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Yaren Rapa

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Yaren Rapa
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 ray
Glottolog rapa1245[1]

Rapa (ko Rapan) yare ne na Rapa Iti, a cikin Tsibirin Austral na Polynesia ta Faransa, da kuma Mangaia a cikin tsibirai na Cook . Harshen Polynesia ne na Gabas. Akwai nau'[2]'i uku na yaren Rapa a halin yanzu ana magana da su a cikin Faransanci Polynesia: Tsohon Rapa, Reo Rapa da Sabon Rapa. Tsohon Rapa [3] maye gurbinsa da Reo Rapa, cakuda mafi yawan Tahitian da Tsohon Rpa. [2] Rapa - tsohuwar tsohuwar Rapa - ana yawan magana da masu magana da matsakaicin shekaru da matasa. Rapa yare mai haɗari sosai, kuma akwai kusan masu magana da Reo Rapa 300 kawai, tare da kashi 15% kawai daga cikinsu suna iya magana da Tsohon Rapa.Yana iya zama mafi ƙarfi a Mangaia, amma akwai yawan jama'a da ke raguwa na rabin karni saboda ƙaura.

Iri-iri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai nau'[2]'i uku na yaren Rapa a halin yanzu ana magana da su: Tsohon Rapa, Reo Rapa da Sabon Rapa. Tsohon Rapa shine asalin asalin Rapa. An halicci Reo Rapa a matsayin harshe, ba kawai ta hanyar haɗa kalmomin ƙamus daga Tahitian zuwa Tsohon Rapa ba, amma daga harsuna biyu da canjin harshe saboda rinjayar Tahitian. Duk [3] yake Reo Rapa ya haɗu da Tahitian da Tsohon Rapa, masu magana na iya faɗar gabaɗaya idan kalmomin da suke magana sun samo asali ne daga Tahitian ko Tsohon Rpa saboda alamun da ba su cikin yare ɗaya kuma suna cikin ɗayan. [3] da nau'in sauti, masu magana da Reo Rapa sun san cewa wasu kalmomin da suke magana na Tsohon Rapa ne ko Tahitian. [3], sautunan hanci irin su /ŋ/ da sautunan tsayawa kamar /k/ ba su cikin Tahitian ba amma suna cikin Tsohon Rapa.

Mafi yawan iri-iri a tsibirin Rapa Iti shine Reo Rapa . An kafa shi ne daga Tahitian da Tsohon Rapa kuma ya bunkasa saboda canjin harshe. Koyaya, wannan canjin ya tsaya a wani lokaci a ci gaban harshe. [3] [1] ya bayyana wannan a matsayin harshen sauyawa. Reo Rapa [3] yaren koine ba ne, inda aka halicci harshe saboda hulɗa tsakanin kungiyoyi biyu da ke magana da harsuna masu fahimta. Saduwa tsakanin Tsohon Rapa da masu magana da Tahitian ba kai tsaye ba ne kuma ba a tsawaita su ba, suna keta abin da ake buƙata don a kira harshen koiné. Reo Rapa [3] kasance sakamakon al'umma mai yare ɗaya wanda ya fara canzawa zuwa harshen Tahitian mafi rinjaye, don haka ya haifar da al'umma ta harsuna biyu, wanda daga ƙarshe ya haifar da Reo Rap . [1]

[2] harsunan 'yar'uwa ne, yana da mahimmanci a lura cewa ba Reo Rapa ko Tsohon Rapa ya kamata a rikita su da Harshen Rapa Nui ba. Bugu [4] ƙari, yaren ya bambanta da sauran harsunan tsibirin Austral don a dauke shi yare daban.

Sabon Rapa wani nau'i ne ko iri-iri na Reo Rapa wanda mutanen da ke ƙasa da shekaru 50 suka fara amfani da shi a matsayin ƙoƙari na ƙaramin ƙarni don juyar da canjin harshe zuwa harshen Tahitian. A cikin Sabon Rapa, ana canza abubuwan Tahitian a matsayin ƙoƙari na ƙirƙirar kalmomin da suka fi kama da Tsohon Rapa maimakon Tahitian. [3] matsayin hanyar da za a gano shi a matsayin mai magana da harshen Rapa na "gaskiya", sabuwar tsara tana canza harshen Reo Rapa don ya yi kama da Tahitian kuma ya fi kama da Tsohon Rapa.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rashin 'yan asalin Tsohon Rapa ya fara ne tare da raguwar yawan jama'a saboda cutar da baƙi suka kawo (musamman Turawa). A cikin shekaru biyar yawan jama'a ya ragu da kashi 75%. A shekara ta 1867 yawan jama'a ya sauka zuwa mazauna 120 daga asalin da aka kiyasta na dubu biyu. Daga cikin tsibirai na Polynesia na Faransa, Tahiti ta zama babban tasiri kuma ta zama matattarar tasirin Yamma, don haka kafin wani abu ya shiga tsibirin dole ne ya wuce ta Tahiti. [2] yake yana da tasiri mai ƙarfi, hanyoyin addini, ilimi, da gwamnati sun sami sauƙin karɓa ga mutanen Rapa Iti, kuma yaren Tahiti ya biyo baya. Harshen da aka sani da Reo Rapa ba a halicce shi ba ta hanyar haɗuwa da harsuna biyu amma ta hanyar gabatar da Tahitian ga al'ummar Rapa. Reo Rapa ba yare ne daban-daban daga Tsohon Rapa ko Tahitian ba amma harshe ne mai gauraye.

Tsohon Rapa [2] dauke shi cikin haɗari. [5] Yana [2] masu magana kaɗan kuma kawai mutanen da ke magana da Tsohon Rapa da kyau, tun daga shekarar 2015, suna cikin shekaru 60. Tsohon takardun [2] aka buga na Tsohon Rapa ya samo asali ne daga 1864, wani ɗan gajeren jerin kalmomi da James L. Green ya tattara a ƙarƙashin London Missionary Society . [1] Nazarin da ya fi dacewa game da harshe shine bayanin Walworth na 2015 game da harshen, yana bin rubutun hannu na 1930 guda biyar da ba a buga ba wanda John F.G. Stokes ya yi. Bugu [2] ƙari, an buga wani littafi na almara a cikin 2008 wanda shine samfurin aikin masanin ilimin kabilanci na Faransa Christian Ghasarian da dattijon Rapa, Alfred Make . [1]

Phonology na Tsohon Rapa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

[2]'anar Ma'anar Tsohon Rapa [1]
Labari Dental Alveolar Velar Gishiri
Plosive p t k ʔ
Hanci m n ŋ
Fricative v
Tap / Flap ɾ

Ana [2]u da wasula kamar /o="#mwt91" class="IPA" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"IPA link","href":"./Template:IPA_link"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"i"}},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwjw" lang="und-fonipa" typeof="mw:Transclusion">i, e, ɑ, o, u/ .

Kamar sauran harsuna da suka fada cikin dangin yaren Polynesian na Gabas, kayan aikin sauti na Tsohon Rapa yana da ɗan ƙarami. [2] ƙunshi kawai tara daban-daban consonants, Old Rapa an gina shi da takwas mara murya phonemes da kuma daya murya phoneme.

Daga cikin sautin tara, hudu sune sakamakon tsayawa - /p/, /t/, /k/, da /ʔ/. Duk [2] yake /p/ koyaushe Bilabal ne kuma /t/ Dento-alveolar ne, wurin da /k/ ke magana na iya kasancewa a ko'ina daga pre-Uvalar zuwa uvular. Lokacin da ake magana, wurin magana na /k/ ya dogara da ɓangaren wasula mai zuwa. Walworth yana amfani [2] misalai masu zuwa don nuna waɗannan abubuwan da suka faru daban-daban: [1]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yaren Rapa". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 Walworth 2015.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Walworth 2017.
  4. Charpentier & François 2015.
  5. The language is classed by Ethnologue as a "Shifting Language"