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Yaren Chatino

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Chatino
Chaqcña, Chaqꟳ tnyaᴶSamfuri:Which lang
Ethnicity Chatino people
Geographic distribution Oaxaca, Mexico
Linguistic classification Oto-Manguean
Subdivisions
Glottolog chat1268[1]
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Chatino rukuni ne na harsunan Mesoamerican na asali . Waɗannan harsunan reshe ne na dangin Zapotecan a cikin dangin harshen Oto-Manguean . Mutanen Chatino 45,000 ne ke magana da su a asali, [2] waɗanda al'ummominsu ke a kudancin jihar Oaxaca na Mexico

Chatinos suna da kusancin al'adu da harshe tare da mutanen Zapotec, wanda harsunansu suka zama wani reshe na dangin harshen Zapotecan. Chatinos suna kiran yarensu chaqꟳ tnyaᴶ </link> . [lower-alpha 1] An gane Chatino a matsayin yaren ƙasa a Meziko.

Harsunan Chatino rukuni ne na harsuna uku: Zenzontepec Chatino, wanda ake magana a cikin kusan al'ummomi 10 a gundumar Sola de Vega; Tataltepec Chatino, wanda ake magana a cikin Tataltepec de Valdés; da gungun yarukan da ake kira Gabashin Chatino, wanda ake magana da shi a cikin al'ummomi kusan 15-17. Egland & Bartholomew (1983) sun gudanar da gwaje-gwajen fahimtar juna a kan abin da suka yanke shawarar cewa nau'ikan Chatino guda hudu za a iya la'akari da harsuna daban-daban dangane da fahimtar juna, tare da fahimtar fahimtar juna da kashi 80% don ganin nau'in nau'in harshe ɗaya ne. (Irin ƙidaya ya samo asali ne daga ma'auni na kashi 70 cikin dari.) Waɗannan su ne Tataltepec, Zacatepec, Panixtlahuaca, da Highlands yaruka, tare da Zenzontepec ba a gwada ba amma bisa wasu nazarin da aka yi imanin cewa ba a iya fahimta gaba daya tare da sauran harsunan Chatino. Yaren Highlands sun faɗo zuwa rukuni uku, galibi suna nuna rarrabuwar kawuna a cikin Ethnologue .

Campbell (2013), a cikin binciken da aka yi akan sabbin abubuwan da aka raba maimakon fahimtar juna, da farko ya raba Chatino zuwa kungiyoyi biyu: Zenzontepec da Coastal Chatino. Sai ya raba Coastal Chatino zuwa Tataltepec da Eastern Chatino. Chatino na Gabashinsa ya ƙunshi duk sauran nau'ikan, kuma bai sami wata shaida don ƙungiyoyi ko ƙarin rarrabuwa dangane da sabbin abubuwan da aka haɗa ba. Wannan rarrabuwa tana kwatanta rabe-raben da Boas (1913) ya ruwaito, bisa la’akari da maganganun masu magana, cewa Chatino ya ƙunshi “yaruka” guda uku tare da iyakacin fahimtar juna. Sullivant (2016) ya gano cewa Teojomulco shine mafi bambancin iri-iri.

  • Teojomulco
  • Core Chatino
    • Zenzontepec
    • Chatino na bakin teku
      • Tataltepec
    • Chatino ta Gabas
      • Zacatepec
      • Tsaunuka : Gabas (Lachao-Yolotepec), Yamma (Yaitepec, Panixtlahuaca, Quiahije), Nopala

Sakatariyar Ilimi ta Mexico tana amfani da ma'aunin haɗari guda huɗu don auna harsunan da ke cikin haɗari. Mafi ƙanƙanta ba haɗarin bacewar nan da nan ba ne, sannan matsakaicin haɗari, babban haɗari, kuma a ƙarshe babban haɗarin bacewar. A halin yanzu, yarukan Chatino sun bambanta da babban haɗarin bacewa ( chatino de Zacatepec</link> ) zuwa matsakaicin haɗari ( chatino occidental bajo</link> ba tare da haɗari ba ( chatino oriental alto, chatino oriental bajo, chatino occidental alto</link> , da chatino central</link> ).

A ƙoƙarin taimakawa sake farfado da harshen Chatino, ƙungiyar masana harshe da furofesoshi sun taru don yin aikin Takardun Harshen Chatino. Tawagar sun hada da Emiliana Cruz, Hilaria Cruz, Eric Campbell, Justin McIntosh, Jeffrey Rasch, Ryan Sullivant, Stéphanie Villard, da Tony Woodbury. Sun fara aikin Rubuce-rubucen Chatino a lokacin rani na 2003 suna fatan rubutawa da adana Harshen Chatino da yarukansa. Yin amfani da rikodin sauti da bidiyo sun sami damar rubuta harshe yayin hulɗar rayuwar yau da kullun. Har zuwa 2003, Chatino harshe ne na baka, ba tare da rubutaccen fom ba. Bayan fara aikin Chatino Documentation, ƙungiyar ta fara ƙirƙirar rubutaccen nau'i na Harshen Chatino. Wannan canji ya haifar da ƙarin albarkatu don ayyukan farfado da su. Suna fatan nan ba da jimawa ba za a yi amfani da albarkatun da suka yi don ƙirƙirar kayan ilimi kamar littattafai don taimakawa mutanen Chatino su iya karatu da rubuta harshensu.

Rubutun Rubutu

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An rubuta tasha ta duniya daban-daban azaman 'q' (kamar a nan), '7', IPA' ʔ ', ko sallillo ' ꞌ '. Na ƙarshe yana iya rikicewa da harafin sautin ' I ' a cikin rubutun da ba na serif ba.

Haruffa mai sauti a yawancin nau'ikan Western Highlands Chatino babban haruffa ne A zuwa L. Waɗannan sun sadaukar da haruffan Unicode ( ᴬ ᴮ ꟲ ᴰ ᴱ ꟳ ᴳ ᴴ ᴵ ᴶ ᴷ ᴸ</link> ).

Ilimin Halitta

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Canje-canje masu canzawa-Intransitive

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Harsunan Chatino suna da wasu sauye-sauye na yau da kullum tsakanin kalmomi masu wucewa da masu jujjuyawa. Gabaɗaya ana nuna wannan canjin ta hanyar canza harafin farko na tushen, kamar yadda a cikin misalai masu zuwa daga Tataltepec Chatino:

sheki m intransitive
'canji' ntsaka kyar
'gama' ntye ndye
'fita' nxubiq ndyubiq
' tsoro' nccutsi ntyutsi
'narke' nxalá ndyalá
'jifa' nccua ndyalu
'binne' nxatsi ndyatsi
' firgita' ntyutsi nccutsi
'matsawa' nchquiña nguiña
'gasa' nchqiqi nguiqi

Sauye-sauye masu haddasawa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hakanan akwai sanadin halittar halittar jini a cikin Chatino, wanda aka bayyana ta hanyar prefix mai haddasawa /x-/, /xa-/, /y/, ko kuma ta hanyar ɓacin rai na baƙon farko. Zaɓin prefix ya bayyana an ƙaddara shi ta wani ɗan lokaci ta hanyar baƙar magana ta farko, kodayake akwai wasu lokuta marasa tsari. Prefix /x/ yana faruwa a gaban wasu tushen da suka fara da ɗaya daga cikin waɗannan baƙaƙe: /c, qu, ty/ ko tare da wasulan /u,a/, misali.

kacici 'wanka' (reflexive) xata jiqi 'wanka' (mai wucewa)
sallama 'bushe' (reflexive) xquityi jiqi 'bushe' (tr)
ndyuqu 'yana raye' nxtyuqu jiqi 'farke'
ndyubiq 'an fitar' nxubiq 'fita'
tatsiq 'an binne' xatsiq 'binne'
  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chatino". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.


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