Yakin Hunayn

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Infotaula d'esdevenimentYakin Hunayn
Balami - Tarikhnama - The Battle of Hunayn - The Prophet's life is threatened.jpg
 21°31′00″N 40°02′31″E / 21.51656°N 40.04203°E / 21.51656; 40.04203
Iri faɗa
Bangare na list of expeditions of Muhammad (en) Fassara
Kwanan watan kalanda 630
Wuri Hunayn, Saudi Arabia (en) Fassara

Yakin Hunayn (Larabci: غَزْوَة حُنَيْن, romanized: Ghazwat Hunayn) Annabi Muhammad da mabiyansa sun yi yaƙi da ƙabilar Bedouin na Hawazin da sashinsa Thaqif, a cikin 630 AZ, a kwarin Hunayn, akan hanya daga Makka zuwa At-Ta'if. Yaƙin ƙarshe ya ƙare cikin nasara ga musulmai, waɗanda suka ƙwace ganima mai yawa. An ambace shi a cikin Suratut-Tawbah na Alqur'ani, kuma yana daga cikin yaƙe-yaƙe da aka ambata da sunan a cikin Alkur'ani.[1][2]

Shirye -shirye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan Fage[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hawazins sun kasance abokan gaban mutanen Makka na dogon lokaci. Suna arewa maso gabas na Makka kuma yankinsu ya zauna kusa da hanyar kasuwanci zuwa Al-Hirah a Iraki. Hawazins sun kasance masu kawance da Thaqifs, wani dan kabilar Hawazin wanda ya zauna a Ta’if, wani gari kudu maso gabas na Makka wanda hanyoyin kasuwancin sa ke bi ta yankin Hawazin. Kawancen ya yi yaƙe -yaƙe da yawa mai yiwuwa dangane da hanyoyin kasuwanci tsakanin Ta'if da Makka. Idan aka ba da wannan tarihin sun ga Muhammad a matsayin wani shugaba Quraishi mai ƙarfi wanda ya zo ya jagoranci jama'arsa. Suna tunanin a tsakaninsu cewa yaƙi da Musulmai na gab da gabatowa kuma cewa tsirarun Musulmai da ake zalunta a baya sun sami galaba akan abokan gabarsu na Larabawa da ba Musulmi ba, kuma wataƙila sun so su ci gajiyar rudanin da ake samu a Makka bayan Musulmi. kwace. Wasu kabilu sun fifita fada da shi da Musulmai. Gaban waɗannan sune kabilun Hawazin da Thaqif. A cewar malamin addinin Musuluncin Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri "Sun dauka sun fi karfin shiga ko mika wuya ga irin wannan nasara". Don haka, sun sadu da Malik bin ‘Awf An-Nasri kuma sun ƙuduri aniyar ci gaba da yakar Musulmi. Malik ya lallashe sauran kabilun yaƙi ya tattara su a gabansa. Hadin gwiwar kabilu da suka kunshi Nasr, Jusham, Sa’ad bin Bakr, Bani Hilal, Bani 'Amr bin Amir da Bani' Awf bin Amir sun hallara a Autas tare da Thaqif da Hawazin.[3][4][5][6]

A wannan rana Muhammadu yana da sojoji dubu goma sha biyu masu ɗauke da makamai ƙarƙashin mizaninsa. Dubu goma daga cikinsu sune waɗanda suka raka shi daga Madina kuma suka shiga yaƙin Makka, sauran dubu biyu kuma daga cikin Quraishawa ne, waɗanda suka musulunta kwanan nan. Umurnin wannan ƙungiya yana tare da Abu Sufyan. A wancan zamanin da kyar aka sami irin wannan runduna a ko'ina kuma wannan ƙarfin adadi na su ya zama sanadin faduwar su ta farko. Ya kasance saboda, sabanin abin da ya gabata, sun yi alfahari da yawan sojojinsu kuma sun yi watsi da dabarun soja da ka'idojin yaƙi. Lokacin da sojojin musulmai gami da sabbin wadanda suka tuba daga Makka suka ga dimbin maza sai suka ce: "Ba za mu ci nasara ba kwata -kwata, saboda sojojinmu sun fi na abokan gaba yawa.[7]

Ɗan leƙen asiri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hawazin da kawayensu, Thaqif, sun fara tattara rundunarsu lokacin da suka samu labari daga 'yan leken asirin cewa Muhammad da rundunarsa sun tashi daga Madina don fara kai hari a Makka. Da alama ƙungiyoyin sun yi fatan kai farmaki kan sojojin Musulmi yayin da suka kewaye Makka. Muhammadu, duk da haka, ya tona asirinsu ta hanyar 'yan leƙen asirinsa a sansanin Hawazin, kuma ya yi tattaki da Hawazin makonni biyu kacal bayan cin Makka da ƙarfin maza 12,000.[8][9][2] Makonni hudu kacal suka shude tun lokacin da dakarun Musulmi suka bar Madina don cin Makka.[10]

Darasin yaƙin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A daren Laraba, goma ga watan Shawwal, sojojin Musulmi sun isa Hunain. Malik bin ‘Awf, wanda a baya ya shiga cikin kwarin da daddare, ya ba da umarni ga rundunarsa ta mutum dubu huɗu da su buya a cikin kwarin su faɗo wa Musulmai a kan hanyoyi, ƙofar shiga, da kunkuntar wuraren buya. Umarninsa ga mutanensa shine su dinga jifan Musulmai a duk lokacin da suka gansu sannan su kai hari akan mutum ɗaya. Lokacin da Musulmai suka fara zango, kibiyoyi sun fara yi musu zafi sosai. Bataliyar abokan gaba sun fara kai wa Musulmai hari, wanda dole ne su ja da baya cikin rudani da rudani. An ba da rahoton cewa sojoji kaɗan ne suka rage a baya kuma suka yi fafatawa, ciki har da Ali bin Abu Talib, mai ɗaukar nauyin, Abbas bin Abdullah, Fadl ibn Abbas, Usamah, da Abu Sufyan bin al-Harith.[11][12]

Ibn Kathir ya rubuta cewa a cewar Ibn Ishaq, Jabir ibn Abdullah, wanda ya shaida wannan yaƙin, sojojin Musulmai sun firgita da wani harin bazata daga abokan gaba kuma maza da yawa sun tsere daga fagen daga. Sai dai wasu gungun Muhajirun sun tsaya kyam suna kare Annabi a filin daga. Wadannan mutane su ne Ali, Abdullah Ibn Masood, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith, Fadl ibn Abbas, Rabi' ibn al-Harith, Usama ibn Zayd da Ayman ibn Ubayd. An kashe Ayman bn Ubayd a ranar yana kare Annabi Muhammad.[13]

"Ku taho mutane! Ni Manzon Allah ne. Ni Muhammad dan Abdullahi ne." Sannan Muhammad ya ce, “Ya Allah, ka saukar da Taimakonka!”, Daga baya Musulmai suka koma fagen daga. Muhammadu, sannan ya ɗebo ɗan yatsan ƙasa, ya jefar da su a fuskokinsu yana cewa: "Fuskokinku su kunyata." Idanunsu sun cika da ƙura kuma abokan gaba sun fara ja da baya cikin tsananin rudani, a cewar malamin musulinci Safi-ur-Rahman Mubarakpuri.[14]

Bayan da aka ci abokan gaba. Kimanin maza saba'in na Thaqif kadai aka kashe, kuma Musulmai sun ƙwace dukan raƙuman da suke hawa, makamai da shanu. Ayar Alqur'ani ta 9:25 ita ma ta sauka a cikin wannan taron a cewar malaman musulmi:[14]

Tabbas Allah ya taimake ku a fagen fama da yawa kuma a ranar Hunain: Duba! yawanku ya yi muku daɗi, amma ba su wadatar da ku da kome ba.
Amma Allah Ya zuba natsuwarsa a kan Manzo da Muminai, kuma Ya saukar da rundunoni wanda ba ku gani ba. Kamar haka ne Ya sãkã wa kãfirai. Alqur'ani 9:25-26

Wasu daga cikin abokan gaba sun gudu, kuma Muhammad ya bi su. Irin wannan bataliyar ta bi wasu abokan gaba, Rabi’a bin Rafi ‘ta riski Duraid bin As-Simmah wanda tsoho ne ya kashe shi. Durayd wani muhimmin kadara ne na sojojin arna saboda yawan gogewarsa a fagen fama da sanin dabarun yaƙi.[14][15] Tabari Malamin Fiqhu Muslim ya ambaci haka kamar haka:

Manzon Allah mahayan dawakai ya bi wadanda suka je Nakhlah, amma ba wadanda suka tafi da kunkuntar wucewa ba. Rabi'a b. Rufa'i b. Uhban b. Tha'alabah b. Rabi'ah b. Yarbu 'b. Sammal119 b. 'Auf b. Imr al- [1666] Qays, wanda ake kira Ibn Ladh'ah bayan mahaifiyarsa, ya riski Durayd b. al-Simmah kuma ya kwace raƙuminsa ta gindinsa, yana tunanin cewa mace ce saboda yana cikin howdah. Amma ga shi mutum ne. Ya sa raƙumi ya durƙusa kusa da shi, ya iske mutumin ya tsufa ƙwarai. Shi Durayd b. al-Simmah, [amma] saurayin bai san shi ba. Durayd ya tambayeshi me yake so yayi dashi. Saurayin ya amsa cewa yana so ya kashe shi. Durayd ya tambaye shi wanene, sai ya amsa da cewa shi ne Rabi'ah b. Rufaya al-Sulami. Daga nan sai ya buge shi da takobinsa, amma bai yi tasiri ba. Daga nan sai Durayd ya ce, "Wane irin mugun makami ne mahaifiyar ku ta ɗauke ku da shi! Takeauki wannan takobin nawa da ke bayan sirdi a cikin howdah ku buge ni da shi sama da kashin baya amma a ƙarƙashin kwakwalwa, domin na saba kashewa. maza a haka. Sannan idan kun je wurin mahaifiyarku, ku gaya mata kun kashe Durayd b. al-Simmah. Wallahi sau nawa na kare matanku." [Tabari, The Last Years of the Prophet, Pg 16][16]

Bayan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kabarin yakin kusa da Masjid Jaranan

Saboda Malik bn Awf al-Nasri ya kawo iyalai da garken Hawazin tare, Musulmai sun sami nasarar kwace ganima mai yawa. An kama fursunoni 6,000 kuma an kama raƙuma 24,000. Wasu Makiyaya sun gudu, sun kasu kashi biyu. Wata ƙungiya ta koma, ta haifar da Yaƙin Autas, yayin da babbar ƙungiyar ta sami mafaka a At-Ta'if, inda Muhammad ya kewaye su.[14][2] William Montgomery Watt ya furta cewa Muhammad ya ɗauki matsayin gwarzon mutanen Makka ta hanyar fuskantar manyan abokan gabarsu na Makiyaya, Hawaziyya da Thaƙif na birnin Al-Ta'if.

Majiyoyin Firamare na Musulunci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An ambaci taron a cikin tarin Hadisin Ahlus -Sunnah Sahihul Bukhari kamar haka:

Mun tashi tare da Manzon Allah a ranar Hunain. Lokacin da muka fuskanci abokan gaba, Musulmai suka ja da baya na ga wani arne yana jifar kan musulmi. Na juya na zo na same shi daga baya na buga masa kafada da takobi Shi (watau arna) ya nufo ni ya kamo ni da karfi har na ji tamkar mutuwa ce da kanta, amma mutuwa ta riske shi ya sake ni . Na bi Umar binul Khattab na tambaye shi (me) me ke damun mutane (gudu)? Ya amsa, "Wannan ita ce Nufin Allah," Bayan mutane sun dawo, Annabi ya zauna ya ce, "Duk wanda ya kashe maƙiyi kuma yana da hujjar hakan, zai mallaki ganimarsa." Na tashi na ce, wa zai zama shaida a kaina? sannan ya zauna. Annabi ya sake cewa, "Duk wanda ya kashe abokin gaba kuma yana da hujjar hakan, zai mallaki ganimarsa." Na (sake) na tashi na ce, "Wanene zai zama shaida a gare ni?" kuma ya zauna. Sannan Annabi ya fadi haka a karo na uku. Na sake tashi, sai Manzon Allah ya ce, "Ya Abu Qatada! Menene labarinka?" Sai na ba shi labarin duka. Wani mutum (ya tashi) ya ce, "Ya Manzon Allah! Yana faɗin gaskiya, kuma ganimar wanda aka kashe tana tare da ni. Don haka don Allah a biya shi diyya a madadina." A kan haka ne Abubakar As-Siddiq ya ce, "A'a, wallahi, shi (watau Manzon Allah) ba zai yarda ya ba ku ganimar da ɗaya daga cikin Zaki na Allah ya yi yaƙi a madadin Allah da Manzonsa ba." Annabi ya ce, "Abubakar ya fadi gaskiya." Don haka, Manzon Allah ya ba ni ganima. Na sayar da wannan kayan yaƙin (watau ganimar) kuma da farashinsa na sayi gonar a Bani Salima, kuma wannan ita ce dukiyata ta farko wadda na samu bayan na musulunta. Hadith-Bukhari|4|53|370

Haka nan taron yana cikin Imam Maliks Al-Muwatta kamar haka:

Yahya ya ba ni labari daga Malik daga Ibn Shihab cewa al-Qasim bn Muhammad ya ce ya ji wani mutum yana tambayar ibn Abbas game da ganima. Ibn Abbas ya ce, “Dawaki wani bangare ne na ganima kuma tasirin mutum ma haka."

Daga nan sai mutumin ya sake maimaita tambayarsa, kuma Ibn Abbas ya maimaita amsarsa. Sai mutumin ya ce, "Menene ganimar da Shi Mai Alfarma Mai Girma ya ambata a cikin Littafinsa?" Ya ci gaba da tambaya har sai Ibn Abbas ya kusa bacin rai, sannan Ibn Abbas ya ce, "Shin kun san wanene wannan mutumin? Ibn Sabigh, wanda Umar bn Khattab ya buge saboda ya shahara da yin tambayoyin wauta." Yahya ya ce an tambayi Malik ko wani da ya kashe daya daga cikin abokan gaba zai iya rike tasirin mutumin ba tare da izinin Imam ba. Ya ce, "Babu wanda zai iya yin hakan ba tare da izinin Imam ba. Imami ne kadai zai iya yin ijtihadi. Ban ji cewa Manzon Allah ya taba cewa, Duk wanda ya kashe wani zai iya yana da tasirin sa, 'a duk ranar da ba ranar Hunayn ba."

Hadith-muwatta=|21|10|19|}}

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Al Kur'ani 9:25–27
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Lammens, H. and Abd al-Hafez Kamal. "Hunayn". In P. J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W. P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam Online Edition. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  3. When The Moon Split. Darussalam. 1 July 1998. ISBN 9789960897288 – via Google Books.
  4. The sealed nectar, By S.R. Al-Mubarakpuri, Pg356
  5. Najibabadi, Akbar S. K. (2006). HISTORY OF ISLAM - Tr. Atiqur Rehman (3 Vols. Set) (in Turanci). Adam Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 9788174354679.
  6. IslamKotob. Tafsir Ibn Kathir all 10 volumes (in Turanci). IslamKotob.
  7. Sha'rani, Ahmad Abdul Wahab Bin Ahmad (2006), alkitab.com-Source for Arabic Books: Tabaqat al-Kubra - Sha'rani - الطبقات الكبرى: History - Islamic - Sufi Studies: By Sha'rani, Ahmad Abdul Wahab Bin Ahmad, DKI, Beirut[page needed]
  8. "Reconnoitering the Enemy's Weapons". www.witness-pioneer.org.
  9. "Revelation and Empire".
  10. "Muhammad: Victory". www.alislam.org.
  11. Akramulla Syed. "The battle of Hunayn, Battle at Hunain, Military History of Islam, Khalid bin Al-Waleed". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  12. ln Mughazi, vol.
  13. Ibn Kathir, The Battles of the Prophet, p. 175-176
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 "Battle of Hunayn, Witness-Pioneer.com".
  15. Safiur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri (2005), The Sealed Nectar, Darussalam Publications, p. 262
  16. Tabari, Al (25 September 1990), The last years of the Prophet (translated by Isma'il Qurban Husayn), State University of New York Press, p. 16, ISBN 978-0-88706-691-7