Babban rashin damuwa

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

Babban rashin damuwa (MDD), wanda kuma aka sani kawai da bakin ciki, cuta ce ta tabin hankali wacce ke bayyana aƙalla makonni biyu na ƙarancin yanayi wanda ke samuwa a yawancin yanayi.[1] Sau da yawa yana tare da ƙananan girman kai, asarar sha'awa a cikin ayyukan jin dadi na yau da kullum, ƙananan makamashi, da zafi ba tare da dalili ba.[1] Waɗanda abin ya shafa na iya zama wani lokaci suna da imanin ƙarya ko gani ko ji abubuwan da wasu ba za su iya ba.[1] Wasu mutane suna da lokutan baƙin ciki da suka rabu da shekaru waɗanda suke al'ada, yayin da wasu kusan koyaushe suna da alamun bayyanar.[2] Babban rashin damuwa na iya yin mummunan tasiri ga rayuwar mutum, rayuwar aiki, ko ilimi da kuma barci, yanayin cin abinci, da lafiyar gabaɗayansa.[1][2] Kimanin kashi 2-8% na manya da ke da babban bakin ciki suna mutuwa ta hanyar kashe kansu,[3][4] kuma kusan kashi 50% na mutanen da suka mutu ta hanyar kashe kansu suna da bakin ciki ko kuma wani yanayi na yanayi.[5]

An yi imani da dalilin haɗuwa da kwayoyin halitta, muhalli, da abubuwan tunani.[1] Abubuwan haɗari sun haɗa da tarihin iyali na yanayin, manyan canje-canjen rayuwa, wasu magunguna, matsalolin lafiya na yau da kullum, da shaye-shaye.[1][2] Kimanin kashi 40% na haɗarin ya bayyana yana da alaƙa da kwayoyin halitta.[2] Gano gano babban rashin damuwa ya dogara ne akan abubuwan da mutum ya ruwaito da kuma gwajin halin tunani.[6] Babu gwajin dakin gwaje-gwaje don cutar.[2] Ana iya yin gwaji, duk da haka, don yin watsi da yanayin jiki wanda zai iya haifar da irin wannan alamun.[7] Babban baƙin ciki ya fi tsanani kuma yana daɗe fiye da baƙin ciki, wanda shine al'ada na rayuwa.[2] Tun daga shekara ta 2016, Amurka hana ayyukan hana daukar nauyin aikin (USPSF) ya ba da shawarar alwashin Damuwa a cikin masu shekaru 12,[8][9] yayin da ake binciken Coachrane 2005 da ke amfani da tambayoyin allon nuni da sakamako na ganowa ko magani.[10]

Wadanda ke da babbar matsalar damuwa yawanci ana bi da su tare da shawarwari da magungunan rage damuwa.[1] Magani yana bayyana yana da tasiri, amma tasirin zai iya zama mahimmanci kawai a cikin mafi tsananin baƙin ciki.[11][12] Babu tabbas ko magunguna suna shafar haɗarin kashe kansa.[13] Nau'o'in shawarwarin da aka yi amfani da su sun haɗa da farfaɗowar halayyar mutum (CBT) da kuma jiyya tsakanin mutum.[1][14] Idan wasu matakan ba su da tasiri, ana iya yin la'akari da magungunan electroconvulsive (ECT).[1] Asibiti na iya zama larura a lokuta masu haɗarin cutarwa ga kai kuma yana iya faruwa lokaci-lokaci sabanin yadda mutum yake so.[15]

Babban matsalar damuwa ta shafi kusan mutane miliyan 163 (2% na yawan mutanen duniya) a cikin 2017.[16] Yawan mutanen da abin ya shafa a lokaci guda a rayuwarsu ya bambanta daga 7% a Japan zuwa 21% a Faransa.[17] Yawan rayuwa ya fi girma a cikin ƙasashen da suka ci gaba (15%) idan aka kwatanta da ƙasashe masu tasowa (11%).[17] Rashin lafiyar yana haifar da shekaru na biyu-mafi yawan rayuwa tare da nakasa, bayan ƙananan ciwon baya.[18] Mafi yawan lokacin farawa shine a cikin 20s da 30s na mutum.[2][17] Mace suna shafar kusan sau biyu fiye da maza.[2][17] Ƙungiyar ƙwaƙwalwa ta Amurka ta ƙara "babban cuta mai zurfi" ga bincike da kuma jagorar ilimin lissafi na rashin tausayi DSM-I a cikin 1980.[19] Ya kasance rarrabuwa na neurosis na baya-bayan nan a cikin DSM-II, wanda kuma ya ƙunshi yanayin da aka sani da dysthymia da rashin daidaituwa tare da yanayin damuwa.[20] Wadanda abin ya shafa a halin yanzu ko a baya ana iya wulakanta su.[21]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 "Depression". NIMH. May 2016. Archived from the original on 5 August 2016. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 American Psychiatric Association (2013), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing, pp. 160–68, ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8, retrieved 22 July 2016
  3. Richards, C. Steven; O'Hara, Michael W. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Depression and Comorbidity. Oxford University Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-19-979704-2.
  4. Strakowski, Stephen; Nelson, Erik (2015). Major Depressive Disorder. Oxford University Press. p. PT27. ISBN 978-0-19-026432-1.
  5. Bachmann, S (6 July 2018). "Epidemiology of Suicide and the Psychiatric Perspective". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15 (7): 1425. doi:10.3390/ijerph15071425. PMC 6068947. PMID 29986446. Half of all completed suicides are related to depressive and other mood disorders
  6. Patton, Lauren L. (2015). The ADA Practical Guide to Patients with Medical Conditions (2 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 339. ISBN 978-1-118-92928-5.
  7. Patton, Lauren L. (2015). The ADA Practical Guide to Patients with Medical Conditions (2 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 339. ISBN 978-1-118-92928-5.
  8. Siu AL, Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, Baumann LC, Davidson KW, Ebell M, García FA, Gillman M, Herzstein J, Kemper AR, Krist AH, Kurth AE, Owens DK, Phillips WR, Phipps MG, Pignone MP (January 2016). "Screening for Depression in Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement". JAMA. 315 (4): 380–87. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.18392. PMID 26813211.
  9. Siu AL (March 2016). "Screening for Depression in Children and Adolescents: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement". Annals of Internal Medicine. 164 (5): 360–66. doi:10.7326/M15-2957. PMID 26858097.
  10. Gilbody S, House AO, Sheldon TA (October 2005). "Screening and case finding instruments for depression". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD002792. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002792.pub2. PMC 6769050. PMID 16235301.
  11. Fournier JC, DeRubeis RJ, Hollon SD, Dimidjian S, Amsterdam JD, Shelton RC, Fawcett J (January 2010). "Antidepressant drug effects and depression severity: a patient-level meta-analysis". JAMA. 303 (1): 47–53. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1943. PMC 3712503. PMID 20051569.
  12. Kirsch I, Deacon BJ, Huedo-Medina TB, Scoboria A, Moore TJ, Johnson BT (February 2008). "Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: a meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration". PLoS Medicine. 5 (2): e45. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050045. PMC 2253608. PMID 18303940.
  13. Braun C, Bschor T, Franklin J, Baethge C (2016). "Suicides and Suicide Attempts during Long-Term Treatment with Antidepressants: A Meta-Analysis of 29 Placebo-Controlled Studies Including 6,934 Patients with Major Depressive Disorder". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 85 (3): 171–79. doi:10.1159/000442293. PMID 27043848.
  14. Driessen E, Hollon SD (September 2010). "Cognitive behavioral therapy for mood disorders: efficacy, moderators and mediators". The Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 33 (3): 537–55. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.005. PMC 2933381. PMID 20599132.
  15. American Psychiatric Association (2006). American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders: Compendium 2006. American Psychiatric Pub. p. 780. ISBN 978-0-89042-385-1.
  16. GBD 2017 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators (November 10, 2018). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017". Lancet. 392 (10159): 1789–1858. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32279-7. PMC 6227754. PMID 30496104. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
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