Zalunci da Hukuncin da ba'a saba ba

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Zalunci da Hukuncin da ba'a saba ba
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na hukuntarwa
hukunci mai tsanani

Hukunci mai tsanani da ba a saba gani ba jumla ce a cikin dokar gama-gari da ke bayyana hukuncin da ake ganin ba za a karɓa ba saboda wahala, raɗaɗi, ko cin zarafi da ake yi wa mutumin da aka sa wa takunkumi.[1][2]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

hukunci

Ƙarshen bayanin Daniyel 3:19 a cikin Littafi Mai Tsarki na Geneva (1576-1644) ya ce: “Wannan yana bayyana cewa da zarar azzalumai suka fusata, kuma da wayo suna ƙirƙirar azaba mai ban mamaki, haka kuma bayinsa suna girmama Allah. wanda ya ba su hakuri da dawwama ga zaluncin azabarsu, domin ko da ya kuɓutar da su daga mutuwa, ko kuwa don rayuwar duniya ta kasance mafi alheri." An fara amfani da waɗannan ainihin kalmomi a cikin Dokar Haƙƙin ɗan Adam ta Engila 1689. Daga baya kuma an karɓa wannan dokar a cikin Amurka ta daftari na takwas ga Kundin Tsarin Mulkin Amurka (wanda aka amince da shi 1791) da kuma a cikin Tsibirin Leeward na Biritaniya (1798). Kalmomi makamantan haka, “Babu wanda za a azabtar da shi ko kuma a yi masa zalunci, ko cin zarafi ko wulakanci ko azabtarwa”, sun bayyana a cikin Mataki na 5 na Yarjejeniyar Kare Hakkokin Bil’adama ta Duniya da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta amince da shi a ranar 10 ga Disamba, 1948. Hakki A ƙarƙashin wani tsari na daban kuma ana samunsa a cikin Mataki na 3 na Yarjejeniyar Haƙƙin Bil Adama ta Turai (1950) da kuma a cikin Mataki na 7 na Yarjejeniyar Ƙasa ta Duniya kan ƴancin Bil Adama da Siyasa (1966). Yarjejeniyar ta Kanada ta Hakkoki da ƴanci (1982) ita ma tana ƙunshe da wannan haƙƙin a sashe na 12 kuma za a same shi a cikin Mataki na 4 (yana faɗar Yarjejeniyar Turai verbatim) na Yarjejeniya ta Muhimman Haƙƙin Tarayyar Turai (2000). Hakanan ana samunsa a cikin Mataki na 16 na Yarjejeniya ta Yaƙi da Azabtar da dan adam da sauran Mummunan dabi'u ko Hukunci (1984), da kuma cikin Mataki na 40 na Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Poland (1997).[3] Kundin Tsarin Mulkin Tsibirin Marshall, a sashe na shida na Dokar Hakkokinsa (Mataki na 2), ya haramta “zalunci da hukuncin da ba'a saba ba”, wanda ya bayyana da: hukuncin kisa; azabtarwa; "cin mutunci da wulakanci"; da “ciwon tara ko rashi.

Amurka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kwaskwarima ta takwas ga Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Amurka ya bayyana cewa "baza ayi mummunan hukunci da azabtar wa da ba'a saba ba ga mai laifi." Gabaɗayan ƙa'idodin da Kotun Koli ta Amurka ta dogara da su don yanke shawara ko wani hukunci na musamman na zalunci ne ko a'a, mai shari'a William Brennan ya ƙaddara. A cikin Furman v. Georgia, 408 US 238 (1972), Justice Brennan dissenting ya rubuta, "Sa'an nan, akwai ka'idoji guda huɗu da za mu iya tantance ko wani hukunci na musamman shine 'm kuma sabon abu'." “Mahimmin tsinkaya” shinne.

  • Cewa ba dole ba ne hukunci ya zama mai wulakanta mutuncin ɗan adam” musamman azabtarwa.
  • Azãba mai tsanani wadda a bayyane yake an yi shi bisa ga kaidi (Furman da Georgia sun dakatar da hukuncin kisa na dan lokaci saboda wannan dalili.)
  • Azaba mai tsanani da aka yi watsi da ita a cikin al'umma.
  • Azãba mai tsanani wanda bai zama dole ba.
hukunci

Kuma ya ƙara da cewa: "Ayyukan waɗannan ka'idoji, bayan haka, shine kawai samar da hanyoyin da kotu za ta iya tantance ko hukuncin da aka ƙalubalanci ya dace da mutuncin dan Adam. Don haka, suna da alaka da juna, kuma, a mafi yawan lokuta. lokuta, haɗin kansu ne zai tabbatar da cewa hukunci 'mummuna ne kuma sabon abu.' Jarabawa, to, yawanci za ta kasance mai tarawa: idan hukunci ya yi tsanani sosai, idan akwai yuwuwar yin shi ba bisa ka'ida ba, idan al'ummar wannan zamani ta ƙi amincewa da shi, kuma idan babu wani dalili na yarda da hakan. yana aiki da kowace manufa mafi inganci fiye da wasu hukunce-hukuncen da ba su da ƙarfi, sannan ci gaba da aiwatar da wannan hukuncin ya saba wa umarnin Sashe na cewa Gwamnati ba za ta iya hukunta waɗanda aka samu da aikata laifuka ba. Ya ci gaba da rubuta cewa yana sa ran cewa babu wata ƙasa da za ta zartar da wata doka a fili ta keta ɗaya daga cikin waɗannan ƙa'idodin, don haka hukunce-hukuncen kotu game da Kwaskwarima ta Takwas za ta ƙunshi nazarin "tari" game da abin da kowane ɗayan ƙa'idodin guda huɗu ke da shi. Ta wannan hanyar, Kotun Koli ta Amurka "ta kafa ma'auni cewa hukunci zai kasance mai tsanani da kuma sabon abu ga wanda yayi laifin, ya kasance mai saɓani, idan ya ɓata ma'anar adalci da ake so a tabbatar a cikin al'umma, ko kuma idan ya yi laifi. bai fi tasiri ba fiye da mafi ƙarancin hukunci.[4]

Hukuncin kisa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A ƙarƙashin Hukuncin kisa Akwai tattaunawa mai yawan gaske game da ko kuma idan ana ɗaukar hukuncin kisa a matsayin zalunci da kuma sabon abu.[5] Hukunce-hukuncen gama gari sune cewa hukuncin kisa ya fi tsada lokacin da ake ƙara ƙararraki da rayuwa a gidan yari, da kuma cewa gwamnati ta yi kuskure a baya kan hukuncin kisa (don haka, gwamnati na iya sake yin kwaskwarima, kuma bai kamata gwamnati ta sami ikon kashewa ba a rayuwa). Wadannan muhawara guda biyu kadai za su iya ko ba za su iya shiga cikin gwaje-gwajen da gwamnati ta yi ba, wanda kuma za a iya la'akari da ita a matsayin mai son rai, musamman ma idan ba a yi wa al'umma cikakken bayani kan wadannan muhimman bayanai ba. Ga mafi yawan tarihin da aka rubuta, hukuncin kisa ya kasance da gangan da gangan, mai zafi, da/ko wulakanci. Hanyoyi masu tsanani na kisa na tarihi sun haɗa da dabaran karya, rataye, zana da kwata, lallashi kafin mutuwa, mutuwa ta hanyar ƙonewa, kisa ta hanyar nutsewa, mutuwa ta yunwa, cututtuka, ƙeƙashewa, rushewa, gicciye, daskarewa, murkushewa, kisa da giwa, jifa, tarwatsewa, sarewa, yankan jinkiri, mikiya na jini, azabtar da bamboo da sarƙaƙƙiya. A cikin 2008, Michael Portillo akan wasan kwaikwayon Horizon ya yi jayayya cewa a cikin tabbatar da aiwatar da kisa ba dabi'a na zalunci ba ne, dole ne a cika waɗannan ka'idoji:

  • Mutuwa ta zama mai sauri da rashin zafi don hana wahala ga wanda ake kashewa
  • Ya kamata a ba da ilimin likitanci ga mai zartar da hukunci don hana wahala ta hanyar kuskure
  • Kada mutuwar ta zama mai tsanani (don hana wahala ga masu aiwatar da kisa)
  • kuma Bai kamata a buƙaci haɗin kai daga mutumin da ake kashewa ba, don hana rashin aiki, damuwa, da/ko wahala da fursunoni ya haifar da buƙatar shiga cikin aiwatar da nasu. Ya kamata a bayyana an cika ka'idoji, ta hanyar yin amfani da haɗin gas na argon da nitrogen, kamar yadda mutumin da ake kashewa ba zai ji wani ciwo na jiki ba amma zai fuskanci yanayi na daban. An ƙara da cewa ana iya amfani da wadannan iskar gas a cikin arha da inganci ta hanyar kame fursunoni ta hanyar kame jiki da abin rufe fuska.[6]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Britain's unwritten constitution". British Library. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015. The key landmark is the Bill of Rights (1689), which established the supremacy of Parliament over the Crown. ... The Bill of Rights (1689) then settled the primacy of Parliament over the monarch's prerogatives, providing for the regular meeting of Parliament, free elections to the Commons, free speech in parliamentary debates, and some basic human rights, most famously freedom from 'cruel or unusual punishment'.
  2. s:Constitution of the Republic of Poland/Chapter 2Constitution of Poland, Chapter 2
  3. Palmer, Jr., Louis J. (July 1999). Organ Transplants from Executed Prisoners: An Argument for the Creation of Death Sentence Organ Removal Statutes. Mcfarland & Co Inc Pub. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-7864-0673-9.
  4. the International Justice Project. "Seminal Cases - Brief Bank & General Resources - the International Justice Project". Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  5. "The Death Penalty: Revenge Is the Mother of Invention". Time. 24 January 1983. Archived from the original on February 22, 2008.
  6. "BBC - Horizon - How to Kill a Human Being".