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Zamanin Zinare na Musulunci

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Zamanin Zinare na Musulunci
time interval (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na history of Islam (en) Fassara
Lokacin farawa 800
Lokacin gamawa 1258

Zamanin Zinare na Islama (Larabci: العصر الذهبي للإسلام, romanized: al-'asr al-dhahabi lil-islam), wani zamani ne na al'adu, tattalin arziki, da kimiyya a cikin tarihin musulunci, wanda aka saba tun daga karni na 8 zuwa karni na. A bisa ga al’ada an fahimci cewa wannan lokacin ya fara ne a zamanin halifan Abbasawan Harun al-Rashid (786 zuwa 809) tare da buɗe Gidan Hikima a Baghdad,birni mafi girma a duniya a lokacin,inda malaman addinin Islama da polymaths daga sassa daban-daban.na duniya da ke da al'adu daban-daban an wajabta su tattara da kuma fassara duk sanannun ilimin gargajiya na duniya zuwa Syriac da Larabci. al’adance an ce lokacin ya ƙare tare da rugujewar khalifancin Abbasiyya saboda mamayar Mongol da Kewayen Baghdad a shekarar alif 1258. Wasu scholarsan malamai sun ba da ƙarshen zamanin zinariya kusan 1350 wanda ke alaƙa da Renaissance na Timur yayin da masana tarihi da masana da yawa na zamani suka sanya ƙarshen Zamanin Zamanin Islama har zuwa ƙarshen ƙarni na 15 zuwa 16 da suka hadu da zamanin Bindiga na Musulunci.(Zamanin daular Musulunci yana da kamanni sosai idan ba iri daya ba, inda wata majiya ta bayyana shi a matsayin 900-1300 CE).

Abubuwan da ke ciki Tarihin dabaru Dalilin 2.1 Tasirin addini 2.2 Tallafin Gwamnati 2.3 Gudummawa iri-iri 2.4 Sabon fasaha 3 Ilimi 4 Doka 5 Tiyoloji 6 Falsafa 6.1 Tsarin Jari 6.2 Epistemology 7 Lissafi 7.1 Algebra 7.2 Geometry 7.3 Trigonometry 7.4 Lissafi 8 Kimiyyar Halittu 8.1 Hanyar kimiyya 8.2 Falaki 8.3 Kimiyyar lissafi 8.4 Chemistry 8.5 Geodesy 8.6 Ilimin halittu 9 Injiniya 10 Ilimin zamantakewa 11 Kiwon lafiya 11.1 Asibitoci 11.2 Pharmacy 11.3 Magunguna 11.4 Yin tiyata 12 Kasuwanci da tafiya 12.1 Noma 13 Arts da al'adu 13.1 Adabi da waka 13.2 Art 13.3 Kiɗa 13.3.1 Masu tunani da polymaths na Asiya ta Tsakiya da Larabawa suna mai da hankali kan kiɗa 13.4 Gine-gine 14 Ragewa 14.1 Ragewa 14.2 Tattalin Arziki 14.3 Al'adu 15 Duba kuma 16 Bayanan kula 17 Nassoshi 18 Kara karantawa 19 Hanyoyin waje.

Tarihin dabaru Fadada Kalifofi, 622-750 Fadada a karkashin Muhammad, 622-632 Fadada yayin daular Rashidun, 632-661 Fadada yayin daular Umayyawa, 661-750 An fara amfani da kwatancen zamanin zinare a cikin littattafan ƙarni na 19 game da tarihin Islama, a cikin yanayin yanayin kyawawan halaye na yamma waɗanda ake kira Orientalism. Marubucin Littafin Jagora don Matafiya a Siriya da Falasdinu a 1868 ya lura cewa mafi kyawun masallatan Dimashƙu sun kasance "kamar Mohammedanism kanta, yanzu yana saurin lalacewa" da abubuwan tarihi na "zamanin zinariya na Islama Babu cikakkiyar ma'anar kalmar, kuma ya danganta da ko ana amfani da shi tare da mai da hankali kan al'adu ko cimma nasarar soja, ana iya ɗauka don yin nuni zuwa ga ɓarna tsakanin lokacin. Don haka, marubuci na ƙarni na 19 zai so ya ƙara tsawon lokacin halifancin, ko zuwa "ƙarni shida da rabi yayin da wani zai ce ya ƙare bayan 'yan shekaru kaɗan na yaƙin Rashidun, tare da mutuwar Umar da Fitina ta Farko. A farkon karni na 20, ana amfani da kalmar ne kawai lokaci-lokaci kuma galibi ana kiranta da nasarorin soja na farko na khalifofin Rashidun. Ya kasance ne kawai a rabi na biyu na ƙarni na 20 lokacin da aka fara amfani da kalmar tare da kowane irin yanayi, yanzu galibi ana magana ne akan cigaban al'adun kimiyya da lissafi a ƙarƙashin halifofi a lokacin ƙarni na 9 zuwa 11 (tsakanin kafa malanta a cikin Gidan Hikima da farkon yakin jihadi), amma galibi ana fadada shi har ya hada da wani bangare na karshen 8 ko 12 zuwa farkon karni na 13. Ma'anar har yanzu na iya bambanta da yawa. Daidaita ƙarshen zamanin zinariya da ƙarshen khalifofi abu ne mai sauƙi na yankewa dangane da tarihin tarihi, amma ana iya jayayya cewa al'adun Islama sun fara raguwa sannu a hankali da wuri; don haka, Khan (2003) ya nuna zamanin da ya dace na kasancewa ƙarni biyu tsakanin 750 da 950, yana mai cewa farkon asarar yankuna a ƙarƙashin Harun al-Rashid ya taɓarɓare bayan mutuwar al-Ma'mun a shekara ta 833, kuma yaƙin jihadi ne a cikin.

Dalilin Tasirin addini Babban Labari: Halayyar Musulunci ga kimiyya Umarnin Alkur'ani daban-daban da Hadisi (ko ayyukan Muhammad), wadanda suke fifita dabi'u kan ilimi da kuma jaddada mahimmancin neman ilimi, sun taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen yin tasiri ga musulmin wannan zamanin a cikin neman iliminsu da ci gaban jikin kimiyya.

Tallafin gwamnati Daular Musulunci ta kasance mai daukar nauyin malamai. Kudin da aka kashe akan Harkar Fassara don wasu fassarar an kiyasta sun kai kusan biyu na kasafin kudin bincike na shekara shekara na Majalisar Binciken Kiwon Lafiya ta United Kingdom. Mafi shahararrun malamai kuma fitattun masu fassara, kamar su Hunayn ibn Ishaq, suna da albashi wanda aka kiyasta sun yi daidai da kwararrun 'yan wasa a yau. Gidan Hikima dakin karatu ne wanda khalifa al-Mansur ya kafa a zamanin Abbasiyya na Baghdad, Iraki.

Gudummawa iri-iri Manyan labarai: Gudummawar Girka ga duniyar Islama, tasirin Indiya akan kimiyyar Islama, tasirin Kirista a cikin Islama, da tasirin China a kan tukwanen Islama A wannan lokacin, Musulmai sun nuna babbar sha'awa ga mamaye ilimin kimiyya na wayewar kan da aka ci da yaki. Yawancin ayyukan gargajiya na zamanin dā waɗanda watakila sun ɓace an fassara su daga Girkanci, Syriac, Persian na Tsakiya, da Sanskrit zuwa Syriac da Larabci, wasu daga baya kuma daga baya aka juya su zuwa wasu harsunan kamar Ibrananci da Latin Kiristoci, musamman mabiya Cocin Gabas (Nestorians), sun ba da gudummawa ga wayewar Musulunci a lokacin mulkin Ummayads da Abbasiyawa ta hanyar fassara ayyukan masana falsafa na Girka da tsohuwar ilimin kimiyya zuwa Syriac sannan daga baya zuwa Larabci.Sun kuma yi fice a fannoni da yawa, musamman falsafa, kimiyya (kamar Hunayn bin Ishaq, Yusuf Al-Khuri, Al Himsi, Qusta ibn Luqa, Masawaiyh, 27 Eutychius na sarki, da Jabril bn Bukhtishu da tiyoloji. Na dogon lokaci likitocin Khalifofin Abbasiyawa galibi Kiristocin Assuriya ne. Daga cikin mashahuran dangin Krista da suka yi aiki a matsayin likitoci ga khalifofi sun hada da daular Bukhtishu.Likitan kirista Hunayn ibn Ishaq ya jagoranci gidan Hikima.A cikin ƙarni na 4 zuwa 7, aikin malanta na Kirista a cikin Hellenanci da Syriac ya kasance sabon fassara ne ko kuma an adana shi tun zamanin Helenawa. Daga cikin shahararrun cibiyoyin ilmantarwa da yada hikimomin gargajiya akwai kwalejojin Kirista kamar Makarantar Nisibis] da Makarantar Edessa,cibiyar koyar da arna a Harran, da mashahurin asibiti da makarantar koyon aikin likita. na Jundishapur, wanda ya kasance cibiyar ilimi, tauhidi da kimiyya na Cocin na Gabas. Gidan Hikima an kafa shi a Baghdad a cikin 825, wanda aka tsara shi da Makarantar Koyon Kasuwancin Gondishapur. Likitan kirista Hunayn ibn Ishaq ne ya jagorance ta, tare da tallafin maganin Rumawa. Yawancin ayyukan falsafa da kimiyya masu mahimmanci na tsohuwar duniyar aka fassara, gami da aikin Galen, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle, Ptolemy da Archimedes. Yawancin malamai na gidan Hikima sun kasance asalin Krista ne. Daga cikin kasashe da al'adu daban-daban da aka ci nasara ta hanyar yaƙe-yaƙe na Musulunci a jere, ƙwararrun masanan kimiyya sun samo asali ne daga Farisa, waɗanda suka ba da gudummawa ƙwarai wajen bunƙasa ilimin kimiyya na zamanin Zamanin Islama. A cewar Bernard Lewis: "A al'adance, a siyasance, kuma mafi birgewa har ma ta fuskar addini, gudummawar mutanen Farisa ga wannan sabon wayewar ta Musulunci na da matukar muhimmanci. Ana iya ganin aikin Iraniyawa a kowane fanni na al'adu, gami da wakokin Larabci, zuwa wacce mawaka asalinsu Iraniyawa suke tsara wakokinsu cikin larabci sun bayar da gagarumar gudummawa.

Sabuwar fasaha Wani rubutu wanda aka rubuta akan takarda yayin zamanin Abbasiyyawa. Tare da sabon tsarin rubutu mai sauki da sauki, da kuma gabatar da takarda, bayanai sun kasance masu dimokiradiyya har ta yadda, mai yiwuwa karo na farko a tarihi, ya zama mai yuwuwar samun rayuwa daga kawai rubutu da sayar da littattafai. Amfani da takarda ya bazu daga China zuwa yankuna Musulmai a ƙarni na takwas, ya isa Al-Andalus a tsibirin Iberia (Spain da Fotigal na zamani) a ƙarni na 10. Ya fi sauƙin kerawa fiye da takarda, wanda ba zai iya fashewa fiye da papyrus ba, kuma zai iya shan tawada, yana mai da wuya a share shi kuma ya dace da adana bayanai. Masu yin takardu na Musulunci sun kirkiro hanyoyin hada-hadar rubuce-rubucen hannu don fitar da fitowar da ta fi duk wacce ake samu a Turai girma tsawon karnoni. Daga wadannan kasashe ne sauran kasashen duniya suka koyi yin takarda daga leda.

Ilimi Karin bayani: Madrasa Matsakaicin nassi da nazarinsa a cikin al'adun musulunci ya taimaka wajen mayar da ilimi ya zama ginshikin addinin a kusan kowane lokaci da wurare a tarihin Musulunci. Mahimmancin ilmantarwa a cikin al'adar addinin Islama ya bayyana a cikin hadisai da dama da aka danganta ga Muhammad, ciki har da wanda ke umurtar masu aminci da "neman ilimi, har ma a China An ga wannan umarnin da ya shafi malamai musamman, har ma zuwa ga sauran musulmin da yawa, kamar yadda misalin al-Zarnuji ya nuna, "an wajabta ilmantarwa gare mu baki daya ] Duk da yake ba zai yuwu a kirga yawan karatu da rubutu ba a cikin al'ummomin musulinci kafin zamani, amma kusan a iya cewa sun yi yawa, a kalla idan aka kwatanta da takwarorinsu na Turai. Shirya umarni a cikin Masallacin Al-Azhar na Alkahira ya fara ne a cikin 978 Ilimi zai fara ne tun yana karami tare da karatun larabci da alqurani, ko a gida ko a makarantar firamare, wanda galibi yake hade da masallaci. Wasu daliban za su ci gaba da samun horo a tafsiri (tafsirin Alqur'ani) da fiqhu (fikihun musulunci), wanda ake ganin yana da matukar muhimmanci. Ilimi ya maida hankali kan haddacewa, amma kuma ya horar da daliban da suka ci gaba don su zama masu karatu da marubuta a al'adar sharhi a kan rubutun da aka karanta. Hakanan ya hada da tsarin zamantakewar malamai masu son zama, wadanda suka fito daga kusan dukkanin bangarorin zamantakewa, zuwa cikin malamai. A karnonin farko na Musulunci, tsarin ilimi bai kasance ba bisa ka'ida ba, amma farawa a karni na 11 da 12, manyan masu mulki sun fara kafa cibiyoyin karatun addini da aka fi sani da madrasas a kokarin samun goyon baya da hadin kan malamai. Madrasas ba da daɗewa ba sun yawaita a duk duniyar musulinci, wanda ya taimaka wajen yaɗa ilimin addinin musulunci a bayan biranen birni da kuma haɗa kan al'ummomin musulmai daban-daban a cikin aikin al'adu da aka raba. Duk da haka, koyarwa ta kasance tana mai da hankali kan alaƙar mutum da ɗalibai da malamin su. Tabbacin shaidar samun ilimi, ijaza, wani malami ne ya bayar da shi maimakon cibiyoyin, kuma ya sanya mai shi a cikin tsatson asalin malamai, wanda shine kawai tsarin da aka sani a tsarin ilimi. Yayin da karatun boko a cikin madrasas ya kasance ga maza ne kawai, mata na manyan mashahuran iyalai na birane suna da ilimi koyaushe a kebantattun wurare kuma da yawa daga cikinsu sun samu kuma daga baya sun ba da ijazas a karatun hadisi, rubutun rubutu da karatun waƙa. Mata masu aiki suna koyon rubuce-rubucen addini da dabarun aiki da farko daga juna, kodayake sun sami wasu koyarwa tare da maza a masallatai da gidajen masu zaman kansu.

Madrasas sun ba da himma musamman don nazarin shari'a, amma kuma suna ba da wasu fannoni kamar ilimin tauhidi, magani, da lissafi.Hadadden madrasa yawanci ya kunshi masallaci, gidan kwana, da dakin karatu.Wakafi ne ya kula dashi, wanda yake biyan malaman jami'a albashinsu, alawus na dalibai, da kuma yin watsi da kudin gini da gyaran su. Madrasa ta kasance ba kamar ta kwaleji ta zamani ba ta yadda ba ta da ingantaccen tsarin karatu ko tsarin ba da takardar sheda.

Musulmai sun bambance ilimin da aka gada daga wayewar jahiliyya, kamar falsafa da magani, wadanda suke kira "ilimin magabata" ko "ilimin hankali", daga ilimin addinin Musulunci, Ilimin kimiyyar na farko ya bunkasa tsawon karnoni da dama, kuma ya yada su ya zama wani bangare na tsarin ilimi a addinin musulunci da na da. A wasu lokuta, cibiyoyi kamar su Gidan Hikima a Baghdad sun tallafa musu, amma galibi ana yada su ne ta hanyar sadarwa daga malami zuwa dalibi.
Jami'ar Al Karaouine, wacce aka kafa a shekara ta alif 859 Miladiyya, tana cikin littafin The Guinness Book Of Records a matsayin tsohuwar jami'ar da ke ba da digiri a duniya Jami'ar Al-Azhar wata tsohuwar madrasa ce wacce yanzu aka amince da ita a matsayin jami'a. Madrasa tana daga cikin kayan tarihin halifancin Fatimiyya. Fatimids sun samo asali ne daga diyar Muhammad Fatimah kuma suka sanya mata sunan ta hanyar amfani da wani nau'I na taken girmamawarta Al-Zahra (mai fasaha). An fara koyar da tsari a cikin Masallacin Al-Azhar a shekarar 978.

Doka Babban Labari: Shari'a Tunani na shari’a ya bunkasa a hankali a cikin dawarorin karatu, inda malamai masu zaman kansu suka hadu don koyo daga maigida na cikin gida da tattauna batutuwan addini.] Da farko, wadannan da'irorin sun kasance suna da ruwa a cikin membobinsu, amma tare da lokaci daban-daban makarantun lauyoyi na yanki aka zana su a kusa da tsarin da aka raba na ka'idoji.Yayin da iyakokin makarantu suka zama a bayyane suke, sai aka sami ikon mallakar ka'idojin koyarwarsu a hannun wani masanin shari'a a zamanin da, wanda daga yanzu aka gano, shi ne wanda ya kafa makarantar. A karnoni ukun farko na musuluinci, duk makarantun lauyoyi sun yarda da shimfidaddun ka'idoji na shari'ar gargajiya, wanda ya zama dole ne shari'ar musuluinci ta kasance mai tushe a cikin Alqur'ani da hadisi, Ka’idar gargajiya ta shari’ar Musulunci ta yi bayani dalla-dalla kan yadda ya kamata a fassara nassoshi ta mahangar ilimin harshe da magana. Hakanan ya kunshi hanyoyi don tabbatar da ingancin hadisi da kuma tantance lokacin da aka shafe ikon shari'a na nassi ta hanyar nassi da aka saukar a wani lokaci na gaba. Baya ga Alqur'ani da sunna, ka'idar ilimin fiqhu na Sunni ta yarda da wasu tushe biyu na shari'a: ijma'i na shari'a (ijmaʿ) da dalilan misalai (qiyas). Don haka yana nazarin aikace-aikace da iyakokin kwatankwacinsu, gami da kimantawa da iyakokin yarjejeniya, tare da wasu ka'idoji, wadanda wasu makarantun shari'a ne kawai ke karbar su. [58] An kawo wannan kayan aikin tawilin ne a karkashin tsarin ijtihadi, wanda yake nuni ga aikin malami a kokarin isa ga hukunci kan wata tambaya takamaimai. [58] Ka'idar fikihun Shi'a goma sha biyu ta yi daidai da ta mazhabobin Sunna da ke da wasu bambance-bambance, kamar yarda da hankali (ʿaql) a matsayin madogara ta shari'a a madadin qiyasi da fadada ra'ayin sunna don hada hadisan imamai.Jikin masana shari'ar musulunci masu zaman kansu (muftis) ne suka kirkireshi. Ra'ayoyinsu na fatawa (fatawoyin) sun kasance la'akari da alƙalai da aka nada waɗanda ke jagorantar kotunan ƙāḍī, da kotunan maẓālim, waɗanda majalisar masarautar ke iko da su da kuma zartar da dokar laifi.

Tiyoloji Babban Labari: Tauhidin Musulunci Tauhidin addinin Musulunci na gargajiya ya samo asali ne daga takaddama ta farko ta koyarwar da ta haifar da gwagwarmayar ahl al-hadisi, karkashin jagorancin Ahmad ibn Hanbal, wanda ya dauki Alqur'ani da ingantaccen hadisi a matsayin kawai karbabbun hukuma a al'amuran imani, da Mu'tazilites da sauran hanyoyin ilimin tauhidi. , wanda ya inganta koyaswar tiyoloji ta amfani da hanyoyin hankali. A shekara ta alif 833, khalifa al-Ma'mun ya yi kokarin sanya tiyolojin Mu'tazilite a kan dukkan malaman addini kuma ya kafa bincike (mihna), amma kokarin sanya khalifa a rubuce a cikin al'amuran da suka shafi ka'idojin addini daga karshe ya ci tura. [61] Wannan takaddama ta ci gaba har zuwa lokacin da al-Ash'ari (874–936) ya sami tsaka-tsakin tsaka-tsakin Mu'tazilite da rubuce-rubucen Hanbalite, ta amfani da hanyoyin hankali da Mu'tazilites suka gabatar don kare akidun da Ahl al-hadisi ya inganta. Yarjejeniyar adawa tsakanin hankali da rubuce-rubuce ta samo asali ne daga aikin al-Maturidi (dc 944), kuma, kodayake wasu tsirarun malamai sun kasance masu aminci ga akidar ahl al-hadisi na farko, ilimin tauhidin Ash'ari da Maturidi sun mamaye musulunci na Sunni daga karni na 10 akan.

Falsafa Wani rubutun larabci daga karni na 13 wanda ke nuna Socrates (Soqrāt) yana tattaunawa tare da daliban sa Babban Labari: Falsafar Musulunci Ibn Sina (Avicenna) da Ibn Rushd (Averroes) sun taka rawa wajen fassara ayyukan Aristotle, wanda tunaninshi ya zo ya mamaye tunanin mara addini ga duniyar Kiristan da ta Musulmai. A cewar Stanford Encyclopedia of Falsafa, fassarar matanin ilimin falsafa daga Larabci zuwa Latin a Yammacin Turai "ya haifar da sauya kusan dukkanin fannonin ilimin falsafa a duniyar Latin ta da Tasirin masana falsafa na Islama a cikin Turai yana da ƙarfi musamman a falsafar halitta, halayyar mutumtaka da ilimin tauhidi, kodayake hakan ma ya rinjayi nazarin dabaru da ɗabi'a

Metaphysics Ibn Sina yayi jayayya game da tunaninsa na "Mutumin da ke Shawagi" game da wayewar kai, a inda mutum ya hana kwarewar hankali ta hanyar rufe masa ido da kuma faduwa kyauta zai kasance da sanin wanzuwarsa.

Epistemology A ilimin ilimin halayyar dan adam, Ibn Tufail ya rubuta labari mai suna Hayy ibn Yaqdhan sannan a martanin da Ibn al-Nafis ya rubuta littafin Theologus Autodidactus. Dukansu suna magana ne game da yanayin rayuwar mutum kamar yadda aka haskaka ta rayuwar yaro mai ɓarna kai tsaye wanda aka samar cikin kogo a tsibirin hamada.

Lissafi Babban Labari: Lissafi a cikin Daular Musulunci Algebra Tsarin lissafi: wata hanyar da ke bakin titin Sultan a cikin Masallacin Green Ottoman a Bursa, Turkey (1424), girih madauri ta samar da taurari 10 da pentagons Masanin lissafi dan kasar Farisa Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī ya taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen bunkasa algebra, lissafi da kuma adadi na Hindu-Arabiya. An bayyana shi a matsayin uba ko wanda ya kafa na aljebra Wani masanin ilmin lissafi na Farisa, Omar Khayyam, ana yaba shi da gano tushen ilimin lissafi. Omar Khayyam ya sami cikakken bayani game da yanayin lissafin sukari. Littafinsa mai suna Treatise on Demonstrations of Problems of Algebra (1070), wanda ya shimfida ka'idojin algebra, wani bangare ne na lissafin Farisanci wanda daga karshe aka yada shi zuwa Turai. Har ila yau wani masanin ilmin lissafi dan kasar Farisa, Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī, ya samo maganin algebra da adadi ga lamura daban-daban na lissafin sukari. Ya kuma haɓaka tunanin aiki

Geometry Karin bayani: Tsarin alamomin Musulunci Ayyukan fasaha na Islama suna amfani da alamun geometric da alamomi a yawancin fasalolin fasaha, musamman a cikin girih tilings. Ana kirkirar waɗannan ta amfani da saiti na siffofin tayal guda biyar, waɗanda suka hada da kayan ado na yau da kullun, hexagon mai tsayi, kambun baka, rhombus, da pentagon na yau da kullun. Duk bangarorin wadannan tayal din suna da tsayi iri daya; kuma dukkan kusurwoyinsu sun ninka na 36 ° (π / 5 radians), suna ba da riba biyar da goma. An yi ado da fale-falen tare da layin madauri (girih), galibi ya fi bayyane fiye da iyakokin tayal. A shekara ta 2007, masanan kimiyyar lissafi Peter Lu da Paul Steinhardt sun yi gardama cewa girih daga karni na 15 ya yi kama da quasicrystalline Penrose tilings. Ayyukan tayal na aikin kere kere wani yanki ne na musamman a tsarin gine-ginen Morocco. Muqarnas vaults masu girma uku ne amma an tsara su cikin girma biyu tare da zane na ƙwayoyin geometrical.

Tsarin aiki Alwatiran da aka yiwa alama tare da abubuwan da dokokin zunubi ya ƙunsa. Babban birnin A, B da C sune kusurwa, kuma ƙananan ƙananan a, b, c sune gefen da ke gaba da su. (kishiyar A, da sauransu) Ibn Muʿādh al-Jayyānī ɗayan masana ilimin lissafi ne na Islama waɗanda aka jingina musu hukuncin zunubi; ya rubuta Littafinsa na Uncs Arcs of a Sphere a cikin karni na 11. Wannan dabara ta danganta tsayin bangarorin kowane alwatika, maimakon madaidaita murabba'i daya kawai, da sinadarin kusurwoyinta. [79] A cewar doka, {\ displaystyle {\ frac {\ sin A} {a}} \, = \, {\ frac {\ sin B} {b}} \, = \, {\ frac {\ sin C} {c}}. } \ frac {\ sin A} {a} \, = \, \ frac {\ sin B} {b} \, = \, \ frac {\ sin C} {c}. inda a, b, da c suke tsayin bangarorin alwatika, kuma A, B, da C sune kusurwa kusurwa (duba hoto).

Cididdiga Alhazen ya gano tsarin hada karfi na hudu, ta hanyar amfani da wata hanyar da za'a iya amfani da ita gaba daya wajen tantance kudin ga dukkan wani karfi. Yayi amfani da wannan don gano ƙarar paraboloid. Zai iya nemo tsarin da zai iya amfani da kowane irin abu ba tare da ya kirkiro wata dabara ba

Hanyar kimiyya Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) ya kasance mutum mai mahimmanci a tarihin hanyar kimiyya, musamman ma wajen tsarin gwaji, kuma an bayyana shi a matsayin "masanin gaskiya na farko na duniya Avicenna ta yi dokoki don gwajin tasirin kwayoyi, gami da cewa sakamakon da kwayar gwajin ta samar ya kamata a gan shi akai-akai ko bayan maimaitawa da yawa, don a kirga shi. Likita Rhazes ya kasance farkon mai ba da shawarar gwajin gwaji kuma ya ba da shawarar amfani da iko don binciken asibiti. Ya ce: "Idan kuna son yin nazarin tasirin zub da jini a kan wani yanayi, sai ku raba marasa lafiya gida biyu, ku yi jini a wani rukuni kawai, ku kalli duka biyun, sannan ku gwada sakamakon."

Falaki Babban labarin: Falaki a cikin Daular Islama

Ma'aurata Tusi A wajajen 964 AD, masanin Falasdinu Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, yana rubutu a cikin Littafinsa na Kafaffen Taurari, ya bayyana “tabo mai ban tsoro” a cikin taurarin Andromeda, farkon bayanin tabbatacce ga abin da muka sani yanzu shine Andromeda Galaxy, the galaxy mafi kusa da galaxy din mu. Nasir al-Din al-Tusi ya kirkiri wata fasahar kere-kere wacce ake kira Tusi-couple, wacce ke samar da layi daga lissafin motsi biyu domin maye gurbin matsalar Ptolemy mai matsala. Ma'auratan Tusi daga baya an yi musu aiki a tsarin ilimin ƙasa na Ibn al-Shatir da samfurin heliocentric na Nicolaus Copernicus [90] kodayake ba a san ko wanene mai shiga tsakani ba ko kuma idan Copernicus ya sake gano dabarar da kansa ba. Sunayen wasu taurari da aka yi amfani da su, gami da Rigel da Vega, har yanzu ana amfani da su.

Jiki Babban labarin: ilimin kimiyyar lissafi na Musulunci Alhazen ya taka rawa wajen bunkasa gani da ido. Oneaya daga cikin ra'ayoyin hangen nesa a zamaninsa da wurinsa shine ka'idar watsi da Euclid da Ptolemy suka goyi bayansa, inda gani ya yi aiki ta hanyar hasken ido da ke fitar da haske, ɗayan kuma shine ka'idar Aristotelean cewa gani yayi aiki lokacin da asalin abubuwa ke gudana cikin idanu. Alhazen ya yi daidai da hujja cewa hangen nesa ya faru ne lokacin da haske, ke tafiya cikin layi madaidaici, yana nuna abu a cikin idanu. Al-Biruni ya rubuta bayanai game da haske, yana mai cewa dole ne hanzarta ta zama babba idan aka kwatanta ta da saurin sauti.

Chemistry Babban labarin: Alchemy da ilmin sunadarai a tsohuwar zamanin Islama Zamanin farko na musulunci ya ga kafa wasu daga cikin mafi tsayi tsarukan tsarin ilimin kimiya da ilmin sunadarai. Ka'idar sulphur-mercury na karafa, an fara tabbatar da ita a cikin karya-Apollonius na Tyana Sirr al-khalīqa ("Asirin Halitta", c. 750-850) kuma a cikin rubuce-rubucen larabci da ake dangantawa da Jābir ibn Ḥayyān (an rubuta c. 850950), zai ci gaba da zama asalin dukkan ka'idojin kayan karafa har zuwa karni na goma sha takwas.Hakanan, Emerald Tablet, ƙaramin rubutu mai cike da annashuwa wanda duk masana masu zuwa har zuwa ciki har da Isaac Newton (1642-1727) za su ɗauka a matsayin tushen fasaharsu, ya fara faruwa a cikin Sirr al-khalīqa kuma a ɗayan ayyukan da ake dangantawa zuwa Jābir.Hakanan an sami ci gaba mai mahimmanci a cikin ilimin kimiya. Ayyukan da aka danganta ga Jābir, da na masanin ilimin kimiya na Farisanci da kuma likita Abū Bakr al-Rāzī (854-925), sun ƙunshi farkon sanannun tsarin tsarin abubuwa masu sinadarai. Koyaya, masana alchemists ba wai kawai sha'awar ganowa da rarraba abubuwa masu sinadarai bane, har ma da ƙirƙirar su ta hanyar hannu. Muhimmin misalai daga duniyar musulunci ta daɗaɗɗen zamani sun haɗa da hadawar ammonium chloride daga abubuwan ƙirar jiki kamar yadda aka bayyana a cikin ayyukan da aka danganta su ga Jābir, da Abū Bakr al-Rāzī na gwaje-gwajen tare da vitriol, wanda a ƙarshe zai kai ga gano ƙwayoyin ma'adanai kamar sulfuric acid da nitric acid ta ƙarni na goma sha uku masanan alchemists kamar na ƙarya-Geber.

Geodesy Babban labarin: Tarihi da zane-zane a cikin tsohuwar daular Musulunci Al-Biruni (973–1048) ya kiyasta radius na duniya kamar kilomita 6339.6 (ƙimar zamani ta kai kimanin 6,371 km), mafi kimantawa a lokacin.

Biology Babban Labari: Magani a duniyar Musulunci ta da Ido, a cewar Hunain ibn Ishaq. Daga rubutun da aka rubuta kwanan nan kimanin 1200. A cikin tsarin jijiyoyin zuciya, Ibn al-Nafis a cikin Sharhinsa kan Anatomy a cikin Avicenna's Canon shi ne masanin da aka sani na farko da ya saba wa batun Makarantar Galen cewa jini na iya wucewa tsakanin sassan zuciya a cikin zuciya ta hanyar sassan jikin zuciya da ke raba su. , yana cewa babu hanyar wucewa tsakanin sassan ventricles a wannan lokacin. Madadin haka, ya yi daidai da hujja cewa duk jinin da ya isa ga kafar hagu ya yi ne bayan ya wuce ta huhun. Ya kuma bayyana cewa dole ne a sami kananan hanyoyin sadarwa, ko pores, tsakanin jijiyoyin huhu da jijiyar huhu, hasashen da ya gabata gabanin gano bakin ciki na Marcello Malpighi da shekaru 400. An sake gano Sharhin ne a karni na ashirin a cikin Laburaren Gwamnatin Prussia da ke Berlin; ko ra'ayin ta game da jujjuyawar jini ya shafi masana kimiyya irin su Michael Servetus bai tabbata ba. A cikin tsarin juyayi, Rhazes ya bayyana cewa jijiyoyi suna da motsa jiki ko aiki na azanci, yana bayanin 7 cranial da 31 jijiyoyin jijiyoyi. Ya sanya lamba ta lamba ga jijiyoyin kwanyar daga gani zuwa jijiyoyin hypoglossal. Ya rarraba jijiyoyin jijiyoyi zuwa 8 mahaifa, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 3 sacral, da kuma jijiyoyin coccygeal 3. Ya yi amfani da wannan don danganta alamun asibiti na rauni zuwa daidai wurin raunuka a cikin tsarin juyayi. Masu sharhi na zamani sun kamanta bayanan zamani na "gwagwarmayar rayuwa" a masarautar dabbobi da tsarin ka'idar juyin halitta. Don haka, a bincikensa na tarihin ra'ayoyin da suka haifar da ka'idar zabin yanayi, Conway Zirkle ya lura cewa al-Jahiz na ɗaya daga cikin waɗanda suka tattauna a kan "gwagwarmayar rayuwa", a cikin Kitāb al-Hayawān (Littafin Dabbobi ), an rubuta shi a karni na 9. A karni na 13, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi ya yi amannar cewa mutane an samo su ne daga dabbobin da suka ci gaba, yana mai cewa, "Irin wadannan mutane [watakila birai anthropoid]] suna zaune ne a Yammacin Sudan da sauran bangarorin duniya masu nisa. Suna kusa da juna. ga dabbobi ta hanyar dabi'unsu, ayyukansu da halayensu. A cikin 1377, Ibn Khaldun a cikin Muqaddimah ya ce," Mulkin dabba ya sami ci gaba, nau'ikansa sun yawaita, kuma a hankali tsarin Halitta, ya ƙare da mutum kuma ya samo asali daga duniyar birai

Injiniya Duba kuma: Jerin abubuwan kirkire-kirkire a duniyar Musulunci ta da 'Yan uwan ​​Banū Mūsā, a cikin Littafinsu na Ingantattun Na'urori, sun bayyana mai sare sarewa ta atomatik wanda watakila ita ce na'urar da aka fara amfani da ita. An samar da sautunan sarewa ta hanyar tururi mai zafi kuma mai amfani zai iya daidaita na'urar zuwa wasu alamu don su sami sautuna daban-daban daga gare ta.

Kimiyyar zaman jama'a Ibn Khaldun ana ganin yana daga cikin wadanda suka assasa ilimin kimiyyar zamantakewar zamani, tarihin tarihi, dimokradiyya, da kuma tattalin arziki.] [n 2] Taskar kayan tarihi matsayi ne mai daraja a wannan lokacin a musulunce kodayake yawancin takaddun mulki sun ɓace akan lokaci. Koyaya, daga wasiƙa da sauran takaddun suna ba da alamun yanayin zamantakewar jama'a tare da nuna cewa wuraren adana bayanai suna da yawa kuma suna da yawa a lokacinsu. Duk wasiƙun da aka karɓa ko aika a madadin hukumomin an kwafa, adana su kuma an lura da su don yin rajistar. An ga matsayin mai binciken tarihin a matsayin wanda dole ne ya sami babban sadaukarwa yayin da suke rike da dukkan ayyukan da suka dace.

Kiwon lafiya Asibitoci Babban labarin: Bimarestan

Ofar shiga Qalawun hadaddun wanda ke dauke da sanannen asibitin Mansuri a Alkahira An gina asibitin Musulunci na farko a shekarar 805 a Bagadaza bisa umarnin Harun Al-Rashid, kuma mafi mahimmancin asibitocin Baghdad an kafa shi ne a cikin 982 ta mai mulkin Buyid 'Adud al-Dawla. Mafi kyawun rubutattun asibitocin musulinci na farko sune manyan cibiyoyin Siro-Misra na ƙarni na 12 da na 13. Zuwa karni na goma, Baghdad na da karin asibitoci biyar, yayin da Dimashka ke da asibitoci shida a ƙarni na 15 kuma Córdoba ita kaɗai ke da manyan asibitoci 50, da yawa na sojoji ne kawai. Asibiti na asibiti ya kasu kashi zuwa sassa kamar cututtukan tsari, tiyata, da kuma kasusuwa, tare da manyan asibitoci masu fannoni daban daban. "Cututtukan tsarin" ya kasance daidai da maganin cikin gida na yau kuma an ƙara raba shi zuwa ɓangarori kamar zazzabi, cututtuka da lamuran narkewa. Kowane sashe yana da mai kula da aiki, shugaban majalisa da ƙwararren mai kulawa. Hakanan asibitocin suna da dakunan wasan kwaikwayo da dakunan karatu. Ma’aikatan asibitocin sun hada da masu kula da tsabtace jiki, wadanda ke tsara tsafta, da akawu da sauran ma’aikatan gudanarwa. Asibitocin galibi ana gudanar da su ne ta hanyar mutane uku da suka hada da wani mai kula da marasa magani, babban likitan magunguna, da ake kira shaykh saydalani, wanda ya yi daidai da matsayin babban likita, wanda ya yi aiki a matsayin mutwalli (shugaban makaranta). A al'adance ana rufe wuraren kiwon lafiya kowane dare, amma zuwa karni na 10 an zartar da dokoki don barin asibitoci bude awanni 24 a rana. Don ƙananan maganganu, likitoci sun ba da asibitin shan magani. Garuruwa kuma suna da cibiyoyin bayar da agaji na farko wanda likitoci ke aiki da su game da abubuwan da ke faruwa na gaggawa wanda galibi ana sanya su a wuraren taruwar jama'a, kamar manyan tarurruka don sallar Juma'a. Hakanan yankin yana da rukunin wayoyin hannu da ke aiki da likitoci da masana harhada magunguna wadanda ya kamata su biya bukatar al'ummomin da ke nesa. An kuma san Baghdad da samun wani asibiti na daban na wadanda aka yankewa hukunci tun a farkon karni na 10 bayan da vizier ‘Ali ibn Isa ibn Jarah ibn Thabit ya rubuta wa babban hafsan likitancin na Baghdad cewa“ dole ne gidajen yari su kasance da likitocin su da ya kamata su duba su a kowace rana ”. Asibiti na farko da aka gina a Misira, a yankin kudu maso yamma na Alkahira, shine wuri na farko da aka tanada don kula da cututtukan ƙwaƙwalwa. A asibitin Arghun na Aleppo, kula da cutar tabin hankali ya haɗa da haske mai yawa, iska mai tsabta, ruwan famfo da kiɗa.

Daliban likitanci zasu bi likitocin kuma zasu shiga cikin haƙuri. Asibitoci a wannan zamanin sune farkon wadanda suka bukaci difloma ta likitanci don ba likitocin lasisi. Gwajin lasisin da gwamnatin yankin da aka nada babban jami'in lafiya ya gudanar. Jarabawar tana da matakai biyu; na farko shi ne rubuta takaddar rubutu, kan batun da dan takarar ke son samun takardar shedar, na asali bincike ko sharhi na rubuce-rubucen da ake da su, wanda aka karfafa musu gwiwa don bincika kurakurai. Mataki na biyu shi ne amsa tambayoyin a cikin hira da babban jami'in likitan. Likitocin sunyi aiki tsayayyun sa'o'i kuma doka ta kayyade albashin ma'aikatan kiwon lafiya. Don daidaita ingancin kulawa da yanke hukunci, yana da nasaba da cewa idan mara lafiya ya mutu, dangin su na gabatar da umarnin likitan ga babban likitan da zai yi hukunci idan mutuwar ta halitta ce ko kuma ta sakaci ne, a cikin wannan yanayin sai iyalin su samun damar biyan diyya daga likita. Asibitocin suna da wuraren maza da mata yayin da wasu asibitocin kawai suka ga maza da wasu asibitocin, waɗanda ke da mata likitoci, mata kawai suka gani. Yayinda likitocin mata ke yin aikin likitanci, da yawa sun fi mayar da hankali ne kan haihuwa. Doka ta hana asibitoci juya marasa lafiyar da ba su iya biya.Daga karshe, sai aka kirkiro gidauniyar sadaka da ake kira waqfs don tallafawa asibitoci, da kuma makarantu.Wani sashi na kasafin kudin jihar kuma ya tafi wajen kula da asibitoci Duk da yake aiyukan asibitin kyauta ne ga dukkan ‘yan kasa kuma a wasu lokutan akan ba marasa lafiya karamin tallafi don tallafawa murmurewa bayan fitowar su, kowane lokaci likitocin suna karbar kudade. A cikin wata baiwa, wani gwamna a ƙarni na 13 na Masar Al-Mansur Qalawun ya kafa gidauniya ga asibitin Qalawun wanda zai ƙunshi masallaci da ɗakin sujada, wuraren da ake keɓe cututtuka daban-daban, dakin karatu na likitoci da kuma kantin magani da ana amfani da asibiti a yau don maganin ido. Asibitin Qalawun ya kasance ne a tsohuwar fadar Fatimid wacce ke da masauki ga mutane 8,000 "yana kula da marassa lafiya 4,000 a kullum.Waqf din ya ce,Asibiti zai kiyaye dukkan majiyyata, maza da mata, har sai sun warke sarai. Duk kudin da za'a biya sai asibiti ko mutane sun zo daga nesa ko kusa, ko mazauna ne ko baƙi, masu ƙarfi ko marasa ƙarfi, ƙasa ko ƙasa, mawadata ko matalauta, masu aiki ko marasa aikin yi, makafi ko masu gani, marasa lafiya a jiki ko hankali, koya ko karatu. Babu wasu sharuɗɗa na la'akari da biyan kuɗi, babu wanda ke adawa ko ma a kaikaice ya nuna alamar rashin biya.

Wuraren magani Malaman larabawa sun yi amfani da albarkatun ƙasa da na al'adu don ba da gudummawa ga haɓakar haɓaka ilimin kimiyyar magunguna. Sun yi imani cewa Allah ya ba da hanyar warkar da kowace cuta. Koyaya, an sami rikicewa game da yanayin wasu tsoffin tsirrai da suka wanzu a wannan lokacin.Wani sanannen mutum wanda ke da tasiri a ci gaban kantin magani ya yi amfani da sunan Yūhannā ibn Māsawaiyh (circa 777-857). Malaman Turai sun ambace shi da "Mashahurin Allahntaka" da "Yariman Magani". Māsawaiyh ya jagoranci makarantar likitanci mai zaman kanta ta farko a Baghdad kuma ya rubuta manyan magunguna guda uku. Wadannan rubutattun labaran sun kunshi ayyuka a kan hada magunguna, barkwanci, da girke-girke na magunguna wadanda suka ba da umarni kan yadda za a shirya su. A cikin Latin Latin, galibi ana buga waɗannan ayyukan tare a ƙarƙashin taken "Opera Medicinalia" kuma an rarraba su zuwa "De simplicubus", "Grabadin", da "Canones universales". Duk da cewa tasirin Māsawaiyh yana da matukar mahimmanci cewa rubuce-rubucensa sun zama mafi rinjayen tushen rubuce-rubucen magunguna, ainihin asalinsa har yanzu ba a sani ba.A da, duk abubuwan da za a gabatar da su, a kan ko kusa da jikin mutum an sanya su a matsayin magani, tun daga magunguna, abinci, abubuwan sha, har ma da turare zuwa kayan shafawa. ya fara ne a karni na bakwai, lokacin da masu hada magunguna da masu ba da magani suka bayyana a asibitocin farko. Buƙatar ƙwayoyi ya karu yayin da yawan ya ƙaru. Zuwa karni na tara inda aka kafa kantin magani a matsayin sana'a mai zaman kanta kuma ingantacciya ta masana musulmai. Malaman tarihi da yawa sun ce buɗewar kantin magani na farko mai zaman kansa a cikin ƙarni na takwas yana nuna 'yancin kantin magani daga magani.Samuwar magani da kantin magani a cikin halifancin musulunci a karni na tara ya faru ne a daidai lokacin da fadada cibiyoyin kimiyya da yawa, dakunan karatu, makarantu, asibitoci da kuma wuraren sayar da magani a biranen Musulmai da yawa. karni na tara kuma ya taka muhimmiyar rawa don haɓakar ilimin kimiyyar zamani. Duk da yake masana harhada magunguna na Larabawa ba su yi nasara ba wajen sauya karafa wadanda ba su da daraja a cikin karafa masu daraja, ayyukansu na ba da cikakkun bayanai game da fasahohi da kayan aikin lab sun kasance manyan masu ba da gudummawa ga ci gaban kantin magani. An yi amfani da dabarun hada sinadarai kamar narkewa, sandaro, danshin ruwa da narkarda abubuwa. Kur'ani ya bayar da tushe don ci gaban ɗabi'a mai ƙwarewa inda haɓakar wankan ɗabi'a ya kuma rinjayi mahimmancin tsabta a cikin ilimin likitanci. Lokutan-lokaci likitocin gwamnati da ake kira muhtasib suka ziyarci asibitocin, wadanda suka duba don ganin cewa an gauraya magungunan yadda ya kamata, ba a narke su ba kuma ana ajiye su a cikin kwalba masu tsabta. Aikin da muhtasib yayi anyi bayani dalla-dalla a cikin litattafan da suka bayyana hanyoyin bincikowa da gano magungunan karya, abinci da kayan yaji. An haramta wa masu harhada magunguna yin magani ba tare da kasancewar likita ba, yayin da likitoci suka takaita ga shiri da sarrafa magunguna. An yi fargabar cewa girke-girke na iya fadawa hannun wani ba tare da ingantaccen horo kan harhada magunguna ba. [Ana bukatar] Ana bukatar lasisi don gudanar da ayyukan sirri. An ci tarar waɗanda suka karya doka.

Magani Babban Labari: Magani a duniyar Musulunci ta da Ka'idar Humorism ta kasance mafi rinjaye a wannan lokacin. Likitan Balarabe Ibn Zuhr ya ba da tabbaci cewa cutar cizon sabulu ne daga ƙaiƙayin ƙaiƙayi kuma ana iya warkewa ta cire ƙwayoyin cuta ba tare da buƙatar tsarkakewa, zubar jini ko wasu magunguna da ake kira da izgili ba, yin hutu tare da izgilin Galen da Ibn Sina . [Rhazes ya banbanta ta hanyar lura da cututtukan nan guda biyu na kananan yara da kyanda, wadanda a da ake dunkule su wuri guda a matsayin cuta guda da ke haifar da rashes. Wannan ya ta'allaka ne da wuri da kuma lokacin bayyanar alamomin sannan kuma ya kara girman tsanani da kuma hangen nesa na kamuwa da cutuka daidai da launi da wurin da fatar take. Al-Zahrawi shine likita na farko da ya bayyana ciki na ciki, kuma likita na farko da ya gano yanayin gadon haemophilia. A kan ayyukan tsabtace jiki, Rhazes, wanda aka taɓa tambayarsa ya zaɓi wurin da za a gina sabon asibiti a Baghdad, ya dakatar da yankan nama a wurare daban-daban a cikin birni, kuma ya ba da shawarar gina asibiti a wurin da naman ke nuna rashin jinkiri. Ga malaman addinin Islama, likitocin Indiya da Girka da masu binciken kiwon lafiya Sushruta, Galen, Mankah, Atreya, Hippocrates, Charaka, da Agnivesa sun kasance manyan hukumomi. Don sa al'adun Indiya da Girkanci su zama masu sauƙin fahimta, fahimta, da iya koyarwa, Malaman Islama sun ba da umarni da sanya ƙwararrun ilimin likitancin Indiya da na Greco-Roman ta hanyar rubuce-rubucen encyclopedias da taƙaitawa. Wasu lokuta, ana sukar malaman da suka gabata, kamar Rhazes wanda ya soki da karyata ka'idojin girmamawa na Galen, musamman, Ka'idar Humors don haka aka zarge shi da jahilci. Ta hanyar fassarorin larabci na karni na 12 ne turawan da suka zo na biyu suka sake gano magungunan Hellenic, gami da ayyukan Galen da Hippocrates, kuma suka gano tsoffin magungunan Indiya, gami da ayyukan Sushruta da Charaka. Ayyuka kamar su Ibn Sina's The Canon of Medicine an fassara shi zuwa Latin kuma an yaɗa shi ko'ina cikin Turai. A lokacin karni na 15 da 16 kadai, An buga Canon of Medicine fiye da sau talatin da biyar. An yi amfani dashi azaman ingantaccen littafin karatun likitanci har zuwa karni na 18 a Turai.

Tiyata Al-Zahrawi ya kasance likitan larabawa karni na goma. Wani lokaci ana kiransa "Uban tiyata Ya bayyana abin da ake tsammani shine ƙoƙari na farko na rage mammaplasty don gudanar da gynaecomastia da kuma farkon mastectomy don magance ciwon nono.] An yaba masa da aikin aikin gyaran kafa na farko Ya rubuta litattafai uku a kan aikin tiyata, ciki har da "Manual of Medial Practitioners" wanda ya kunshi kasida na kayan aiki 278 da aka yi amfani da su wajen tiyata

Kasuwanci da tafiya Manyan labarai: Juyin Juya Halin Noma na Larabawa, Tarihin tattalin arzikin Islama, da Geography da kuma zane-zane a cikin Islama na da Taswirar taƙaitaccen bayani game da taswirar duniya ta al-Idrisi ta 1154 (lura cewa Kudu yana saman saman taswirar). Baya ga Kogin Nilu, Tigris, da Yufiretis, koguna masu saurin tafiya ba sabon abu ba ne a Gabas ta Tsakiya, saboda haka jigila ta teku yana da matukar muhimmanci. Ilimin motsa jiki ya sami ci gaba sosai, yana amfani da mahimmin abu mai mahimmanci (wanda aka sani da kamal). Lokacin da aka haɗu da cikakkun taswira na lokacin, masu jirgi sun sami damar yin tafiya a ƙetaren tekuna maimakon siket a bakin tekun. Musulmin jirgin ruwa su ma suna da alhakin sake dawo da manyan jiragen ruwa na masta zuwa mashigar ruwa. [Ana bukatar] Sunan caravel na iya samo asali ne daga wani jirgin ruwan larabawa da ya gabata wanda ake kira da qārib.Musulmai da yawa sun tafi kasar Sin don fatauci, kuma wadannan musulmin sun fara samun tasirin tattalin arziki sosai a kasar. Musulmai kusan sun mamaye masana'antar shigowa / fitarwa a zamanin daular Sung (960-1279).] Muhammad al-Idrisi ne ya kirkiro Tabula Rogeriana, mafi kyawun taswirar Zamani na Tsakiya, wanda masu bincike daban-daban suka yi amfani da shi kamar Christopher Columbus da Vasco Da Gama don tafiye-tafiyensu a Amurka da Indiya.

Noma Yaduwar rake daga yankin Indiya zuwa yankin Sifen a lokacin mulkin Musulunci. Larabawan Al-Andalus sun yi tasiri sosai ga aikin noma na Sifen, gami da maido da magudanan ruwa da hanyoyin ruwa a zamanin Roman, gami da gabatar da sabbin fasahohi irin su acequias (wanda ya samo asali daga qanats na Farisa) da kuma lambun Farisa ( kamar a Janar). A Spain da Sicily, Larabawa sun gabatar da kayan gona da kayan abinci daga Farisa da Indiya kamar shinkafa, rake, lemu, lemo, ayaba, shuffron, karas, apricots da eggplants, tare da maido da noman zaitun da rumman daga zamanin Greco-Roman. . Palmeral na Elche a kudancin Spain yanki ne na UNESCO na Duniya wanda ke alamta gadon Musulunci na noma a Turai.

Arts da al'adu Adabi da waka Manyan labarai: Adabin Musulunci da waƙoƙin Musulunci Duba kuma: adabin larabci, adabin farisanci, da Dare Dubu da Daya Centuryarni na 13 mai waƙoƙin Seljuq Rumi ya rubuta wasu kyawawan waƙoƙi a cikin harshen Farisanci kuma har yanzu yana ɗaya daga cikin fitattun mawaƙan fatawa a Amurka. Sauran shahararrun mawaka na yaren Persia sun hada da Hafez (wanda William Jones, Thoreau, Goethe, Ralph Waldo Emerson da Friedrich Engels suka karanta aikinsu), Saadi (wanda Goethe, Hegel da Voltaire suka ambaci waƙinsa sosai), Ferdowsi, Omar Khayyam da Amir Khusrow. Dare dubu da daya, tatsuniyoyin almara ne na tatsuniyoyin Gabas ta Tsakiya wanda aka tattara cikin harshen larabci a zamanin Halifancin Abbasawa, ya yi tasiri sosai a kan adabin Yammacin da Gabas ta Tsakiya da kuma sanannun al'adun gargajiya tare da irin su Aladdin, Ali Baba da Barayi Arba'in da Sinbad Matukin jirgin. Tatsuniyoyin 'Sinbad the Sailor' har ila yau sun sami wahayi kai tsaye daga wallafe-wallafen Helenanci kamar na almara na gida (wanda aka fassara daga Girkanci zuwa Larabci a ƙarni na 8 AZ) da Alexander Romances (tatsuniyoyin Alexander the Great mashahuri a Turai, Gabas ta Tsakiya da Indiya )

Art Babban Labari: Fasaha ta Musulunci Teburin marquetry da tayal, 1560 Hasken rubutun ya kasance fasaha mai mahimmanci, kuma zanen ɗan Persia ya sami ci gaba a duniyar Farisa. Calligraphy, muhimmin al'amari ne na rubutaccen Larabci, ya inganta cikin rubuce-rubuce da kuma adon gine-gine.

Waƙa Babban Labari: Waƙar Larabci Karni na tara da na goma ya ga furannin kiɗan Larabci. Masanin Falsafa kuma malami Al-Farabi, a ƙarshen karni na tara, ya kafa harsashin koyarwar kiɗan Larabci na zamani, bisa ga maqammat, ko kuma hanyoyin kiɗa. Aikinsa ya ta'allaka ne da kiɗan Ziryab, mawaƙin kotu na Andalusia. Ziryab sanannen polymath ne, wanda gudummawar da yake bayarwa ga wayewar yamma ya haɗa da cin abinci na yau da kullun, aski, dara, da ƙari, ƙari ga mamayar da yake yi a fagen kiɗan duniya a karni na tara.

Masu tunani da polymaths na Asiya ta Tsakiya da Larabawa suna mai da hankali kan kiɗa Mutanen Sumeriya da Akkadiyawa, Helenawa, da Farisawa duk sun yi amfani da lissafi don ƙirƙirar bayanan da aka yi amfani da su da kayan kaɗe-kaɗe da sauran kayan kaɗe-kaɗe. Ta yin amfani da ra'ayin cewa kirtani da aka cire ko an sunkuya yana samar da sanarwa, sun lura da banbancin sauti lokacin da aka tsayar da zaren. "Babban abin da aka gano" yana jin yadda ake magana ne game da octave, cewa ragargaza kirtani ya samar da rubutu mai kyau octave daya a saman layin. An rubuta shi azaman rabo 2: 1.Sun auna nauyin tsawo na kirtani a gefe daya dayan kuma inda aka matse kirtani, hakan ya samar da rabo. Waɗannan abubuwan sun ba su damar kwatanta sautuna, misali na uku, na huɗu, na biyar. Sun sami damar raɗa ɗaya igiya a kan ɗayan a waɗancan tsaka-tsalle a kan molaye, garayu, molo, molaye. Lutes ya ba su ƙarin ikon ƙirƙirar waɗannan tazarar a kan igiya ɗaya, ta hanyar ƙara frets a nesa ta hanyar lissafi, gwargwadon yanayin. Ba kamar kayan aikin zamani ba, inda za'a iya sanya frets har abada a cikin wuya, kamar a guitar, tsofaffin kayan aikin sun yi amfani da igiyoyin hanji da aka ɗaura a wuya don frets, kuma wannan ya sa kayan aikin su su daidaita. Mawaƙan farko zasu iya kunna kayan aikin su zuwa yanayi daban-daban. Playersan wasan laute na iya ɗora igiyar zuwa tazara daban-daban, kuma suna iya ƙara daidaita frets don yanayin.Safi al-Din ya zana wata ƙazamar magana daga kwafin littafin 1333, Kitab al-Adwār. Tsohon kwafi yakai 1296. Al'adar cakuda al'adun Asiya ta Tsakiya da Larabawa sun samar da masu tunani da yawa waɗanda suka yi rubutu game da kiɗa, gami da wani abu game da larurar cikin ayyukansu, gami da Al-Kindi (c. 801 - c. 873), Ziryab (789-857), Al-Farabi ( c. 872 - c.950), Avicenna (c. 980 - 1037), da Safi al-Din al-Urmawi (1216-1294). Sun yi rubuce-rubuce cikin larabci, abin da ya zama mai amfani da harshe mai amfani a lokacinsu, kuma suka shiga cikin al'adun musulmai da al'adunsu. Koyaya sun girma cikin Asiya ta Tsakiya.

Larabawa suna da sikeli na kida, wanda al-Farabi ya bayyana, wanda wasu ke amfani da shi har zuwa ƙarni na 13 miladiyya Wancan ma'aunin tanbar, wanda ya raba igiyar zuwa "kashi 40 daidai" zai iya zama saura daga Babila da Assuriya. Duk da haka, Larabawa sun yi ciniki tare da cin nasarar Farisawa, kuma sun dauki sikeli na Farisa a kan lamuransu, kamar yadda suka dauki layigajere na Farisa.

Ziryab ya tashi daga Baghdad zuwa al-Andalus, inda ya kafa makarantar waƙa kuma yana ɗaya daga cikin na farko da ya ƙara layi na biyar ko hanya a kan oud, "tsakanin 822 da 852).Al-Andalus, inda ya zauna zai zama cibiyar haɓaka kayan kiɗa ga Turai. Al-Kindi polymath ne wanda ya rubuta rubuce-rubuce kamar su 15 masu alaƙa da kiɗa. Ya kasance daga farkon waɗanda suka fara amfani da ka'idar mawaƙa ta Girka ga utesan gajeren lute na Asiya-Larabawa. Ya kara sautin-sauti tsakanin goro da zaren farko. Ya kuma kara da kirtani na biyar a bakinsa na gabas, kamar yadda Ziryab ya yi a yamma.Al-Farabi "ya sanya ayyukan Aristoxenus da Ptolemy a cikin ka'idar tetrachords", kuma ya rubuta a cikin litattafai a fannoni da yawa, Kitab al-Musiqa al-Kabir, Babban Littafin Waƙoƙi, wanda a ciki ya yi bayanin yadda ake tunatar oud, ta amfani da lissafin lissafi.Ya ba da umarni ga duka frets 10 da 12, yana faɗin inda za a ɗora igiyar da aka ɗaura (kuma mai motsi) a wuya. Hanyar sa ta sauyawa ta ba da izinin "12-fret 'ud tuning - wanda ke haifar da ...' octave 'double", tare da rubutu 22 a cikin kowane octave.

Gine-gine Babban Labari: Tsarin Musulunci Babban Masallacin Kairouan (a Tunisia), kakan dukkan masallatan yammacin duniya ban da Turkiya da Balkans, shine ɗayan mafi kyawun kiyayewa kuma mafi mahimman misalai na manyan masallatan farko. An kafa shi a cikin 670, yana farawa a cikin yanayin da yake yanzu galibi daga ƙarni na 9.Babban Masallacin Kairouan an gina shi ne daga minaret mai hawa uku, da wani babban tsakar gida da ke kewaye da hotunan zane, da kuma wani katafaren zauren salla wanda aka rufe shi da shi da cupola biyu. [139] Babban Masallacin Samarra a Iraki an kammala shi a shekara ta 847. Ya haɗu da gine-ginen gine-ginen layuka na layuka masu goyan baya, wanda a sama aka gina babbar minaret mai jujjuyawa. Farkon ginin Babban Masallaci a Cordoba a shekara ta 785 ya nuna farkon tsarin gine-ginen Islama a Spain da Arewacin Afirka. Masallacin an san shi da bangon da yake ciki. Gine-ginen Moorish sun kai kololuwa tare da gina Alhambra, babban gida mai faɗi / kagara na Granada, tare da buɗe ido da iska mai kyan gani wanda aka kawata shi da ja, shuɗi, da zinariya. An yi wa bangon ado da kayan kwalliyar da aka ƙera, kayan rubutu na Larabci, da aikin zane na larabawa, tare da bangon da aka rufe shi da tayal mai ƙyalli. Yawancin alamomin gine-ginen Fatimid sun wanzu a Alkahira a yau, manyan misalai sun haɗa da Jami'ar Al Azhar da masallacin Al Hakim.

Ragewa Mamayewa Hanyoyin kasuwanci da wayewar musulmai suka gada sun lalace ta hanyar mamaye Mongoliya, wanda a cewar Ibn Khaldun ya lalata tattalin arziki A cikin 1206, Genghis Khan ya kafa daula mai ƙarfi tsakanin Mangolwa na tsakiyar Asiya. A cikin karni na 13, wannan daular Mongol ta mamaye mafi yawan yankunan kasar Eurasia, gami da China a gabas da yawancin tsohuwar halifancin Islama (da Kievan Rus ') a yamma. Rushewar Bagadaza da Gidan Hikima da Hulagu Khan ya yi a shekarar 1258 wasu na ganin karshen Zamanin Zinare ne na Musulunci.Mamayar daular Usmaniyya ta mamaye yankin Gabas ta Tsakiya da ke magana da Larabci a cikin 1516-17 ya sanya zuciyar al'adar duniyar Islama a ƙarƙashin ikon Turkawan Ottoman. Kimiyyar hankali ta ci gaba da bunkasa a Gabas ta Tsakiya a lokacin Ottoman.

Tattalin arziki Don yin bayani game da faduwar ilimin addinin Islama, an yi jayayya cewa Tarurrukan Sunni a karni na 11 da 12 sun samar da jerin sauye-sauye na hukumomi wanda ya rage biyan dangi zuwa samar da ayyukan kimiyya. Tare da yaduwar madrasas da mafi girman tasirin shugabannin addini, ya zama mafi riba don samar da ilimin addini Ahmad Y. al-Hassan ya yi watsi da rubutun cewa rashin tunanin kirkire-kirkire ne ya haifar da hakan, yana mai cewa koyaushe ana kebe kimiyya daga takaddama ta addini; a maimakon haka sai yayi nazarin raguwa ta fuskokin tattalin arziki da siyasa, ta hanyar aikin marubucin karni na 14 Ibn Khaldun. Al-Hassan ya tsawaita zamanin gwal har zuwa karni na 16, yana mai cewa ayyukan kimiyya suna ci gaba da bunkasa har zuwa lokacin. Da yawa daga cikin masana na wannan zamani suma sun fadada shi zuwa kusan karni na 16 zuwa na 17, kuma sun yi nazarin faduwar ta fuskar abubuwan siyasa da tattalin arziki. Wani bincike na baya-bayan nan ya kalubalanci batun cewa ya ragu ko da a wancan lokacin, yana mai cewa farfaɗo da ayyukan da aka samar kan batutuwan kimiyya na hankali yayin ƙarni na goma sha bakwai.Binciken na yanzu ya kai ga yanke hukunci cewa "shaidun da ake da su sun yi daidai da tunanin cewa karuwar karfin ikon wadannan masanan ne ya haifar da raguwar kwarewar kimiyya.

Al'adu Masanin tarihin tattalin arziki Joel Mokyr yayi hujja da cewa masanin falsafar musulunci al-Ghazali (1058-1111) "babban jigo ne a cikin koma bayan ilimin addinin Islama", saboda ayyukansa sun taimaka wajen hauhawar sufanci da kuma samun lokaci-lokaci a duniyar musulinci.Dangane da wannan ra'ayin, Saliba (2007) ya ba da misalai da dama musamman na binciken sararin samaniya da ke bunƙasa bayan zamanin al-Ghazali.

Duba kuma Tashar Musulunci Makarantar Baghdad Tasirin Kirista a cikin Islama Jerin masanan kristoci da masana na zamanin musulunci na da Zamanin Zinare na Danmark Yaren mutanen Dutch Golden Ag Masarautar Sicily Zamanin zinariya na al'adun yahudawa a Spain Kwalejin Ilimin Kimiyya da Ilimin Kimiyya ta Zamani na Ibn Sina Falaki na Islama Karatun addinin musulunci Jerin masana kimiyyar Iran Ophthalmology a cikin zamanin da Musulunci Zamanin Zinaren Mutanen Espanya Lokaci na ilimin kimiyya da fasaha na Islama

Bayanan kula wasu Turawan yamma suna daukarsa a matsayin mahaifin gaskiya na tarihi da zamantakewar al'umma An yi iƙirarin Ibn Khaldun a matsayin wanda ya share fagen masu yawan tunani na Turai, galibi masanan ilimin zamantakewar al'umma, masana tarihi, da masana falsafa". (Boulakia 1971) "Mahaifin da ya kafa ilimin kimiyyar zamantakewar al'umma na Gabas Wannan babban makircin neman sabon kimiyyar zamantakewar al'umma ya sanya shi gaba ga yawancin ƙarni na sha takwas da goma sha tara masu ginin tsarin kamar Vico, Comte da Marx." "A matsayina na daya daga cikin farkon wadanda suka assasa ilimin zamantakewar al'umma "Wasu suna daukarsa a matsayin uba na tattalin arziki na zamani, ko kuma a kalla babban mai gaba. Duniyar Yammacin duniya na daukar Khaldun a matsayin mahaifin ilimin halayyar jama'a amma yana jinkirin amincewa da shi a matsayin babban masanin tattalin arziki wanda ya kafa tushensa. Shi ne farkon wanda bincika tsarin tattalin arziki, mahimmancin fasaha, ƙwarewa da cinikayyar ƙasashen waje a rarar tattalin arziki da rawar da gwamnati da manufofinta ke ciki don haɓaka samarwa da samar da aiki.Haka kuma, ya magance matsalar haraji mafi ƙaranci, mafi ƙarancin aiyukan gwamnati, ihisani, tsarin hukumomi, doka da oda, tsammanin, samarwa, da ka'idar darajar ".Cosma, Sorinel (2009). "Tunanin Tattalin Arziki na Ibn Khaldun". Tarihin Tattalin Arziki na Jami'ar Ovidius (Jami'ar Ovidius Press) XIV: 52-57

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