Jump to content

Braille

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Braille
Type
Parent systems
  • Braille
Direction Samfuri:ISO 15924 direction
ISO 15924 Brai, 570
Unicode alias
Samfuri:ISO 15924 alias

Na'urar rubutu ce da masu lalurar rashin gani suke amfani da ita domin karatu

Braille ya samo suna ne daga wanda ya kirkiro shi dan faransa ne wanda ya rasa idon shi sanadiyyar hadari a cikin shekara ta 1824 yana dan shekara 15 daga baya ya habbaka shi ya zuwa har da waka ana iya koyo.

Ana yin haruffan ne ta amfani da haɗin ɗigo ɗigo shida da aka tsara a cikin 3 × 2 matrix, wanda ake kira cell braille. Lamba da tsarin waɗannan ɗigogi suna bambanta wannan hali daga wani. Tun da haruffan maƙallan maƙalaƙi dabam-dabam sun samo asali ne azaman lambobin kwafin rubutu don bugu, taswirorin (saitin zayyana halaye) sun bambanta daga harshe zuwa harshe, har ma cikin ɗaya; a cikin harshen Turanci akwai matakan makafi guda 3: Ƙwaƙwalwar da ba ta da kwangila – rubutaccen wasiƙa da aka yi amfani da shi don karatun asali; kwangilar makala – ƙari na raguwa da raguwa da aka yi amfani da su azaman hanyar ceton sararin samaniya; da daraja 3 – daban-daban marasa daidaito na sirri stenography wanda aka kasa amfani da shi.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Braille ya dogara ne akan lambar taɓo, wanda yanzu aka sani da rubutun dare, wanda Charles Barbier ya haɓaka . (Sunan "rubutun dare" an ba shi daga baya lokacin da aka yi la'akari da shi a matsayin hanyar da za a yi wa sojoji don sadarwa a cikin shiru da dare ba tare da haske ba, amma rubutun Barbier ba sa amfani da wannan kalma kuma ya nuna cewa an tsara shi a matsayin mai sauƙi. nau'i na rubuce-rubuce da na nakasassu.) A cikin tsarin Barbier, an yi amfani da saitin ɗigo 12 da aka ɓoye don ɓoye sautuna 36 daban-daban. Braille ya gano manyan lahani guda uku na lambar: na farko, alamomin suna wakiltar sautunan sauti ba haruffan haruffa ba. – don haka lambar ta kasa yin rubutun kalmomin. Na biyu, alamomin dige-dige 12 ba za su iya shiga cikin sauƙi a ƙarƙashin kushin karatun ba. Wannan yana buƙatar yatsan karatu ya motsa don gane gaba ɗaya alamar, wanda ya rage saurin karatun. (Wannan saboda tsarin Barbier ya dogara ne kawai akan adadin dige-dige a cikin kowane ginshiƙan dige 6 guda biyu amma ba tsarin dige-dige ba.) Na uku, lambar ba ta ƙunshi alamomin lambobi ko alamar rubutu ba. Maganin Braille shine yin amfani da ƙwayoyin dige-dige 6 da sanya takamaiman tsari ga kowane harafin haruffa. Har ila yau, Braille ya haɓaka alamomi don wakiltar lambobi da alamomi.[1][2]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "The Dot Positions in the braille cell Are Identified by Numbers from One Through Six". AFB.org. Archived from the original on 8 March 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  2. World Blind Union. "Press Release: The importance of Braille Literacy". The International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness. Archived from the original on 1 December 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.