. PMID 30575845.
  11. Long B, Koyfman A (November 2017). "Controversies in corticosteroid use for sepsis". The Journal of Emergency Medicine. 53 (5): 653–661. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2017.05.024. PMID 28916121.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Jawad I, Lukšić I, et al. (June 2012). "Assessing available information on the burden of sepsis: Global estimates of incidence, prevalence and mortality". Journal of Global Health. 2 (1): 010404. doi:10.7189/jogh.01.010404. PMC 3484761. PMID 23198133.
  13. Rudd, Kristina E; Johnson, Sarah Charlotte; Agesa, Kareha M; Shackelford, Katya Anne; Tsoi, Derrick; Kievlan, Daniel Rhodes; Colombara, Danny V; Ikuta, Kevin S; Kissoon, Niranjan; Finfer, Simon; Fleischmann-Struzek, Carolin; Machado, Flavia R; Reinhart, Konrad K; Rowan, Kathryn; Seymour, Christopher W; Watson, R Scott; West, T Eoin; Marinho, Fatima; Hay, Simon I; Lozano, Rafael; Lopez, Alan D; Angus, Derek C; Murray, Christopher J L; Naghavi, Mohsen (January 2020). "Global, regional, and national sepsis incidence and mortality, 1990–2017: analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study". The Lancet. 395 (10219): 200–211. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32989-7. PMC 6970225. PMID 31954465.
  14. Martin GS (June 2012). "Sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock: Changes in incidence, pathogens and outcomes". Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 10 (6): 701–6. doi:10.1586/eri.12.50. PMC 3488423. PMID 22734959.
  15. Angus DC, van der Poll T (August 2013). "Severe sepsis and septic shock". The New England Journal of Medicine. 369 (9): 840–51. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1208623. PMID 23984731. Lay summary (30 August 2013).
  16. Angus DC, van der Poll T (August 2013). "Severe sepsis and septic shock". The New England Journal of Medicine. 369 (9): 840–51. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1208623. PMID 23984731. Lay summary (30 August 2013).
  17. Bone RC, Balk RA, et al. (The ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine) (June 1992). "Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis". Chest. 101 (6): 1644–55. doi:10.1378/chest.101.6.1644. PMID 1303622. Septicemia... has been used... in a variety of ways... We therefore suggest that this term be eliminated from current usage.