Shaye-shaye

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Shaye-shaye
Walter Geikie - Drunken Man - WGA8520.jpg
Description (en) Fassara
Iri alcohol abuse (en) Fassara
dependence syndrome (en) Fassara
Specialty (en) Fassara psychiatry (en) Fassara, medical toxicology (en) Fassara, psychology (en) Fassara, vocational rehab (en) Fassara
narcology (en) Fassara
Sanadi alcohol consumption (en) Fassara
Effect (en) Fassara Marchiafava-Bignami disease (en) Fassara, Cirrhosis, alcohol amnestic disorder (en) Fassara
heart failure (en) Fassara
Identifier (en) Fassara
ICD-10 F10
ICD-9 303
OMIM 103780
DiseasesDB alcoholism
MedlinePlus 000944
eMedicine 000944
MeSH D000437

Shaye-shaye, wanda kuma aka sani da rashin amfani da barasa (AUD),[1] shine, gabaɗaya, duk wani shan barasa wanda ke haifar da matsalolin tunani ko na jiki.[2][3][4] A baya an raba cutar zuwa nau'i biyu: shan barasa da kuma barasa.[3][5] A cikin yanayin likita, an ce shaye-shaye yana wanzuwa lokacin da abubuwa biyu ko fiye da haka sun kasance: mutum yana shan barasa mai yawa na tsawon lokaci, yana da wahalar yankewa, samun da shan barasa yana ɗaukar lokaci mai yawa. , Barasa yana da ƙarfi sosai, sakamakon amfani da rashin cika nauyin nauyi, sakamakon amfani da shi a cikin matsalolin zamantakewa, sakamakon amfani da matsalolin kiwon lafiya, sakamakon amfani da shi a cikin yanayi mai haɗari, janyewa yana faruwa a lokacin tsayawa, kuma haƙurin barasa ya faru tare da amfani.[3] Yin amfani da barasa na iya shafar dukkan sassan jiki, amma yana shafar kwakwalwa, zuciya, hanta, pancreas da tsarin rigakafi.[4][6] Shaye-shaye na iya haifar da tabin hankali, delirium tremens, ciwo na Wernicke-Korsakoff, bugun zuciya na yau da kullun, rashin amsawar rigakafi, hanta cirrhosis da haɓaka haɗarin kansa.[4][6][7] Sha a lokacin daukar ciki na iya haifar da rashin lafiyar barasa na tayin.[8] Gabaɗaya mata sun fi maza kula da illolin barasa, da farko saboda ƙarancin nauyin jikinsu, ƙarancin ƙarfin sarrafa barasa, da yawan kitsen jiki.[9]

Abubuwan muhalli da kwayoyin halitta abubuwa biyu ne da ke da alaƙa da shaye-shaye, tare da kusan rabin haɗarin da aka danganta ga kowane.[4] Wanda ke da iyaye ko ɗan'uwa mai shaye-shaye ya fi sau uku zuwa huɗu damar zama mashawarcin da kansa.[4] Abubuwan muhalli sun haɗa da tasirin zamantakewa, al'adu da halaye.[10] Babban matakan damuwa da damuwa, da kuma farashin barasa mara tsada da sauƙi mai sauƙi, yana ƙara haɗarin.[4][11] Mutane na iya ci gaba da sha don hana ko inganta alamun janyewar.[4] Bayan mutum ya daina shan barasa, za su iya samun ƙarancin janyewar da zai yi na tsawon watanni.[4] A likitance, ana daukar shaye-shaye duka cuta ce ta jiki da ta kwakwalwa.[12][13] Tambayoyi da wasu gwaje-gwajen jini na iya gano yiwuwar shan giya.[4][14] Sannan ana tattara ƙarin bayani don tabbatar da ganewar asali.[4]

Ana iya ƙoƙarin rigakafin shaye-shaye ta hanyar tsarawa da iyakance siyar da barasa, sanya harajin barasa don ƙara farashinsa, da ba da magani mara tsada.[15] Maganin shaye-shaye na iya ɗaukar nau'i da yawa.[16] Saboda matsalolin likita da zasu iya faruwa a lokacin janyewa, ya kamata a kula da tsabtace barasa a hankali.[16] Wata hanyar gama gari ta haɗa da amfani da magungunan benzodiazepine, kamar diazepam.[16] Ana iya ba da waɗannan ko dai yayin shigar da su a cibiyar kiwon lafiya ko kuma wani lokaci yayin da mutum ya kasance a cikin al'umma tare da kulawa sosai.[16] Ciwon hauka ko wasu abubuwan maye na iya dagula magani.[17] Bayan cirewa, ana amfani da magungunan rukuni ko ƙungiyoyin tallafi don taimakawa mutum ya dawo shan giya.[18][19] Wani nau'i na tallafi da aka saba amfani dashi shine ƙungiyar Alcoholics Anonymous.[20] Hakanan ana iya amfani da magungunan acamprosate, disulfiram ko naltrexone don taimakawa hana ci gaba da sha.[21]

Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya ta yi kiyasin cewa ya zuwa shekarar 2010, akwai mutane miliyan 208 da ke da shaye-shaye a duk duniya (kashi 4.1 na yawan mutanen da suka haura shekaru 15).[9][22] Ya zuwa shekarar 2015 a Amurka, kusan miliyan 17 (7%) na manya da miliyan 0.7 (2.8%) na masu shekaru 12 zuwa 17 ne abin ya shafa.[23] Shaye-shaye ya fi zama ruwan dare a tsakanin maza da matasa, kuma ba a cika samunsa ba a tsakiyar da tsufa.[4] A geographically, ba shi da yawa a Afirka (1.1% na yawan jama'a) kuma yana da mafi girman ƙimar a Gabashin Turai (11%).[4] Shaye-shaye ya haifar da mutuwar 139,000 kai tsaye a cikin 2013, sama da 112,000 da suka mutu a 1990.[24] An yi imanin cewa jimlar mutuwar miliyan 3.3 (5.9% na duk mace-mace) ta kasance ta hanyar barasa.[23] Shaye-shaye na rage tsawon rayuwar mutum da kusan shekaru goma.[25] An yi amfani da kalmomin da yawa, wasu na zagi wasu kuma na yau da kullun, an yi amfani da su don yin nuni ga mutanen da shaye-shaye ya shafa; maganganun sun haɗa da tippler, mashaya, dipsomaniac da souse.[26] A shekara ta 1979, Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya ta hana amfani da "shaye-shaye" saboda rashin ma'anarsa, ta fifita "ciwon dogara ga barasa".[27]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Alcoholism MeSH Descriptor Data 2020". meshb.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  2. Littrell, Jill (2014). Understanding and Treating Alcoholism Volume I: An Empirically Based Clinician's Handbook for the Treatment of Alcoholism: Volume Ii: Biological, Psychological, and Social Aspects of Alcohol Consumption and Abuse. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-317-78314-5. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. The World Health Organization defines alcoholism as any drinking which results in problems
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison Between DSM–IV and DSM–5". November 2013. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 Association, American Psychiatric (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-5 (5 ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. pp. 490–97. ISBN 978-0-89042-554-1.
  5. Hasin, Deborah (December 2003). "Classification of Alcohol Use Disorders". Alcohol Research & Health : The Journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 27 (1): 5–17. PMC 6676702. PMID 15301396. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Alcohol's Effects on the Body". 14 September 2011. Archived from the original on 3 June 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  7. Romeo, Javier; Wärnberg, Julia; Nova, Esther; Díaz, Ligia E.; Gómez-Martinez, Sonia; Marcos, Ascensión (October 2007). "Moderate alcohol consumption and the immune system: a review". The British Journal of Nutrition. 98 Suppl 1: S111–115. doi:10.1017/S0007114507838049. ISSN 0007-1145. PMID 17922947.
  8. "Fetal Alcohol Exposure". 14 September 2011. Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Global status report on alcohol and health 2014 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2014. pp. 8, 51. ISBN 978-92-4-069276-3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 April 2015.
  10. Agarwal-Kozlowski, K; Agarwal, DP (April 2000). "[Genetic predisposition for alcoholism]". Ther Umsch. 57 (4): 179–84. doi:10.1024/0040-5930.57.4.179. PMID 10804873.
  11. Moonat, S; Pandey, SC (2012). "Stress, epigenetics, and alcoholism". Alcohol Research : Current Reviews. 34 (4): 495–505. PMC 3860391. PMID 23584115.
  12. Mersy, DJ (1 April 2003). "Recognition of alcohol and substance abuse". American Family Physician. 67 (7): 1529–32. PMID 12722853.
  13. "Health and Ethics Policies of the AMA House of Delegates" (PDF). June 2008. p. 33. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 March 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015. H-30.997 Dual Disease Classification of Alcoholism: The AMA reaffirms its policy endorsing the dual classification of alcoholism under both the psychiatric and medical sections of the International Classification of Diseases. (Res. 22, I-79; Reaffirmed: CLRPD Rep. B, I-89; Reaffirmed: CLRPD Rep. B, I-90; Reaffirmed by CSA Rep. 14, A-97; Reaffirmed: CSAPH Rep. 3, A-07)
  14. Higgins-Biddle, John C.; Babor, Thomas F. (2018). "A Review of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), AUDIT-C, and USAUDIT for Screening in the United States: Past Issues and Future Directions". The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. 44 (6): 578–586. doi:10.1080/00952990.2018.1456545. ISSN 0095-2990. PMC 6217805. PMID 29723083.
  15. World Health Organization (January 2015). "Alcohol". Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Blondell, RD (February 2005). "Ambulatory detoxification of patients with alcohol dependence". Am Fam Physician. 71 (3): 495–502. PMID 15712624.
  17. DeVido, JJ; Weiss, RD (December 2012). "Treatment of the depressed alcoholic patient". Current Psychiatry Reports. 14 (6): 610–08. doi:10.1007/s11920-012-0314-7. PMC 3712746. PMID 22907336.
  18. Morgan-Lopez, AA; Fals-Stewart, W (May 2006). "Analytic complexities associated with group therapy in substance abuse treatment research: problems, recommendations, and future directions". Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 14 (2): 265–73. doi:10.1037/1064-1297.14.2.265. PMC 4631029. PMID 16756430.
  19. Albanese, AP (November 2012). "Management of alcohol abuse". Clinics in Liver Disease. 16 (4): 737–62. doi:10.1016/j.cld.2012.08.006. PMID 23101980.
  20. Tusa, AL; Burgholzer, JA (2013). "Came to believe: spirituality as a mechanism of change in alcoholics anonymous: a review of the literature from 1992 to 2012". Journal of Addictions Nursing. 24 (4): 237–46. doi:10.1097/jan.0000000000000003. PMID 24335771.
  21. Testino, G; Leone, S; Borro, P (December 2014). "Treatment of alcohol dependence: recent progress and reduction of consumption". Minerva Medica. 105 (6): 447–66. PMID 25392958.
  22. "Global Population Estimates by Age, 1950–2050". 30 January 2014. Archived from the original on 10 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  23. 23.0 23.1 "Alcohol Facts and Statistics". Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  24. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604. PMID 25530442.
  25. Schuckit, MA (27 November 2014). "Recognition and management of withdrawal delirium (delirium tremens)". The New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (22): 2109–13. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1407298. PMID 25427113.
  26. Chambers English Thesaurus. Allied Publishers. p. 175. ISBN 978-81-86062-04-3.
  27. WHO. "Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms published by the World Health Organization". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 5 February 2013.