Yanayi na muhalli

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Wikidata.svgYanayi na muhalli
physical quantity (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na sanadi, correlation (en) Fassara da contributing factor (en) Fassara
Bangare na milieu (en) Fassara da ecosystem (en) Fassara

Halin muhalli, yanayi Na muhalli ya kasance yanayi shine kowane abu, abiotic ko biotic, wanda ke rinjayar rayayyun halittu . [1] Abubuwan kwayoyin halitta sun haɗa da yanayin yanayi, adadin hasken rana, da pH na ƙasan ruwa wanda kwayoyin halitta ke rayuwa. Abubuwan da suka shafi halittu zasu haɗa da samuwar kwayoyin abinci da kasancewar ƙayyadaddun ilimin halitta, masu fafatawa, mafarauta, da ƙwayoyin cuta .

Bayanin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ciwon daji shine galibi sakamakon abubuwan muhalli

Genotype na kwayoyin halitta (misali, a cikin zygote ) wanda aka fassara zuwa cikin phenotype na manya ta hanyar haɓakawa yayin tsarin halittar kwayoyin halitta, kuma yana ƙarƙashin tasirin tasirin muhalli da yawa. Sannan kuma A cikin wannan mahallin, ana iya kallon nau'in phenotype (ko yanayin phenotypic) azaman kowane siffa mai ma'ana da ma'auni na kwayoyin halitta, kamar yawan jikinsa ko launin fata .

Baya ga cututtukan ƙwayoyin cuta na gaskiya na monoogenic, abubuwan muhalli na iya ƙayyade cigaban cuta a cikin waɗanda ke da ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun yanayin. Damuwa, cin zarafi na jiki da tunani, abinci, fallasa zuwa gubobi, ƙwayoyin cuta, radiation da sinadarai da aka samu a kusan duka.  Da samfuran kulawa na sirri da masu tsabtace gida sune abubuwan muhalli na gama gari waɗanda ke ƙayyade babban ɓangaren cututtukan da ba na gado ba.

Idan tsarin cuta ya ƙare ya zama sakamakon haɗin gwiwar kwayoyin halitta da tasirin muhalli, ana iya kiran asalinsa na etiological a matsayin yana da nau'i mai yawa .

Ciwon daji galibi yana da alaƙa da abubuwan muhalli. Kula da nauyin lafiya, Kuma cin abinci mai kyau, rage barasa da kuma kawar da shan taba yana rage haɗarin kamuwa da cutar, a cewar masu bincike. [2]

Hakanan an yi nazarin abubuwan da ke haifar da muhalli don asma [3] da Autism [4] .

Bayyanawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Exposome ya ƙunshi saitin yanayin muhalli na ɗan adam (watau waɗanda ba kwayoyin halitta ba) fallasa tun daga tunanin gaba, wanda ya cika kwayoyin halitta . Sannna Masanin ilimin cututtukan daji Christopher Paul Wild ya fara gabatar da wannan fallasa ne a shekara ta 2005 a wata kasida mai suna "Complementing the genome with an"exposome": fitaccen kalubalen auna bayyanar da muhalli a ilimin cututtukan kwayoyin halitta. Manufar bayyanar da yadda za a tantance shi ya haifar da tattaunawa mai raɗaɗi tare da ra'ayoyi daban-daban a cikin shekarata 2010, 2012, [5] 2014 ] 2021.

A cikin labarinsa na shekarata 2005, Wild ya bayyana cewa, "A mafi cikakke, bayyanar ta ƙunshi abubuwan da suka shafi muhalli na rayuwa (ciki har da abubuwan rayuwa ), tun daga lokacin haihuwa ." An fara gabatar da ra'ayin ne don jawo hankali ga buƙatun samun ingantacciyar bayanai da ƙarin cikakkun bayanai game da yanayin muhalli don bincike mai haɗari, don daidaita saka hannun jari a cikin kwayoyin halitta. A cewar Wild, ko da sigogin da ba su cika ba na fallasa na iya zama da amfani ga ilimin cututtuka . A cikin shekarar 2012, Ƙirar daji ta ƙayyadaddun hanyoyin, gami da na'urori masu auna firikwensin mutum, na'urorin biomarkers, da fasahar ' omics ', don mafi kyawun ayyana bayyanar. Ya yi bayanin yanki guda uku masu ruɓani a cikin fallasa:

  1. yanayi na waje na gaba ɗaya ciki har da yanayin birane, ilimi, abubuwan yanayi, zamantakewar jama'a, damuwa ,
  2. wani yanayi na musamman na waje tare da ƙayyadaddun ƙazanta, radiation, cututtuka, abubuwan rayuwa (misali taba, barasa ), abinci, motsa jiki, da dai sauransu.
  3. yanayi na ciki don haɗawa da abubuwan ilimin halitta na ciki irin su abubuwan da ke faruwa na rayuwa, hormones, microflora gut, kumburi, damuwa na oxidative .
Exposome
Bayyanawa

A ƙarshen shekarar 2013, an bayyana wannan ma'anar a cikin zurfin zurfi a cikin littafi na farko a kan fallasa. A cikin shekarata 2014, marubucin wannan mawallafin ya sake sake fasalin ma'anar don haɗawa da martanin jiki tare da tsarin rayuwa na ƙarshe wanda ke canza sarrafa sinadarai. Kwanan nan, an tabbatar da shi ta hanyar bayyanar cututtuka a ciki da kuma kusa da lokacin daukar ciki, bayyanar cututtuka na mahaifa [6] ya haɗa da bayyanar cututtuka irin su kiba na uwa / kiba da ciwon sukari, da rashin abinci mai gina jiki, ciki har da abinci mai kitse mai yawa / calorie mai girma, wanda ke hade da matalauta tayi., Kuma Girman jarirai da yara, [7] da ƙara yawan kiba da sauran cututtuka na rayuwa a rayuwa ta gaba.

Aunawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

For complex disorders, specific genetic causes appear to account for only 10-30% of the disease incidence, but there has been no standard or systematic way to measure the influence of environmental exposures. Some studies into the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in the incidence of diabetes have demonstrated that "environment-wide association studies" (EWAS, or exposome-wide association studies) may be feasible. However, it is not clear what data sets are most appropriate to represent the value of "E".

Ayyukan bincike[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun daga shekarata 2016, maiyuwa ba zai yiwu a aunawa ko ƙirar cikakkiyar bayyanar ba, amma yawancin ayyukan Turai sun fara yin ƙoƙari na farko. A cikin shekarar 2012, Hukumar Tarayyar Turai ta ba da manyan tallafi guda biyu don ci gaba da bincike mai alaƙa. An ƙaddamar da aikin HELIX a Cibiyar Bincike a Cibiyar Nazarin Muhalli ta Barcelona a kusa da shekarata 2014, kuma da nufin haɓaka bayyanar farkon rayuwa. Aiki na biyu, Exposomics, tushen a Imperial College London, wanda aka ƙaddamar a cikin a shekarata 2012, da nufin yin amfani da wayoyin hannu ta amfani da GPS da na'urori masu auna muhalli don tantance abubuwan da ke faruwa. [8] [9]

A ƙarshen shekarar 2013, an fara wani babban shiri mai suna "Ƙungiyoyin Lafiya da Muhalli- Faɗin Ƙungiyoyin da suka dogara da Ƙungiyoyin Ƙimar Ƙwararrun Ƙididdiga kuma ta fara. Kuma An zana shi a matsayin mafi girman binciken da ke da alaƙa da muhalli a Turai, HEALS yana ba da shawarar yin amfani da yanayin da aka ayyana ta hanyar hulɗar tsakanin jerin DNA, gyare-gyaren DNA na epigenetic, bayyanar kwayar halitta, da abubuwan muhalli.

A cikin Disamba Shekarata 2011, Cibiyar Nazarin Kimiyya ta {asa ta {asar Amirka, ta gudanar da wani taro mai suna "Emerging Technologies for Measuring Personal Exposomes." Cibiyoyin Kula da Cututtuka da Cututtuka bayyani, "Exposome and Exposomics", ya zayyana wurare uku masu fifiko don yin bincike kan abubuwan da suka shafi sana'a kamar yadda Cibiyar Kula da Tsaro da Lafiya ta Kasa ta gano. [5] Cibiyoyin Kiwon Lafiya na Ƙasa (NIH) sun saka hannun jari a cikin fasahohin da ke tallafawa bincike mai alaka da abubuwan da suka hada da biosensors, kuma suna tallafawa bincike kan hulɗar mahalli .

Proposed Human Exposome Project (HEP)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An gabatar da ra'ayin wani Project Exposome Project, mai kama da Human Genome Project, kuma an tattauna shi a cikin tarurrukan kimiyya da yawa, amma kamar na shekarar 2017, babu irin wannan aikin. Idan aka yi la’akari da rashin fayyace yadda kimiyya za ta bi wajen aiwatar da irin wannan aikin, an yi rashin tallafi. [10] Rahotanni kan lamarin sun hada da:

  • wani bita na shekarata 2011 game da ilimin kimiyya mai ban sha'awa da bayyanar da Paul Lioy da Stephen Rappaport, "Kimiyyar Bayyanawa da Bayyanawa: damar samun daidaituwa a cikin ilimin lafiyar muhalli" a cikin mujallar Muhalli na Lafiya .
  • Rahoton a shekarata 2012 daga Majalisar Binciken Ƙasa ta Amurka "Kimiyyar Bayyanawa a cikin Ƙarni na 21st: A Vision and A Strategy", yana bayyana ƙalubalen da ke cikin ƙididdiga na yau da kullum na exosome.

Filaye masu alaƙa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ma'anar ƙaddamarwa ya ba da gudummawa ga shawarwarin shekarata 2010 na sabon tsari a cikin nau'in cututtuka, "ka'idar cuta ta musamman": Kowane mutum yana da tsarin cututtuka na musamman da ya bambanta da kowane mutum, la'akari da bambancin bayyanar da tasirinsa na musamman akan kwayoyin halitta. pathologic tafiyar matakai ciki har da gyare-gyare a cikin interactome . An fara bayyana wannan ka'ida a cikin cututtukan neoplastic a matsayin "ka'idar ƙwayar cuta ta musamman". Dangane da wannan ƙa'idar cuta ta musamman, filin interdisciplinary na ƙwayoyin cuta na cututtukan ƙwayoyin cuta (MPE) ya haɗu da ilimin ƙwayoyin cuta da cututtukan cututtuka.

Direbobin tattalin arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sauye-sauyen duniya yana haifar da abubuwa da yawa; duk da haka manyan abubuwa guda biyar da ke kawo sauyi a duniya su ne: karuwar jama'a, karuwar tattalin arziki, ci gaban fasaha, halaye, da cibiyoyi. [11] Wadannan manyan abubuwan da ke haifar da sauyin duniya guda biyar suna iya samo asali ne daga cikin abubuwan da suka shafi zamantakewar al'umma wanda kuma, ana iya ganin waɗannan a matsayin direbobi ta fuskar su. Abubuwan da ke haifar da canjin yanayi na zamantakewar al'umma na iya haifar da buƙatun zamantakewa ko tattalin arziki na albarkatu kamar buƙatun katako ko buƙatar amfanin gona. Kuma A cikin saran gandun daji na wurare masu zafi alal misali, babban abin tuƙi shine damar tattalin arziƙin da ke tattare da hakar waɗannan albarkatun da mai da ƙasar zuwa amfanin gona ko kiwo. [12] Ana iya bayyana waɗannan direbobi a kowane mataki, daga matakin duniya na buƙatar katako har zuwa matakin gida.

Ana iya ganin misalin yadda direbobin tattalin arziki ke shafar sauyin yanayi a cinikin wake tsakanin Brazil da China. Kasuwancin waken waken soya daga Brazil da China ya karu matuka a 'yan shekarun da suka gabata. Wannan ci gaban da ake samu a harkokin kasuwanci tsakanin wadannan kasashen biyu ya samu kwarin gwiwa daga direbobin tattalin arziki. Wasu daga cikin masu tafiyar da harkokin tattalin arziki a nan sun hada da karuwar bukatar waken waken soya na kasar Sin a kasar Sin, da Kuma karuwar canjin amfanin gona a fannin noman wake a Brazil, da kuma muhimmancin karfafa cinikayyar waje tsakanin kasashen biyu. [13] Duk waɗannan direbobin tattalin arziki na zamantakewa suna da tasiri a canjin yanayi. Alal misali, haɓakar ci gaban noman waken soya a Brazil yana nufin akwai buƙatar ƙarin filaye da aka samar don wannan albarkatu. Wannan ya sa gaba dayan dazuzzukan ya koma gonakin noma wanda a nasa bangaren ke da tasiri ga muhalli. [14] Wannan misalin canjin amfani da ƙasa wanda buƙatun albarkatu ke haifarwa, ba wai yana faruwa ne kawai a Brazil tare da samar da wake ba.

Girbin kifi a cikin Acadia Parish, Louisiana.

Wani misali kuma ya fito ne daga The Renewable Energy Directive 2009 Union lokacin da suka ba da umarnin bunƙasa albarkatun man fetur ga ƙasashen da ke cikin membobinsu. Tare da direban tattalin arziki na kasa da kasa na haɓaka samar da albarkatun halittu yana tasiri ga amfani da ƙasa a waɗannan ƙasashe. Lokacin da ƙasar noma ta koma ƙasar noman makamashin halittu, wadatar amfanin gona ta asali tana raguwa yayin da kasuwannin duniya na wannan amfanin gona ke ƙaruwa. Wannan yana haifar da direban tattalin arziƙin zamantakewa don buƙatar ƙarin filayen noma don tallafawa buƙatun girma. Duk da haka, tare da rashin wadataccen fili daga maye gurbin amfanin gona zuwa man fetur, Kuma dole ne kasashe su duba yankunan da ke nesa don bunkasa wadannan filayen noman na asali. Wannan yana haifar da rikice-rikice a cikin ƙasashe inda wannan sabon ci gaba ya faru. Misali, kasashen Afirka suna mayar da savannas zuwa gonakin noma kuma wannan duk ya samo asali ne daga tattalin arzikin tattalin arziki na son samar da makamashin halittu. [15] Bugu da ƙari, direban zamantakewar tattalin arziki wanda ke haifar da canjin amfani da ƙasa ba duka ke faruwa a matakin duniya ba. Waɗannan direbobin suna iya samun gogewa har zuwa matakin gida. Sauya amfanin gona ba wai kawai ya fito ne daga canjin yanayin noma ba, babban canji ya zo daga Tailandia lokacin da suka canza aikin noman poppy na opium zuwa amfanin gona marasa narko. Kuma Wannan ya haifar da bunƙasa fannin noma na Tailandia, amma ya haifar da tasiri a duniya ( maye gurbin opium ).

Misali, a Wolong China, mazauna wurin suna amfani da gandun daji a matsayin itacen mai don dafawa da dumama gidajensu. Kuma Don haka, direban zamantakewar tattalin arzikin da ke cikin wasa anan shine buƙatar katako na gida don tallafawa rayuwa a wannan yanki. Da wannan direban, jama’ar yankin na rage kayan aikin da suke samu na itacen mai don haka sai su ci gaba da yin nesa da su domin kwato wannan albarkatun. Wannan motsi da buƙatun katako yana taimakawa ga asarar pandas a wannan yanki saboda yanayin yanayin su yana lalacewa. [16]

Duk da haka, lokacin da ake binciken abubuwan da ke faruwa a cikin gida an mayar da hankali kan sakamako maimakon yadda canje-canje a cikin direbobi na duniya ke shafar sakamako. [17] Tare da wannan ana faɗin, ana buƙatar aiwatar da tsare-tsare na al'umma yayin da ake nazarin abubuwan da ke haifar da canjin zamantakewar al'umma.

A ƙarshe, mutum zai iya ganin yadda direbobin tattalin arziki a kowane mataki suke taka rawa a sakamakon ayyukan ɗan adam a kan muhalli. Waɗannan direbobin duk suna da tasiri a kan ƙasa, mutane, albarkatu, da muhalli gaba ɗaya. Kuma Tare da wannan ana faɗin, mutane suna buƙatar cikakken fahimtar yadda direbobin tattalin arzikinsu za su iya canza salon rayuwarmu. Misali, idan muka koma misalin waken waken soya, a lokacin da wadata ta kasa biyan bukatar waken waken, kasuwannin duniya na wannan amfanin gona na karuwa wanda hakan ke shafar kasashen da suka dogara da wannan amfanin gona don samun abinci. Wadannan tasirin na iya haifar da tsadar waken soya a shaguna da kasuwanninsu ko kuma na iya haifar da rashin wadatar amfanin gona gaba ɗaya a cikin ƙasashen da ake shigo da su. Sannan Tare da waɗannan sakamakon biyun, matakin na gida yana shafar matakin zamantakewar tattalin arziƙin ƙasa na karuwar buƙatun waken soya na Brazil a China. Daga wannan misali ɗaya kaɗai, mutum zai iya ganin yadda direbobin tattalin arziki na zamantakewa ke yin tasiri ga canje-canje a matakin ƙasa wanda ke haifar da ƙarin canje-canje na duniya, yanki, al'umma, da matakin iyali. Babban manufar da za a cire daga wannan ita ce ra'ayin cewa komai yana da alaƙa kuma cewa ayyukanmu da zaɓin mu a matsayinmu na mutane suna da manyan abubuwan motsa jiki waɗanda ke tasiri ga duniyarmu ta hanyoyi da yawa.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]