Yaren Paiwan

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Yaren Paiwan
Pinayuanan
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 pwn
Glottolog paiw1248[1]

Paiwan yare ne na asali na Taiwan, wanda Paiwan, 'Yan asalin Taiwan suke magana. Paiwan yare ne na Formosan na dangin yaren Austronesian . ila yau, yana ɗaya daga cikin yarukan ƙasa na Taiwan.

Harsuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A[2] ganin bambance-bambance na Paiwan an raba su zuwa yankuna masu zuwa ta hanyar Ferrell.

  • A1 - kudu da tsakiya
    • Kuɬaɬau (Kulalao) - an yi amfani da shi a cikin Ferrell's 1982 Paiwan Dictionary saboda yaduwar fahimta da adana bambance-bambance daban-daban; kuma ana magana da shi a ƙauyen Tjuabar, Gundumar Taitung, inda ake magana da Tjariḍik da "Tjuabar" (wanda ke da alaƙa da Tjavuaɬi).
    • Kapaiwanan (Su-Paiwan)
    • Tjuaqatsiɬay (Kachirai) - yaren kudancin
  • A2 - tsakiya
    • Sashen Riki
    • Patɬjava (Ta-niao-wan)
  • B1 - mafi arewa
    • Tjukuvuɬ (Tokubun)
    • Kaviangan (Kapiyan)
  • B2 - arewa maso yamma
    • Tjaɬakavus (Chalaabus, Lai-yi)
    • Makazaya (Ma-chia)
  • B3 - gabas da tsakiya
    • Tjariḍik (Charilik)
  • B4 - gabas
    • Tjaɬvuai (Taimali)
    • Tjakuvukuvuɬ (Naibon, Chaoboobol)

This classification were thought to be corrected by Cheng 2016 as below:Samfuri:Full citation needed

Lura: Wani ƙauye da ba a san shi ba na Vuculj / Ravar an sanya shi a ƙarƙashin Vuculz a nan. *

Paridrayan group (Ravar) **Paridrayan /pariɖajan/ **Tjailjaking ** Tineljepan ** Cavak ** Tjukuvulj *Timur group ** Timur ** Tavatavang **Vuljulju ** Sagaran (Ravar-Vuculj mixture) *Makazayazaya branch **'ulaljuc ** Idra **Masilidj ** Makazayazaya **Paljulj **Kazangiljan ** Masisi **Kazazaljan ** 'apedang ** Kaviyangan ** Puljetji ** Tjuaqau *Eastern branch ** Paumeli ** Tjulitjulik ** Viljauljaulj **Kaljataran **Ka'aluan **Tjua'au ** Sapulju **Kingku **Djumulj ** Tjukuvulj *Tjagaraus branch **Payuan **Padain **Piuma *Raxekerek branch (west) ** Raxekerek ** Kinaximan ** Tjevecekadan *Raxekerek branch (east) ** Tjahiljik ** Tjacuqu ** Tjatjigelj **Tjaqup **Rahepaq **Kaljapitj **Qeceljing **Pacavalj **Kuvaxeng **Utjaqas **Ljupetj *Tjala'avus branch **Tjalja'avus **Calasiv **Tjana'asia **Pucunug **Vungalid **Pailjus

Fasahar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kuljaljau Paiwan yana [2] 23-24 consonants (/h/ ana samunsa ne kawai a cikin kalmomin aro, kuma /ʔ/ ba a saba gani ba) da wasula 4. Ba kamar sauran Harsunan Formosan da suka haɗu da yawancin alamun Proto-Austronesian ba, Paiwan yana adana mafi yawan alamun Proto'Austronesien kuma saboda haka yana da mahimmanci don dalilai na sake ginawa.

Sautin Paiwan guda huɗu sune /i ə a u/ . An rubuta /ə/ a cikin wallafe-wallafen.

Kuljaljau (Kuɬaɬau) Sunayen Paiwan
Labari Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Rashin ƙarfi Gishiri
Hanci m n ŋ
Plosive ba tare da murya ba p t c k q ʔ
murya b d Abin da ya faru ɟ ɡ
Rashin lafiya ts
Fricative ba tare da murya ba s (h)
murya v z
Trill r
Kusanci w l ʎ j
Tsakiyar Paiwan ta Tsakiya
Labari Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Rashin ƙarfi Gishiri
Hanci m n ŋ kamata a yi amfani da shiYa shafiSanya
Plosive ba tare da murya ba p t Sunan hakaYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya k Ƙadq daYanayinSanya Sunan ʔ aka yiYanayinSanya
murya b d Yanayin da ya faruAn tsara shiSanya ɟ kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya ɡ
Rashin lafiya ts ~ tʃ ShaanYanayinSanya
Fricative ba tare da murya ba s (h)
murya v z
Rhotic r ~ ɣSanya
Kusanci Ya kamata a yi la'akari da shiYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya Sunan hakaYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya Sunayen SunayenYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya

A Arewacin Paiwan an rasa consonants na palatal, kodayake wannan kwanan nan ne kuma wasu masu magana da ra'ayin mazan jiya suna kula da su a matsayin bambance-bambance na allophonic (ba a matsayin sauti daban-daban ba). /ʔ/ yana da ƙarfi, ba kamar sauran yarukan Paiwan ba inda matsayinsa ba shi da tabbas, saboda ya samo asali ne daga *q.

Harshen Paiwan na Arewa (Sandimen)
Labari Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Gishiri
Hanci m n ŋ
Plosive ba tare da murya ba p t k ʔ
murya b d Abin da ya faru ɡ
Rashin lafiya ts
Fricative ba tare da murya ba s (h)
murya v z
Mai ban sha'awa ~ Mai ban sha
Fricative
r
Kusanci w l ~ ʎ Sanya j

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yaren Paiwan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Ferrell 1982.