Boston

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John Hull da itacen pine shilling sun taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen kafa Massachusetts Bay Colony da Old South Church a cikin 1600s. A 1652 majalisar dokokin Massachusetts ta ba John Hull izini don samar da tsabar kudi. "Hull Mint ya samar da nau'o'i da yawa na tsabar kudi na azurfa, ciki har da shilin itacen pine, fiye da shekaru 30 har sai da yanayin siyasa da tattalin arziki ya sa aikin mint ya daina aiki." Sarki Charles II saboda dalilan da galibin siyasa ne ake ganin babban ha'inci na "Hull Mint" wanda ke da hukuncin ratayewa, zana da kuma rubutowa . "A ranar 6 ga Afrilu, 1681, Edward Randolph ya roki sarki, ya sanar da shi cewa mulkin mallaka yana ci gaba da danna nasu tsabar kudi wanda ya gani a matsayin babban cin amana kuma ya yi imanin cewa ya isa ya ɓata yarjejeniyar. Ya nemi a ba da takardar shaidar Quo warranto (matakin doka da ke buƙatar wanda ake tuhuma ya nuna wace ikon da suke da shi don yin amfani da wani hakki, iko, ko ikon mallakar ikon mallakar ikon mallakar ikon mallakar ikon mallakar ikon mallakar ikon mallakar ikon mallakar ikon mallakar ikon mallakar ikon mallakar ikon mallakar mallakar mallakar mallakar Amurka) a kan Massachusetts don cin zarafi."

Boston ita ce birni mafi girma a cikin Mallaka Goma sha Uku har sai Philadelphia ta yi girma a tsakiyar karni na 18. Wurin gaban tekun Boston ya sanya ta zama tashar jiragen ruwa mai ɗorewa, kuma garin da farko ya tsunduma cikin jigilar kayayyaki da kamun kifi a lokacin mulkin mallaka. Koyaya, Boston ta tsaya a cikin shekarun da suka gabata kafin juyin juya halin Musulunci. A tsakiyar karni na 18, New York City da Philadelphia sun zarce Boston a arziki. A wannan lokacin, Boston ta fuskanci matsalolin kuɗi kamar yadda sauran biranen New England suka girma cikin sauri.

Yawancin muhimman abubuwan da suka faru na juyin juya halin Amurka[41] sun faru a cikin ko kusa da Boston. Ƙaunar Boston don ayyukan ’yan tawaye tare da haɓaka rashin bangaskiya ga ’yan mulkin mallaka a cikin Biritaniya ko Majalisarta sun haɓaka ruhun juyin juya hali a cikin birni.[1] Lokacin da majalisar dokokin Biritaniya ta zartar da Dokar Tambari a cikin 1765, wani gungun jama'a na Boston sun lalata gidajen Andrew Oliver, jami'in da ke da alhakin aiwatar da dokar, da Thomas Hutchinson, sannan Laftanar Gwamnan Massachusetts.[1] [2] Birtaniya ta aika da runduna biyu zuwa Boston a shekara ta 1768 a wani yunƙuri na kashe masu mulkin mallaka. Hakan bai yiwa ‘yan mulkin mallaka dadi ba. A cikin 1770, a lokacin kisan kiyashi na Boston, sojojin Burtaniya sun harbe cikin taron jama'a da suka fara tursasa su da karfi. Turawan mulkin mallaka sun tilastawa Birtaniya janye sojojinsu. An ba da sanarwar taron kuma ya haifar da yunkurin juyin juya hali a Amurka.[3]

A cikin 1773, majalisar ta zartar da Dokar Tea . Yawancin masu mulkin mallaka suna ganin wannan matakin a matsayin yunƙurin tilasta musu karɓar harajin da Dokar Townshend ta kafa. Wannan matakin ya sa jam'iyyar Tea ta Boston, inda wasu gungun 'yan asalin Boston da suka fusata suka jefar da daukacin jigilar shayin da Kamfanin Gabashin Indiya ya aika zuwa tashar jiragen ruwa ta Boston . Jam'iyyar Tea ta Boston ta kasance wani muhimmin taron da ya kai ga juyin juya hali, yayin da gwamnatin Birtaniya ta mayar da martani da fushi tare da Ayyukan Ƙwararrun Ƙwararru, suna neman diyya ga lalatar shayi daga 'yan Boston. Wannan ya kara fusata 'yan mulkin mallaka kuma ya kai ga yakin juyin juya halin Amurka . Yaƙin ya fara ne a yankin da ke kewaye da Boston tare da yaƙe-yaƙe na Lexington da Concord . [1]

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