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Yaren Tayap

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Tayap
Tayap mer
Asali a Papua New Guinea
Yanki Gapun village, Marienberg Rural LLG, East Sepik Province
Coordinates 4°01′43″S 144°30′11″E / 4.028746°S 144.50304°E / -4.028746; 144.50304 (Gapun)Coordinates: 4°01′43″S 144°30′11″E / 4.028746°S 144.50304°E / -4.028746; 144.50304 (Gapun)
'Yan asalin magana
less than 50 (2020)[1]
Torricelli[2]
  • Sepik Coast
    • Tayap–Marienberg
      • Tayap
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 gpn
Glottolog taia1239[3]


Tayap (wanda kuma aka rubuta Taiap ; ana kiransa Gapun a cikin adabin farko, bayan sunan ƙauyen da ake magana da shi) yaren Papuan ne da ke cikin haɗari da mutane ƙasa da 50 ke magana a ƙauyen Gapun na Marienberg Rural LLG a Lardin Sepik ta Gabas, Papua New Guinea. (

Bature na farko da ya kwatanta Tayap shine Georg Höltker [de], ɗan Jamus mishan masanin harshe, a cikin 1937. Höltker ya shafe sa'o'i uku a ƙauyen kuma ya tattara jerin kalmomi na kalmomi 125, waɗanda ya buga a 1938. Ya rubuta cewa "zai jima kafin duk wani mai bincike ya yi tuntuɓe a kan Gapun, idan kawai saboda ƙananan damar samun amfanin ilimi a cikin wannan ƙananan ƙauyen ƙauyen, da kuma saboda hanyar da ba ta dace ba da wahala da ke kaiwa wannan tsibirin harshe" . [4]

Jerin Höltker shine duk abin da aka sani game da Tayap a cikin adabi har zuwa farkon 1970s, lokacin da masanin ilimin harshe na Australiya Donald Laycock ya zagaya Sepik na ƙasa don tattara jerin ƙamus na asali waɗanda suka ba shi damar ganowa da ba da shawarar rarraba yawancin harsunan da ake magana da su a wurin. Masanin ilimin harsuna Don Kulick ya yi nazari sosai kan Tayap da masu magana da shi tun tsakiyar shekarun 1980. An kwatanta harshen daki-daki a cikin Tayap Grammar da Dictionary: Rayuwa da Mutuwar Harshen Papuan da kuma a cikin Mutuwa a cikin Dajin Rain: Yadda Harshe da Hanyar Rayuwa Ya Kashe a Papua New Guinea . [6]

Har zuwa yakin duniya na biyu, lokacin da sojojin Japan suka mamaye yankin kuma suka sa mutanen ƙauyen suka gudu zuwa cikin dajin, Gapun yana kan wani tudu da shekaru dubu da dama da suka shige ya kasance tsibiri a cikin teku da ya ja da baya kuma ya kafa kogin Sepik na ƙasa. Wannan yana nuni da cewa Tayap na iya kasancewa zuriyar wani tsohon harshe ne, mai sarrafa kansa wanda ya riga ya kasance a wurin kafin raƙuman ƙaura daban-daban na ƙaura daga ciki zuwa gaɓar teku ya fara faruwa dubban shekaru da suka wuce. Foley (2018) kuma ya yi hasashen cewa Tayap zai iya kasancewa wani ɓangare na babban dangin harshe da ake magana a tsibirin kafin zuwan masu magana da ƙananan Sepik. Yayin da bakin tekun ya matsa gaba zuwa arewa maso gabas, masu magana da ƙananan Sepik sun yi ƙaura daga tsaunin tudu zuwa cikin sabbin wuraren da ruwan ya haifar. [5]

Ilimin zamantakewa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ya zuwa shekarar 2018, Gapun ne kawai kauye da ake magana da Tayap, duk da cewa wasu masu magana da harshen suma suna zaune a kauyukan da ke makwabtaka da su kamar su Wongan da Watam, inda suka koma can saboda aure ko kuma sakamakon rikicin filaye ko sihiri a Gapun. Koyaya, a cikin 2018, an kona ƙauyen Gapun tare da yin watsi da su saboda tashin hankali tsakanin gidaje. Tsoffin mazauna garin sun gudu zuwa kauyukan Wongan da ke kusa (

Sakamakon ayyukan mulkin mallaka, [11] Mutanen ƙauyen Gapun ba su sani ba suna danganta Tok Pisin da Kiristanci, zamani da ɗabi'ar namiji, kuma suna danganta Tayap da maguzanci, "koma baya", lalata mata da taurin yara. Sakamakon haka, Tayap yana ƙaruwa, amma ba a sane ko da gangan ba, wanda aka maye gurbinsa da Tok Pisin, ko da yake mutanen ƙauyen duk suna bayyana ra'ayi mai kyau game da shi kuma suna nace cewa suna son 'ya'yansu su yi yare. [13] Mazauna kauyukan sun bayyana damuwarsu game da yadda 'ya'yansu ba sa yin magana da Tayap, kuma sun yi imanin cewa, saboda taurin kai, sun yanke shawarar kin Tayap gaba daya, kuma sun zabi yin magana da Tok Pisin maimakon. [11]

Ba kamar maƙwabtan patrilineal Lower Sepik-Ramu jawabai, Tayap jawabai ne matrilineal. Tayap ya bambanta sosai da harsunan Sepik-Ramu na ƙasa.

Hakanan Tayap yana da kalmomin lamuni da yawa daga harsunan Kopar da Adjora . [14]

Tayap ba shi da alaƙa da harsunan Lower Sepik na makwabta, kodayake Usher (2020) ya gabatar da alaƙa da dangin Torricelli mafi nisa. [6]

A cikin shekarun 1970 masanin harshe dan Ostiraliya Donald Laycock ya rarraba Tayap (wanda ya kira " Gapun ") a matsayin wani yanki na phylum na Sepik-Ramu, bisa jerin kalmomin Georg Höltker na 1938 da wasu 'yan fa'idodin fi'ili da Laycock ya tattara daga masu magana biyu. .

Kulick da Terrill (2019) ba su sami wata shaida da ke nuna cewa Tayap yana da alaƙa da ƙananan harsunan Sepik, wani reshe na farkon Sepik-Ramu phylum. Sun kammala cewa Tayap keɓewar harshe ne, kodayake ba sa kwatanta shi da sauran iyalai na harshe, kamar yadda ake buƙata don kafa Tayap a matsayin dangin harshe mai zaman kansa. Kwatanta ƙamus yana nuna ƙamus na Tayap idan aka kwatanta da kewayen Harsunan Lower Sepik: misali sene 'biyu' (cf. proto-Lower Sepik *ri-pa-), neke 'ear' (*kwand-), ŋgino 'eye' (*tambri), tar 'hear' (*and-), min 'breast' (*nɨŋgay), nɨŋg 'bone' (*sariŋamp), malɨt 'tongue' (*minɨŋ), mayar 'leaf' (*nɨmpramp) tsakanin Holman et al. (2008) matsayi na jerin Swadesh . Kalmomin al'adu kamar 'kauye', 'kwale-kwale', 'oar', da 'lime', da kuma ainihin kalmomin awin 'ruwa' (cf. * arɨm) da 'ci' (cf. *am ~ *amb. ), ana iya rabawa tare da ƙananan harsunan Sepik. Kalmar karep 'moon' an raba ta musamman tare da Kopar ( karep ). Koyaya, yawancin ƙamus na yau da kullun ba su da fa'ida a cikin harsunan da ke kewaye. [7]

Ilimin sauti

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
Consonants [6]
Labial Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ŋ
M plain p t k
prenasal ᵐb <mb> ⁿd <nd> ⁿdʒ ' <nj> ᵑɡ <ŋg>
Ƙarfafawa s
Ruwa r
Semi wasali w j <y>
Wasalan [6]
Gaba Tsakiya Baya
Kusa i u
Tsakar ɛ <e> ɵ ~ ø <ɨ> ɔ <o>
Baya a

Karin magana

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tayap free pronouns a cikakken hali, da abu kari a hakikanin gaskiya, su ne: [6]

  1. Samfuri:Ethnologue18
  2. Taiap New Guinea World.
  3. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Taiap". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. Empty citation (help)
  5. Empty citation (help)
  6. "New Guinea World – Taiap". Archived from the original on 2022-10-05. Retrieved 2024-02-29.
  7. Andrew Pawley; William A. Foley. Missing |author2= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)