Allergy

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

Allergies, wanda kuma aka sani da cututtukan rashin lafiyan, yanayi ne da dama da ke haifar da rashin lafiyar tsarin garkuwar jiki zuwa abubuwa marasa lahani a cikin muhalli.[1] Waɗannan cututtuka sun haɗa da zazzabin hay, rashin lafiyar abinci, dermatitis, rashin lafiyar asma, da anaphylaxis.[2] Alamun na iya haɗawa da jajayen idanu, kumburin ƙaiƙayi, atishawa, hanci mai gudu, ƙarancin numfashi, ko kumburi.[3] Rashin haƙuri da abinci da guba yanayi ne daban.[4][5]

Allergens na yau da kullun sun haɗa da pollen da wasu abinci.[1] Karfe da sauran abubuwa kuma na iya haifar da matsala.[1] Abinci, ciwon kwari, da magunguna sune abubuwan gama gari na haifar da munanan halayen.[6] Ci gaban su ya faru ne saboda abubuwan halitta da muhalli.[6] Tsarin da ke da alaƙa ya haɗa da immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), wani ɓangare na tsarin garkuwar jiki, ɗaure ga allergen sannan kuma ga mai karɓa akan ƙwayoyin mast ko basophils inda yake haifar da sakin sinadarai masu kumburi kamar histamine.[7] Ganewar cuta yawanci ta dogara ne akan tarihin likitancin mutum.[4] Ƙarin gwajin fata ko jini na iya zama da amfani a wasu lokuta.[4] Gwaje-gwaje masu kyau, duk da haka, na iya ba yana nufin akwai babban rashin lafiyar abin da ake tambaya ba.[8]

Bayyanawa da wuri ga masu yuwuwar allergen na iya zama kariya.[9] Jiyya na rashin lafiyan jiki sun haɗa da guje wa sanannun allergens da kuma amfani da magunguna irin su steroids da antihistamines.[10] Magungunan antihistamines da aka fi so sune abubuwan da ba sa kwantar da hankali kamar loratidine.[11] A cikin mummunan halayen adrenaline (epinephrine) allura ana ba da shawarar.[12] Allergen immunotherapy, wanda sannu a hankali yana fallasa mutane zuwa ga mafi girma kuma mafi girma adadin alerji, yana da amfani ga wasu nau'ikan allergies kamar zazzabin ciyawa da halayen cizon kwari.[10] Ba a fayyace amfani da shi wajen rashin lafiyar abinci ba.[10]

Allergies na kowa.[13] A cikin ƙasashen da suka ci gaba, kusan kashi 20% na mutane suna fama da rashin lafiyar rhinitis,[14] kusan kashi 6% na mutane suna da aƙalla rashin lafiyar abinci ɗaya,[4][9] kuma kusan kashi 20% suna da cututtukan fata a wani lokaci.[15] Dangane da ƙasar kusan kashi 1-18% na mutane suna da asma.[16][17] Anaphylaxis yana faruwa a tsakanin 0.05-2% na mutane.[18] Yawan cututtukan rashin lafiyan da yawa suna bayyana suna ƙaruwa.[12][19][20] Clemens von Pirquet ya fara amfani da kalmar "allergy" a cikin 1906.[6]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 McConnell, Thomas H. (2007). The Nature of Disease: Pathology for the Health Professions. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-7817-5317-3.
  2. "Types of Allergic Diseases". NIAID. 29 May 2015. Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  3. "Environmental Allergies: Symptoms". NIAID. 22 April 2015. Archived from the original on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (July 2012). "Food Allergy An Overview" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016.
  5. Bahna SL (December 2002). "Cow's milk allergy versus cow milk intolerance". Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 89 (6 Suppl 1): 56–60. doi:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)62124-2. PMID 12487206.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Kay AB (2000). "Overview of 'allergy and allergic diseases: with a view to the future'". British Medical Bulletin. 56 (4): 843–64. doi:10.1258/0007142001903481. PMID 11359624.
  7. "How Does an Allergic Response Work?". NIAID. 21 April 2015. Archived from the original on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  8. Cox L, Williams B, Sicherer S, Oppenheimer J, Sher L, Hamilton R, Golden D (December 2008). "Pearls and pitfalls of allergy diagnostic testing: report from the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology/American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Specific IgE Test Task Force". Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 101 (6): 580–92. doi:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)60220-7. PMID 19119701.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Sicherer SH, Sampson HA (February 2014). "Food allergy: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 133 (2): 291–307, quiz 308. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.11.020. PMID 24388012.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 "Allergen Immunotherapy". 22 April 2015. Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  11. Randall, Katrina L.; Hawkins, Carolyn A. (April 2018). [29670310 "Antihistamines and allergy"] Check |url= value (help). Australian Prescriber. pp. 41–45. doi:10.18773/austprescr.2018.013. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Simons FE (October 2009). "Anaphylaxis: Recent advances in assessment and treatment" (PDF). The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 124 (4): 625–36, quiz 637–38. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2009.08.025. PMID 19815109. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 June 2013.
  13. "Allergic Diseases". NIAID. 21 May 2015. Archived from the original on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  14. Wheatley LM, Togias A (January 2015). "Clinical practice. Allergic rhinitis". The New England Journal of Medicine. 372 (5): 456–63. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp1412282. PMC 4324099. PMID 25629743.
  15. Thomsen SF (2014). "Atopic dermatitis: natural history, diagnosis, and treatment". ISRN Allergy. 2014: 354250. doi:10.1155/2014/354250. PMC 4004110. PMID 25006501.
  16. "Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention: Updated 2015" (PDF). Global Initiative for Asthma. 2015. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2015.
  17. "Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention" (PDF). Global Initiative for Asthma. 2011. pp. 2–5. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 2016.
  18. Leslie C. Grammer (2012). Patterson's Allergic Diseases (7 ed.). ISBN 978-1-4511-4863-3.
  19. Anandan C, Nurmatov U, van Schayck OC, Sheikh A (February 2010). "Is the prevalence of asthma declining? Systematic review of epidemiological studies". Allergy. 65 (2): 152–67. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02244.x. PMID 19912154.
  20. Pongdee, Thanai. "Increasing Rates of Allergies and Asthma". American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.