Jump to content

Tsirar wanda yafi dacewa

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Tsirar wanda yafi dacewa
phrase (en) Fassara da ƙunshiya

" Tsirar wanda yafi dacewa " magana ce da ta samo asali daga ka'idar juyin halitta ta Darwiniyanci a matsayin wata hanya ta bayyana tsarin zaɓin yanayi . An ayyana ra'ayin nazarin halittu na dacewa a matsayin nasarar haihuwa . A cikin sharuddan Darwiniyanci(tsarin ilimin charls darwin ), an fi fahimtar jimlar a matsaayin "Tsarin yadda halittu ke barin tsarin halitta ga yaya da jikoki.

Herbert Spencer ya fara amfani da wannan furci ne, bayan ya karanta littafin Charles Darwin ’s On the Origin of Species, a cikin ka’idojinsa na Biology (1864), inda ya zana kamanceceniya tsakanin ka’idojin tattalin arzikinsa da na nazarin halittu na Darwin: “Wannan tsira daga mafifici, wanda a nan na nemi in bayyana shi ta hanyar injina, shi ne abin da Mista Darwin ya kira 'zabin yanayi', ko kuma kiyaye jinsin da aka fi so a gwagwarmayar rayuwa." [1]

Darwin ya amsa da kyau ga shawarar Alfred Russel Wallace na yin amfani da sabuwar magana ta Spencer "rayuwar da ta fi dacewa" a matsayin madadin "zabin dabi'a", kuma ya amince da jumlar a cikin Bambancin Dabbobi da Tsirrai karkashin Gida wanda aka buga a 1868. [2] [3] A cikin Asalin Species, ya gabatar da jumlar a bugu na biyar da aka buga a cikin shekarar 1869, [4] [5] yana nufin ma'anar "mafi kyawun tsara don wani wuri na gaggawa, na gida". [6] [7]

Tarihin jumlar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ta nasa asusun, Herbert Spencer ya bayyana wani ra'ayi mai kama da "rayuwar da ta fi dacewa" a cikin 1852 "Theory of Population". [8] Ya fara amfani da kalmar - bayan karanta Charles Darwin 's On the Origin of Species – a cikin ka’idojinsa na Biology na 1864 [9] inda ya zana kamanceceniya tsakanin ka’idojin tattalin arzikinsa da na Darwin na nazarin halittu, na juyin halitta, yana rubuta cewa, “Wannan tsira na fittest, wanda a nan na nemi in bayyana a cikin injina, shi ne wanda Mista Darwin ya kira 'zabin yanayi', ko kuma adana jinsin da aka fi so a gwagwarmayar rayuwa." [10]

A cikin Yuli 1866 Alfred Russel Wallace ya rubuta wa Darwin game da masu karatu suna tunanin cewa kalmar " zaɓin yanayi" da aka bayyana a matsayin "zaɓi", kuma ya ce za a iya kauce wa wannan kuskuren "ta hanyar ɗaukar kalmar Spencer" Tsira da mafifici . Nan da nan Darwin ya amsa da cewa wasiƙar Wallace “a bayyane take kamar hasken rana. Na yarda da duk abin da kuka faɗi akan fa'idodin H. Spencer kyakkyawan furuci na 'cirewa na mafificin'. Duk da haka wannan bai same ni ba har sai na karanta wasiƙar ku. Duk da haka, babban ƙin yarda ne ga wannan kalma cewa ba za a iya amfani da shi azaman ƙaƙƙarfan jagorancin fi'ili ba". Da ya karbi wasiƙar watanni biyu da suka shige, da ya yi amfani da jimlar zuwa bugu na huɗu na Asalin da ake bugawa a lokacin, kuma zai yi amfani da ita a littafinsa na gaba na " Dabbobin Gida da sauransu." . [11]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. ^ "Herbert Spencer in his Principles of Biology of 1864, vol. 1, p. 444, wrote: 'This survival of the fittest, which I have here sought to express in mechanical terms, is that which Mr. Darwin has called "natural selection", or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life., citing HERBERT SPENCER, THE PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY 444 (Univ. Press of the Pac. 2002.)
  2. ^ "Herbert Spencer in his Principles of Biology of 1864, vol. 1, p. 444, wrote: 'This survival of the fittest, which I have here sought to express in mechanical terms, is that which Mr. Darwin has called "natural selection", or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life.'", citing HERBERT SPENCER, THE PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY 444 (Univ. Press of the Pac. 2002.)
  3. "This preservation, during the battle for life, of varieties which possess any advantage in structure, constitution, or instinct, I have called Natural Selection; and Mr. Herbert Spencer has well expressed the same idea by the Survival of the Fittest. The term "natural selection" is in some respects a bad one, as it seems to imply conscious choice; but this will be disregarded after a little familiarity."
  4. Freeman, R. B. (1977), "On the Origin of Species", The Works of Charles Darwin: An Annotated Bibliographical Handlist (2nd ed.), Cannon House, Folkestone, Kent, England: Wm Dawson & Sons Ltd
  5. "This preservation of favourable variations, and the destruction of injurious variations, I call Natural Selection, or the Survival of the Fittest." –
  6. "Stephen Jay Gould, Darwin's Untimely Burial", 1976; from Philosophy of Biology:An Anthology, Alex Rosenberg, Robert Arp ed., John Wiley & Sons, May 2009, pp. 99–102.
  7. "Evolutionary biologists customarily employ the metaphor 'survival of the fittest,' which has a precise meaning in the context of mathematical population genetics, as a shorthand expression when describing evolutionary processes."
  8. Johnson, Curtis (2014). Darwin's Dice: The Idea of Chance in the Thought of Charles Darwin. Oxford University Press. p. 155. ISBN 9780199361434
  9. Vol. 1, p. 444
  10. "Herbert Spencer in his Principles of Biology of 1864, vol. 1, p. 444, wrote: 'This survival of the fittest, which I have here sought to express in mechanical terms, is that which Mr. Darwin has called "natural selection", or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life.'", citing HERBERT SPENCER, THE PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY 444 (Univ. Press of the Pac. 2002.)
  11. ^ "Herbert Spencer in his Principles of Biology of 1864, vol. 1, p. 444, wrote: 'This survival of the fittest, which I have here sought to express in mechanical terms, is that which Mr. Darwin has called "natural selection", or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life.'" , citing HERBERT SPENCER, THE PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY 444 (Univ. Press of the Pac. 2002.)