Amfani da Ƙasa

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Wikidata.svgAmfani da Ƙasa
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Rarraba ƙasar da ake amfani da ita wajen noma a duniya

Amfani da ƙasa ya haɗa da gudanarwa da gyare-gyaren yanayi ko jeji zuwa ginanniyar muhalli kamar ƙauyuka da wuraren zama na dabi'a kamar filayen noma, wuraren kiwo, da dazuzzuka masu sarrafawa . Amfani da ƙasa da ɗan adam yana da dogon tarihi, wanda ya fara bayyana sama da shekaru dubu 10 da suka wuce.[1][2][3]An bayyana shi a matsayin "manufa da ayyukan ta hanyar da mutane ke hulɗa da yanayin ƙasa da na ƙasa" da kuma "jimilar tsare-tsare, ayyuka, da abubuwan da mutane ke aiwatarwa a cikin wani nau'in ƙasa ." [4] Amfani da ƙasa yana ɗaya daga cikin mahimman abubuwan da ke haifar da canjin muhalli a duniya. [3]

Ka'ida[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Taswirar amfani da ƙasa na Turai —manyan amfanin ƙasar da ba na halitta ba sun haɗa da filayen noma (rawaya) da makiyaya (kore mai haske).

Hanyoyin amfani da ƙasa sun bambanta sosai a duk faɗin duniya. Kungiyar Abinci da Aikin Noma ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya Sashin Raya Ruwa ta bayyana cewa “Amfanin da ƙasa ya shafi kayayyaki da/ko amfanin da aka samu daga amfani da ƙasa da kuma ayyukan sarrafa filaye (ayyukan) da mutane ke aiwatarwa don samar da wadannan kayayyaki da fa’idojin. " [5] Ya zuwa farkon shekarun 1990, kusan kashi 13% na duniya ana la'akari da ƙasar noma, tare da kashi 26% a wurin kiwo, 32% gandun daji da gandun daji, da kuma 1.5% yankunan birane. Za a iya amfani da ƙirar canjin ƙasa don tsinkaya da kuma tantance canje-canje na gaba a cikin amfanin ƙasa.

Kamar yadda Albert Guttenberg (1959) ya rubuta shekaru da yawa da suka wuce, "'Amfani da ƙasa' wani mahimmin kalma ne a cikin harshen tsara birni ." [6] Galibi, hukunce-hukuncen siyasa za su gudanar da shirin yin amfani da filaye da tsara yadda ake amfani da filaye a yunƙurin gujewa rigingimun amfani da ƙasa . Ana aiwatar da tsare-tsaren amfani da ƙasa ta hanyar rarraba ƙasa da amfani da ka'idoji kamar ƙa'idodin yanki . Kamfanonin tuntuɓar gudanarwa da ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu za su nemi yin tasiri akai-akai akan waɗannan ƙa'idodin kafin a tsara su.

Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rarrabuwar wuraren zama sakamakon hanyoyi da yawa kusa da Tekun Indiyana Dunes National Lakeshore

A cikin mulkin mallaka na Amurka, an fara aiwatar da ƴan ƙa'idodi game da amfani da ƙasa. Yayin da al’umma suke ƙaura daga karkara zuwa birane, tsarin mallakar filaye na jama’a ya zama muhimmi, musamman ga gwamnatocin birane na kokarin sarrafa masana’antu, kasuwanci, da gidaje a cikin iyakokinsu. An zartar da dokar yanki ta farko a cikin birnin New York a cikin shekara ta 1916, [7] [8]

A yau, gwamnatocin tarayya, jihohi, da ƙananan hukumomi suna tsara ci gaba ta hanyar doka . Yawancin sarrafawa akan ƙasa, duk da haka, sun samo asali ne daga ayyukan masu haɓaka masu zaman kansu da ɗaiɗaikun mutane. Abubuwa uku na al'ada da ke kawo irin waɗannan ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu cikin tsarin shari'a sune: ƙarar da wani maƙwabci ya kawo wa wani; kara da wani jami'in gwamnati ya kawo wa wani mai mallakar fili da ke makwabtaka da shi a madadin jama'a; da kuma dacewa da ya haɗa da daidaikun mutane waɗanda ke raba mallakar wani yanki na musamman. A cikin waɗannan yanayi, hukunce-hukuncen shari'a da aiwatar da shirye-shiryen amfani da ƙasa masu zaman kansu na iya ƙarfafa tsarin jama'a, da cimma nau'o'i da matakan sarrafawa waɗanda tsarin yanki ba zai iya ba. Ana ƙara nuna damuwa cewa ƙa'idodin amfani da ƙasa shine ke haifar da rarrabuwar gidaje a Amurka a yau.

An zartar da manyan dokokin tarayya guda biyu a cikin rabin karnin da ya gabata wadanda suka takaita amfani da filaye sosai. Waɗannan su ne: Dokar Kiyaye Tarihi ta Ƙasa ta 1966 (a yau tana cikin 16 USC 461 et seq.) da Dokar Muhalli ta ƙasa na 1969 (42 USC 4321 et seq. ).

Ma'aikatar Aikin Gona ta Amurka ta gano manyan nau'ikan amfani da filaye guda shida a cikin Amurka. Kididdigar yawan kowane nau'in amfani da filaye a cikin jihohi 48 masu zuwa a cikin shekara ta 2017 sune kamar haka:

Amfani da ƙasar Amurka (2017)
Amfani kasa (M) km2 (M) % na duka
Kiwo / kewayo 654 2.647 35
Daji 538.6 2.18 28
Cropland 391.5 1.584 21
Amfani na musamman* 168.8 0.683 9
Na dabam* 68.9 0.279 4
Birni 69.4 0.281 4
Jima'i** 1,891 7.653 100
  • Wuraren amfani na musamman sun haɗa da wuraren shakatawa na ƙasa (29 M acres) da wuraren shakatawa na jihohi (15 M), wuraren namun daji (64.4 M), manyan tituna (21 M), titin jirgin ƙasa (3M), sansanonin soja (25 M), filayen jirgin sama (3M) da wasu kadan. Daban-daban sun haɗa da makabartu, wuraren wasan golf, marshes, sahara, da sauran wurare masu “ƙananan darajar tattalin arziki”. ** Jimlar ƙasar Amurka shine 9.1 M km 2 amma jimlar da aka yi amfani da ita anan tana nufin jihohi 48 ne kawai, ba tare da Alaska da sauransu ba.

Muhalli[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Template:Bar chart Hanyoyin amfani da ƙasa da tsarin kula da ƙasa suna da babban tasiri ga albarkatun ƙasa da suka haɗa da ruwa, ƙasa, abinci mai gina jiki, tsirrai da dabbobi . Ana iya amfani da bayanan amfani da ƙasa don haɓaka hanyoyin magance matsalolin sarrafa albarkatun ƙasa kamar salinity da ingancin ruwa . Alal misali, rafukan ruwa a yankin da aka sare dazuzzuka ko kuma ya zazzage za su sami ingancin ruwan dabam fiye da na wuraren da ke dazuzzuka . Aikin lambun daji, tsarin samar da abinci na tushen tsire-tsire, an yi imanin shine mafi tsufa nau'in amfani da ƙasa a duniya.

Babban tasirin amfani da filaye a kan rufin ƙasa tun daga shekara ta 1750 shine sare dazuzzuka na yankuna masu zafi . Babban illolin amfani da ƙasa na baya-bayan nan sun haɗa da bazuwar birane, zaizayar ƙasa, gurɓacewar ƙasa, ɗimin ruwa, da kwararowar hamada . [9] Canjin amfani da ƙasa, tare da amfani da burbushin mai, su ne manyan tushen ɗan adam na carbon dioxide, babban iskar gas .

A cewar wani rahoto da Hukumar Abinci da Aikin Noma ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta fitar, gurbacewar kasa ya ta’azzara inda ba a yi wani shiri na amfani da filaye ba, ko aiwatar da shi cikin tsari, ko kuma akwai wasu kuɗaɗe na doka da suka haifar da hakan. yanke shawarar amfani da ƙasa ba daidai ba, ko shirin tsakiya na gefe ɗaya wanda ke haifar da yawan amfani da albarkatun ƙasa - alal misali don samarwa nan da nan ta kowane farashi. A sakamakon haka sau da yawa ya zama zullumi ga ɓangarorin yankin da lalatar muhalli masu mahimmanci.

The citadel of Kastellet, Copenhagen that has been converted into a park, showing multiple examples of suburban land use

Iyakokin girma na birni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Iyakar ci gaban birane wani nau'i ne na ƙa'idojin amfani da ƙasa. Misali, Portland, Oregon ana buƙatar samun iyakar haɓakar birni wanda ya ƙunshi aƙalla 20,000 acres (81 km2) na fili. Bugu da ƙari, Oregon yana ƙuntata haɓakar filayen noma. Dokokin suna da jayayya, amma wani bincike na tattalin arziki ya tabbatar da cewa filin noma yana daraja irin wannan ƙasa.[10]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Ellis, Erle; Goldewijk, Kees Klein; Gaillard, Marie-José; Kaplan, Jed O.; Thornton, Alexa; Powell, Jeremy; Garcia, Santiago Munevar; Beaudoin, Ella; Zerboni, Andrea (2019-08-30). "Archaeological assessment reveals Earth's early transformation through land use". Science (in Turanci). 365 (6456): 897–902. Bibcode:2019Sci...365..897S. doi:10.1126/science.aax1192. hdl:10150/634688. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 31467217. S2CID 201674203.
  2. Ellis, Erle C.; Gauthier, Nicolas; Goldewijk, Kees Klein; Bird, Rebecca Bliege; Boivin, Nicole; Díaz, Sandra; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Gill, Jacquelyn L.; Kaplan, Jed O.; Kingston, Naomi; Locke, Harvey (2021-04-27). "People have shaped most of terrestrial nature for at least 12,000 years". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (in Turanci). 118 (17): e2023483118. Bibcode:2021PNAS..11823483E. doi:10.1073/pnas.2023483118. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 8092386 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 33875599 Check |pmid= value (help).
  3. 3.0 3.1 Meyfroidt, P.; Roy Chowdhury, R.; de Bremond, A.; Ellis, E. C.; Erb, K. -H.; Filatova, T.; Garrett, R. D.; Grove, J. M.; Heinimann, A.; Kuemmerle, T.; Kull, C. A. (2018-11-01). "Middle-range theories of land system change". Global Environmental Change (in Turanci). 53: 52–67. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2018.08.006. ISSN 0959-3780. S2CID 158366220.
  4. IPCC Special Report on Land Use, Land-Use Change And Forestry, 2.2.1.1 Land Use
  5. FAO Land and Water Division retrieved 14 September 2010
  6. JAPA 25:3
  7. Village of Euclid, Ohio v. Ambler Realty Co.
  8. Nolon, John R., Local Land Use Control in New York: An Aging Citadel Under Siege (July/Aug. 1992). New York State Bar Journal, p. 38, July–August 1992.
  9. UN Land Degradation and Land Use/Cover Data Sources ret. 26 June 2007
  10. Jaeker WG, Plantinga AJ (2007). How have Land-use regulations Affected Property Values in Oregon? Archived 2012-07-22 at the Wayback Machine OSU Extension.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]