Zubar da ciki

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Takaitaccen bidiyo
Sauran sunaye Rashin zubar da ciki, ƙarewar ciki
Na musamman Likitan mahaifa da likitan mata
ICD-10-PCS O04
ICD-9-CM 779.6
MeSH D000028
MedlinePlus 007382

Zubar da ciki shine ƙarshen ciki ta hanyar cirewa ko fitar da tayi ko tayin.[note 1] Zubar da ciki da ke faruwa ba tare da tsangwama ba ana saninsa da zubar da ciki ko kuma “zubar da ciki ba tare da bata lokaci ba” kuma yana faruwa a kusan kashi 30 zuwa 50% na masu juna biyu.[1][2] Lokacin da aka ɗauki matakai da gangan don kawo ƙarshen ciki, ana kiransa zubar da ciki da aka jawo, ko kuma ƙasa da ƙasa "zubar da ciki". Kalmar zubar da ciki gabaɗaya da ba a gyara ba tana nufin zubar da ciki da aka jawo.[3][4] Irin wannan hanya bayan tayin yana da yuwuwar tsira a wajen mahaifa ana saninsa da "ƙarewar ciki" ko ƙasa da haka a matsayin "ƙarshen lokacin zubar da ciki".[5]

Idan aka yi shi yadda ya kamata, zubar da ciki na daya daga cikin hanyoyin da za a bi wajen tabbatar da lafiya a fannin magani,[6]:1[7]:1 amma zubar da cikin da ba shi da lafiya shi ne babban abin da ke haddasa mutuwar mata masu juna biyu, musamman a kasashe masu tasowa.[8] Tabbatar da zubar da ciki lafiya ya zama doka da samun dama yana rage mutuwar mata masu juna biyu.[9][10] Yana da aminci fiye da haihuwa, wanda ke da haɗarin mutuwa sau 14 a Amurka.[11] Hanyoyin zamani suna amfani da magani ko tiyata don zubar da ciki.[12] Mifepristone na miyagun ƙwayoyi a hade tare da prostaglandin ya bayyana yana da aminci da tasiri kamar tiyata a lokacin farkon watanni na farko da na biyu na ciki.[13][14] Dabarar fiɗa da aka fi sani da ita ta haɗa da fadada cervix da amfani da na'urar tsotsa.[15] Ana iya amfani da maganin hana haihuwa, kamar kwaya ko na'urorin cikin mahaifa, nan da nan bayan zubar da ciki.[16] Lokacin da aka yi wa macen da take sha'awa ta hanyar doka da aminci, zubar da ciki ba ya ƙara haɗarin dadewa na tunani ko matsalolin jiki.[17] Sabanin haka, zubar da cikin da bai dace ba (waɗanda marasa ƙwararru ke yi, da kayan aiki masu haɗari, ko a wuraren da ba su da tsabta) suna haifar da mutuwar 47,000 da shigar da asibitoci miliyan 5 kowace shekara.[18][19] Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya ta ba da shawarar a samar da zubar da ciki cikin aminci da doka ga dukkan mata.[20]

Kimanin zubar da ciki miliyan 56 ake yi kowace shekara a duniya,[21] inda kusan kashi 45 cikin 100 ake yi ba tare da tsaro ba.[22] Yawan zubar da ciki ya canza kadan tsakanin 2003 zuwa 2008,[23] kafin hakan ya ragu a kalla shekaru ashirin yayin da samun damar tsarin iyali da hana haihuwa ya karu.[24] Ya zuwa 2018, kashi 37% na matan duniya sun sami damar zubar da ciki na doka ba tare da iyaka ga dalilai ba.[25][26] Ƙasashen da ke ba da izinin zubar da ciki suna da iyaka daban-daban kan yadda ake barin zubar da ciki a ƙarshen ciki.[27]

A tarihi, an yi ƙoƙarin zubar da ciki ta amfani da magungunan ganye, kayan aiki masu kaifi, tausa mai ƙarfi, ko ta wasu hanyoyin gargajiya.[28] Dokokin zubar da ciki da al'ada ko addini ra'ayin zubar da ciki sun bambanta a duniya. A wasu wuraren zubar da ciki yana halatta kawai a wasu lokuta na musamman kamar fyade, matsalolin tayin, talauci, haɗari ga lafiyar mace, ko lalata.[29] Akwai muhawara kan al'amuran da suka shafi ɗabi'a, ɗabi'a, da shari'a na zubar da ciki.[30][31] Waɗanda suke adawa da zubar da ciki sau da yawa suna jayayya cewa tayi ko tayin mutum ne mai ’yancin rayuwa, kuma suna iya kwatanta zubar da ciki da kisa.[32][33] Waɗanda suke goyon bayan halaccin zubar da ciki sau da yawa suna ganin cewa wani ɓangare ne na haƙƙin mace ta yanke shawara game da jikinta.[34] Wasu sun yarda da doka da samun damar zubar da ciki a matsayin ma'aunin lafiyar jama'a.[35]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]


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