Jump to content

Inganchin ruwa

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Ana amfani da samfurin rosette don tattara samfuran ruwa a cikin ruwa mai zurfi, kamar manyan tabkuna ko tekuna, don gwajin ingancin ruwa.

Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of ruwa based on the standards of its usage. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance, generally achieved through treatment of the water, can be assessed. The most common standards used to monitor and assess water quality convey the health of ecosystems, safety of human contact, extend of water pollution and condition of drinking water. Water quality has a significant impact on water supply and oftentimes determines supply options.

Categories[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana ƙayyade sigogi don ingancin ruwa ta hanyar amfani da aka yi niyya. Aiki a fannin ingancin ruwa yakan mayar da hankali ne akan ruwan da ake bi da shi don yuwuwa, masana'antu/amfani da gida, ko maidowa (na muhalli/tsarin muhalli, gabaɗaya don lafiyar ɗan adam/rayuwar ruwa).

shan mutane[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gurɓatar ruwan sha na yanki da ƙasa ta nau'in sinadarai da girman yawan jama'a cikin haɗarin fallasa

Gurɓatattun abubuwan da za su iya kasancewa cikin ruwan da ba a kula da su ba sun haɗa da ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta kamar ƙwayoyin cuta, protozoa da kwayoyin cuta ; gurɓataccen yanayi kamar gishiri da karafa ; gurbataccen sinadarai na kwayoyin halitta daga hanyoyin masana'antu da amfani da man fetur ; magungunan kashe qwari da herbicides ; da kuma gurɓataccen rediyo . Ingancin ruwa ya dogara da yanayin ƙasa da yanayin muhalli, da kuma amfani da ɗan adam kamar watsawar najasa, gurɓataccen masana'antu, yin amfani da jikunan ruwa azaman nutsewar zafi, da yin amfani da yawa (wanda zai iya rage matakin ruwa).

Hukumar Kare Muhalli ta Amurka (EPA) tana iyakance adadin wasu gurɓatattun abubuwa a cikin ruwan famfo ta tsarin ruwan jama'a na Amurka. Dokar Ruwa mai Aminci ta ba da izini ga EPA don fitar da ma'auni guda biyu:

  • matakan farko suna daidaita abubuwan da zasu iya shafar lafiyar ɗan adam;
  • Ma'auni na sakandare sun tsara kyawawan halaye, waɗanda ke shafar ɗanɗano, wari, ko kamanni.

Dokokin Hukumar Abinci da Magunguna ta Amurka (FDA) sun kafa iyaka ga gurɓataccen ruwa a cikin ruwan kwalba . Ruwan sha, gami da ruwan kwalba, ana iya sa ran zai iya ƙunsar aƙalla kaɗan na wasu gurɓatattun abubuwa. Kasancewar waɗannan gurɓatattun ba lallai bane ya nuna cewa ruwan yana haifar da haɗarin lafiya.

A cikin biranen duniya, ana amfani da fasahar tsabtace ruwa a cikin tsarin ruwa na birni don kawar da gurɓataccen ruwa daga tushen ruwa (ruwa ko ruwan ƙasa ) kafin a raba shi ga gidaje, kasuwanci, makarantu da sauran masu karɓa. Ruwan da kuma aka ɗora kai tsaye daga rafi, tabki, ko magudanar ruwa wanda ba shi da magani ba zai kasance da ingancin rashin tabbas dangane da yuwuwar yuwuwa.

Nauyin gurɓataccen ruwan sha yana haifar da ƙarancin wakilci da yawan jama'a. [1] Al'ummomin da ba su da waɗannan tsaftataccen sabis na ruwan sha suna cikin haɗarin kamuwa da cututtukan da ke haifar da ruwa da gurɓataccen yanayi kamar Cholera, gudawa, dysentery, hepatitis A, typhoid, da polio. [2] Wadannan al'ummomi galibi suna cikin wuraren da ba su da kudin shiga, inda ake zubar da ruwan dattin dan adam zuwa wata tashar magudanar ruwa da ke kusa ko magudanar ruwa ba tare da isasshen magani ba, ko kuma ana amfani da su wajen ban ruwa.

Amfani na masana'antu da na gida[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dissolved ions may affect the suitability of water for a range of industrial and domestic purposes. The most familiar of these is probably the presence of calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) that interfere with the cleaning action of soap, and can form hard sulfate and soft carbonate deposits in water heaters or boilers. Hard water may be softened to remove these ions. The softening process often substitutes sodium cations. For certain populations, hard water may be preferable to soft water because health problems have been associated with calcium deficiencies and with excess sodium. The necessity for additional calcium and magnesium in water depends on the population in question because people generally satisfy their recommended amounts through food.

ingancin ruwan muhalli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

See also: Environmental monitoring and Freshwater environmental quality parameters

Ingancin ruwan muhalli, wanda kuma ake kira ingancin ruwa na yanayi, yana da alaƙa da jikunan ruwa kamar tafkuna, koguna, da tekuna . Matsayin ingancin ruwa don ruwan saman ya bambanta sosai saboda yanayin muhalli daban-daban, yanayin muhalli, da amfanin ɗan adam. Abubuwa masu guba da yawan jama'a na wasu ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta na iya haifar da haɗari don dalilai marasa sha kamar ban ruwa, iyo, kamun kifi, rafting, jirgin ruwa, da amfanin masana'antu. Waɗannan sharuɗɗan na iya shafar namun daji, waɗanda ke amfani da ruwan don sha ko a matsayin wurin zama. A cewar EPA, dokokin ingancin ruwa gabaɗaya sun fayyace kariyar kamun kifi da amfani da nishaɗi kuma suna buƙatar, aƙalla, riƙe ma'auni masu inganci na yanzu.

Akwai wasu sha'awar a tsakanin jama'a na mayar da ruwan ruwa zuwa tsaftataccen yanayi, ko yanayin masana'antu kafin masana'antu. Yawancin dokokin muhalli na yanzu sun fi mayar da hankali kan zayyana takamaiman amfani da jikin ruwa. A wasu ƙasashe waɗannan sunaye suna ba da izinin wasu gurɓataccen ruwa muddin nau'in gurɓataccen abu ba shi da lahani ga abubuwan da aka keɓe. Idan aka yi la’akari da sauye-sauyen yanayi (misali, ci gaban ƙasa, ƙauyuka, ɓallewa a wuraren dazuzzuka) a cikin magudanar ruwa na ruwa mai yawa da yawa, komawa zuwa yanayin da ba a sani ba zai zama babban ƙalubale. A cikin waɗannan yanayi, masana kimiyyar muhalli sun fi mayar da hankali kan cimma burin kiyaye yanayin muhalli masu kyau kuma suna iya mai da hankali kan kare al'ummomin da ke cikin haɗari da kuma kare lafiyar ɗan adam.

Samfurori da aunawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Taro samfurin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Matsalolin ingancin ruwa a matsayin batun yana nunawa a cikin nau'ikan nau'ikan ma'auni na ingancin ruwa. Wasu ma'auni na ingancin ruwa an fi yin su daidai a kan wurin, saboda ruwa yana wanzuwa cikin daidaito da kewayensa . Ma'auni da aka saba yi akan rukunin yanar gizon kuma a cikin hulɗar kai tsaye tare da tushen ruwa da ake tambaya sun haɗa da zafin jiki, pH, narkar da iskar oxygen, haɓakawa, yuwuwar rage iskar oxygen (ORP), turbidity, da zurfin diski na Secchi .

Ana iya yin samfurin ruwa don gwajin jiki ko na sinadarai ta hanyoyi da yawa, ya danganta da daidaiton da ake buƙata da halayen gurɓataccen abu. Hanyoyin samfurin sun haɗa da misali mai sauƙi bazuwar samfurin bazuwar, ƙirar ƙira, tsarin tsari da samfurin grid, Samfuran gunguni masu daidaitawa, ɗaukar samfura, saka idanu na tsaka-tsaki da ci gaba, samfurin m, sa ido mai nisa, hangen nesa mai nisa, da nazarin halittu . Yin amfani da samfurori masu mahimmanci yana rage farashin da kuma buƙatar kayan aiki akan wurin samfurin.

Yawancin al'amuran gurɓatawa ana iyakance su sosai cikin lokaci, galibi dangane da abubuwan da suka faru na ruwan sama. Don haka, samfuran "ɗauka" galibi ba su isa don ƙididdige matakan gurɓataccen abu ba. Masana kimiyya suna tattara irin wannan nau'in bayanan galibi suna amfani da na'urori masu sarrafa kansa waɗanda ke fitar da ƙarin ruwa a kowane lokaci ko tazarar fitarwa .

Yawancin ma'auni masu rikitarwa ana yin su a cikin dakin gwaje-gwaje da ke buƙatar samfurin ruwa don tattarawa, adanawa, jigilar su, da tantancewa a wani wuri. Tsarin samfurin ruwa yana gabatar da manyan matsaloli guda biyu:

  • Matsala ta farko ita ce girman abin da samfurin zai iya zama wakilin tushen ruwa na sha'awa. Maɓuɓɓugar ruwa sun bambanta da lokaci da wuri. Ma'auni na sha'awa na iya bambanta lokaci-lokaci ko daga rana zuwa dare ko kuma a matsayin martani ga wasu ayyuka na mutum ko al'ummomin halittu na tsire -tsire na ruwa da dabbobi . Ma'auni na sha'awa na iya bambanta tare da nisa daga iyakar ruwa tare da wuce gona da iri da ƙasa ko ƙasa . Mai samfurin dole ne ya ƙayyade idan lokaci ɗaya da wuri guda ɗaya ya dace da bukatun binciken, ko kuma idan amfani da ruwa na sha'awa za a iya kimanta shi da gamsarwa ta hanyar ma'auni na ƙididdiga na lokaci da wuri, ko kuma idan maxima da minima mai mahimmanci suna buƙatar ma'auni na mutum akan kewayo. na lokuta, wurare ko abubuwan da suka faru. Dole ne tsarin tattara samfurin ya tabbatar da ma'aunin daidaitattun lokutan samfur na kowane mutum da wuraren da matsakaicin ya dace. :39–40Inda mafi girman ƙima ko mafi ƙarancin ƙima, dole ne a yi amfani da hanyoyin ƙididdiga don lura da bambancin don tantance isassun adadin samfuran don tantance yuwuwar wuce waɗannan mahimman ƙimar.
  • Matsala ta biyu tana faruwa yayin da aka cire samfurin daga tushen ruwa kuma ya fara kafa daidaitattun sinadarai tare da sabon kewayensa - kwandon samfurin. Dole ne a yi kwantena na samfuri da kayan aiki tare da ƙaramin aiki tare da abubuwan da za a auna; pre-tsabtace samfurin kwantena yana da mahimmanci. Samfurin ruwan na iya narkar da wani yanki na kwandon samfurin da duk wani abin da ya rage a kan wannan akwati, kuma sinadarai da aka narkar da su a cikin samfurin ruwa na iya zama cikin kwandon samfurin kuma su kasance a wurin lokacin da aka zubar da ruwan don bincike. [3] :4Irin wannan mu'amala ta zahiri da sinadarai na iya faruwa tare da kowace famfo, bututu, ko na'urori masu tsaka-tsaki da aka yi amfani da su don canja wurin samfurin ruwa cikin kwandon samfurin. Ruwan da aka tattara daga zurfafan ƙasa za a gudanar da shi akai-akai a rage matsa lamba na yanayi; don haka iskar gas da aka narkar a cikin ruwa zai taru a saman kwandon. Gas na yanayi sama da ruwa na iya narke cikin samfurin ruwa. Sauran ma'aunin halayen sinadaran na iya canzawa idan samfurin ruwan ya canza yanayin zafi. Ƙaƙƙarfan ɓangarorin da aka rarrabke waɗanda a da aka dakatar da hargitsin ruwa na iya daidaitawa zuwa kasan kwandon samfurin, ko kuma ƙaƙƙarfan lokaci na iya fitowa daga haɓakar ilimin halitta ko hazo na sinadarai . Ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta a cikin samfurin ruwa na iya canza yanayin halitta na oxygen, carbon dioxide, da mahadi . Canza adadin carbon dioxide na iya canza pH kuma canza narkewar sinadarai masu sha'awa. Wadannan matsalolin suna da damuwa na musamman yayin auna sinadarai da ake zaton suna da mahimmanci a cikin ƙananan yawa. [4]

Ajiye samfurin na iya warware matsala ta biyu a wani yanki. Hanya ta gama gari ita ce sanya samfuran sanyi don rage ƙimar halayen sinadarai da canjin lokaci, da kuma nazarin samfurin da wuri-wuri; amma wannan yana rage sauye-sauye ne kawai maimakon hana su. :43–45Hanya mai amfani don ƙayyade tasiri na kwantena samfurin lokacin jinkiri tsakanin tarin samfurin da bincike ya haɗa da shirye-shirye don samfurori na wucin gadi guda biyu a gaba na samfurin samfurin. Akwatin samfurin ɗaya yana cike da ruwa wanda aka sani daga binciken da ya gabata don ƙunshe da adadin da za a iya ganowa na sinadaran sha'awa. Wannan samfurin, wanda ake kira "blank", ana buɗe shi don fallasa sararin samaniya lokacin da aka tattara samfurin sha'awa, sannan a sake rufe shi kuma a kai shi zuwa dakin gwaje-gwaje tare da samfurin don bincike don sanin ko tarin samfurin ko hanyoyin riƙewa ya gabatar da kowane adadin da za a iya aunawa. sinadaran sha'awa. Ana tattara samfurin wucin gadi na biyu tare da samfurin sha'awa, amma sai a "spiked" tare da ƙarin adadin adadin sinadarai na sha'awa a lokacin tattarawa. Ana ɗaukar blank ( mara kyau iko ) da samfurin spiked ( kyakkyawan kulawa ) tare da samfurin sha'awa kuma ana nazarin su ta hanyoyi guda ɗaya a lokaci guda don ƙayyade duk wani canje-canje da ke nuna riba ko asara a lokacin da ya wuce tsakanin tarin da bincike. [5]

Gwaji don mayar da martani ga bala'o'i da sauran abubuwan gaggawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gwajin ruwa a Tekun Mexico bayan malalar mai ta Deepwater Horizon

Bayan abubuwan da suka faru kamar girgizar kasa da tsunami, akwai martani nan da nan daga hukumomin agaji yayin da ayyukan agaji ke ci gaba da kokarin dawo da ababen more rayuwa da samar da muhimman abubuwan da suka wajaba don rayuwa da murmurewa daga baya. Barazanar cututtuka yana ƙaruwa sosai saboda ɗimbin mutanen da ke zaune kusa da juna, sau da yawa a cikin yanayi mara kyau, kuma ba tare da tsaftar muhalli ba.

Bayan bala'i na dabi'a, dangane da gwajin ingancin ruwa, akwai ra'ayoyi da yawa game da mafi kyawun matakin da za a ɗauka kuma ana iya amfani da hanyoyi iri-iri. Maɓalli na asali na ingancin ruwa waɗanda ke buƙatar magance su a cikin gaggawa sune alamun ƙwayoyin cuta na gurɓataccen fecal, ragowar chlorine kyauta, pH, turbidity da yuwuwar haɓakawa / jimlar narkar da daskararru . Akwai hanyoyin lalata da yawa.

Bayan manyan bala'o'i, dogon lokaci mai tsawo na iya wucewa kafin ingancin ruwa ya dawo matakan kafin bala'i. Alal misali, bayan tsunami na Tekun Indiya a shekara ta 2004 Cibiyar Kula da Ruwa ta Duniya da ke Colombo (IWMI) ta lura da illolin ruwan gishiri kuma ta kammala cewa rijiyoyin sun farfaɗo zuwa ruwan sha kafin tsunami mai inganci shekaru ɗaya da rabi bayan taron. [6] IWMI ta samar da ka'idoji don tsaftace rijiyoyin da ruwan gishiri ya gurbata; Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya ta amince da waɗannan a hukumance a matsayin wani ɓangare na jerin ƙa'idodinta na gaggawa.

Binciken sunadarai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gas chromatograph -<br id="mwARo"><br><br><br></br> Mass spectrometer yana auna magungunan kashe qwari da sauran gurɓataccen yanayi

Mafi sauƙaƙan hanyoyin bincike na sinadarai su ne waɗanda ke auna abubuwan sinadarai ba tare da mutunta nau'insu ba. Binciken abubuwa don oxygen, a matsayin misali, zai nuna nauyin 890 g / L ( gram a kowace lita ) na samfurin ruwa saboda oxygen (O) yana da kashi 89% na kwayoyin ruwa (H 2 O). Hanyar da aka zaɓa don auna narkar da iskar oxygen ya kamata ta bambanta tsakanin diatomic oxygen da oxygen hade da wasu abubuwa. Sauƙaƙan kwatancen bincike na asali ya samar da adadi mai yawa na bayanan samfuri da ƙimar ingancin ruwa don abubuwan wasu lokuta ana gano su azaman ƙarfe masu nauyi . Binciken ruwa don ƙananan karafa dole ne yayi la'akari da barbashin ƙasa da aka dakatar a cikin samfurin ruwa. Waɗannan ɓangarorin ƙasa da aka dakatar suna iya ƙunsar ƙarfe da za a iya aunawa. Ko da yake ba a narkar da barbashi a cikin ruwan, mutane na iya cinye su ta hanyar shan ruwan. Ƙara acid zuwa samfurin ruwa don hana asarar narkar da karafa a kan kwandon samfurin na iya narkar da ƙarin karafa daga barbashi ƙasa da aka dakatar. Tace barbashi na ƙasa daga samfurin ruwa kafin ƙara acid, duk da haka, na iya haifar da asarar narkar da karafa akan tacewa. [7] Matsalolin bambance-bambancen kwayoyin halitta iri ɗaya sun fi ƙalubale.

Yin waɗannan ma'auni masu rikitarwa na iya zama tsada. Saboda ma'auni kai tsaye na ingancin ruwa na iya yin tsada, ana gudanar da shirye-shiryen sa ido na yau da kullun kuma ana fitar da sakamakon daga hukumomin gwamnati . Koyaya, akwai shirye-shiryen sa kai na gida da albarkatun da ake da su don wasu ƙima na gaba ɗaya. Kayayyakin da ake samu ga jama'a sun haɗa da na'urorin gwaji a wurin, waɗanda aka saba amfani da su don tankunan kifi na gida, da hanyoyin tantance halittu.

Sa ido na ainihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ko da yake galibi ana ƙididdige ingancin ruwa tare da yin nazari a dakunan gwaje-gwaje, tun daga ƙarshen karni na 20 an sami karuwar sha'awar jama'a game da ingancin ruwan sha da tsarin birni ke samarwa. Yawancin abubuwan amfani da ruwa sun ƙirƙira tsarin tattara bayanai na ainihin lokacin game da ingancin ruwan tushen. A farkon karni na 21st, an tura nau'ikan na'urori masu auna firikwensin da tsarin kulawa na nesa don auna pH na ruwa, turbidity, narkar da iskar oxygen da sauran sigogi. Hakanan an ƙirƙiri wasu na'urori masu nisa don lura da ingancin ruwa a cikin kogi, estuarine da gaɓar ruwa.

Manuniya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Alamomin ruwan sha[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana amfani da mitar ɗaurin ɗamara don auna jumillar daskararrun daskararru
  • Alkalinity
  • Launi na ruwa
  • pH
  • Ku ɗanɗani da wari ( geosmin, 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), da dai sauransu. )
  • Narkar da karafa da gishiri ( sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, manganese, magnesium )
  • Kwayoyin halitta irin su fecal coliform kwayoyin cuta ( Escherichia coli ), Cryptosporidium, da Giardia lamblia ; duba nazarin ruwa na kwayoyin cuta
  • Narkar da karafa da metalloids ( gubar, mercury, arsenic, da dai sauransu. )
  • Narkar da kwayoyin halitta: launin narkar da kwayoyin halitta (CDOM), narkar da kwayoyin carbon (DOC)
  • Radon
  • Karfe masu nauyi
  • Magunguna
  • Analogs na hormone

Alamun muhalli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Alamun jiki na zahiri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Alamun halittu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An ɓullo da ma'auni na nazarin halittu a wurare da yawa, kuma ɗayan dangin da aka yi amfani da shi na ma'auni don ruwa mai tsabta shine kasancewar da yawa na mambobi na umarni na kwari Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera da Trichoptera (EPT) (na benthic macroinvertebrates wanda sunayen gama gari ne, bi da bi, mai yiwuwafly., stonefly da caddisfly). Ma'anar EPT a zahiri za ta bambanta daga yanki zuwa yanki, amma gabaɗaya, a cikin yanki, yawan adadin haraji daga waɗannan umarni, mafi kyawun ingancin ruwa. Ƙungiyoyi a Amurka, kamar EPA. ba da jagora kan haɓaka shirin sa ido da gano membobin waɗannan da sauran umarnin kwari na ruwa. Yawancin masu fitar da ruwan sha na Amurka (misali, masana'antu, masana'antar wutar lantarki, matatun mai, ma'adinai, masana'antar kula da najasa na birni) ana buƙatar gudanar da gwaje-gwajen ƙazamin ƙazamin lokaci na lokaci-lokaci ( WET ).

Mutanen da ke da sha'awar lura da ingancin ruwa waɗanda ba za su iya ba ko sarrafa nazarin sikelin lab ba kuma za su iya amfani da alamun ilimin halitta don samun cikakken karatun ingancin ruwa. Misali ɗaya shine shirin sa ido na ruwa na IOWATER na Iowa, wanda ya haɗa da maɓallin alamar EPT. [8]

Bivalve molluscs ana amfani da su sosai azaman masu nunin halitta don lura da lafiyar mahallin ruwa a cikin ruwa mai daɗi da mahallin marine. Matsayin yawan jama'a ko tsarin su, ilimin halittar jiki, hali ko matakin gurɓatawa tare da abubuwa ko mahadi na iya nuna yanayin gurɓataccen yanayin yanayin. Suna da amfani musamman tun lokacin da suke da ƙarfi don su zama wakilai na yanayin da aka zana su ko sanya su. Wani aiki na yau da kullun shine US Mussel Watch Program, amma a yau ana amfani da su a duk duniya.

Hanyar Ƙimar Ƙididdiga ta Kudancin Afirka (SASS) ita ce tsarin kula da ingancin ruwa na halitta bisa ga kasancewar benthic macroinvertebrates (EPT). An tace kayan aikin kula da ruwa na SASS a cikin shekaru 30 da suka gabata kuma yanzu yana kan sigar ta biyar (SASS5) wacce aka gyara ta musamman daidai da ka'idojin kasa da kasa, watau ISO/IEC 17025 yarjejeniya. [9] Hanyar SASS5 da Sashen Harkokin Ruwa na Afirka ta Kudu ke amfani da shi a matsayin daidaitacciyar hanya don Kimar Kiwon Lafiyar Kogin, wanda ke ciyar da Shirin Kiwon Lafiyar Kogin na ƙasa da kuma Database na Kogin Kogin.

Ka'idoji da rahotanni[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin tsarin ma'auni, hukumomi suna yanke shawara na siyasa da fasaha / kimiyya bisa yadda za a yi amfani da ruwan. A cikin yanayin jikunan ruwa na halitta, hukumomi kuma suna yin kiyasin ma'ana na kyawawan yanayi. Jikunan ruwa na halitta za su bambanta dangane da yanayin muhalli na yanki, wanda abin da ke tattare da tsarin ruwa yana tasiri da abubuwan da ke kewaye da yanayin yanayin ƙasa, sediments, da nau'in dutse, yanayin yanayi, ilimin ruwa, da yanayi. Masana kimiyyar muhalli da masu ilimin kimiyyar ruwa na ruwa suna aiki don fassara ma'auni da yanayin muhalli waɗanda ke tasiri ingancin ruwa na yanki, wanda hakan ke taimakawa wajen gano tushe da makomar gurɓatattun abubuwa. Lauyoyin muhalli da masu tsara manufofi suna aiki don ayyana doka tare da niyyar cewa ana kiyaye ruwa a ingantaccen ingancin amfani da shi.

Wani ra'ayi na gaba ɗaya game da ingancin ruwa shine na dukiya mai sauƙi wanda ke nuna ko ruwa ya ƙazantu ko a'a. A haƙiƙa, ingancin ruwa batu ne mai rikitarwa, a wani ɓangare saboda ruwa wani matsakaicin matsakaici ne wanda ke da alaƙa da ilimin halittu, ilimin ƙasa, da ayyukan ɗan adam na yanki. Ayyukan masana'antu da kasuwanci (misali masana'antu, hakar ma'adinai, gine-gine, sufuri ) sune manyan abubuwan da ke haifar da gurbatar ruwa kamar yadda kwararar ruwa daga wuraren noma, zubar da ruwa a birane da fitar da najasa da ba a kula da su ba.

Ƙasashen Duniya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO) ta buga jagororin ingancin ruwan sha (GDWQ) a cikin 2011.
  • The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) buga[yaushe?] ƙa'ida na ingancin ruwa a cikin sashin ICS 13.060, wanda ya fito daga samfurin ruwa, ruwan sha, ruwa na masana'antu, najasa, da gwajin ruwa don sinadarai, jiki ko kayan halitta. ICS 91.140.60 yana rufe ka'idodin tsarin samar da ruwa.

Ƙididdigar ƙasa don ruwan yanayi da ruwan sha[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tarayyar Turai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsarin ruwa na Tarayyar Turai an tsara shi da farko cikin umarni guda uku:

  • Umarni kan Maganin Ruwan Sharar Birane (91/271/EEC) na ranar 21 ga Mayu 1991 game da fitar da ruwa na birni da na masana'antu ;
  • Umarnin Ruwan Sha (98/83/EC) na 3 Nuwamba 1998 game da ingancin ruwan sha;
  • Dokar Tsarin Ruwa (2000/60/EC) na 23 Oktoba 2000 game da sarrafa albarkatun ruwa .

Indiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Matsayin Majalisar Binciken Likitanci na Indiya (ICMR) don Ruwan Sha.

Afirka ta Kudu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haɗa jagororin ingancin ruwa na Afirka ta Kudu bisa ga yuwuwar nau'ikan masu amfani (misali na gida, masana'antu) a cikin Jagororin ingancin Ruwa na 1996. [10] Ingancin ruwan sha yana ƙarƙashin ƙa'idar Ƙasa ta Afirka ta Kudu (SANS) 241 Ƙayyadaddun Ruwan Sha. [11]

Ƙasar Ingila[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A Ingila da Wales matakan da aka yarda da su don samar da ruwan sha an jera su a cikin "Dokokin Samar da Ruwa (Ingantacciyar Ruwa) 2000." [12]

Amurka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin Amurka, Hukumomin Jiha sun ayyana Ma'aunin Ingancin Ruwa don ƙungiyoyin ruwa daban-daban, waɗanda ake buƙata don amfanin ruwan (misali, mazaunin kifi, samar da ruwan sha, amfani da nishaɗi). Dokar Tsabtace Ruwa (CWA) tana buƙatar kowane ikon mulki (jihohi, yankuna, da ƙungiyoyin ƙabilanci) su gabatar da jeri na rahotanni na shekara-shekara kan ingancin ruwa a yankinsu. Waɗannan rahotannin ana san su da rahoton 303(d) da 305(b) waɗanda aka sanya wa suna don tanadin CWA nasu, kuma an ƙaddamar da su, kuma sun amince da su, EPA. Ana kammala waɗannan rahotanni ta ikon hukuma, yawanci hukumar kula da muhalli ta jiha . EPA ta ba da shawarar kowace jiha ta gabatar da "Rahoton Haɗe-haɗe" guda ɗaya wanda ya ƙunshi jerin gurɓatattun ruwa da kuma matsayin duk wuraren ruwa a jihar. Rahoton Ingantattun Ingantattun Ruwa na Ƙasa ga Majalisa babban rahoto ne kan ingancin ruwa, yana ba da cikakken bayani game da adadin mil na koguna da koguna da jimillar yanayin su. CWA na buƙatar jihohi su ɗauki ƙa'idodi don kowane yuwuwar amfani da aka keɓance da suka sanya wa ruwansu. Idan shaidu sun nuna ko rubuta cewa rafi, kogi ko tabki sun gaza cika ka'idojin ingancin ruwa na ɗaya ko fiye na abubuwan da aka keɓance shi, an sanya shi cikin jerin gurɓatattun ruwa. Da zarar wata jiha ta sanya jikin ruwa a cikin wannan jerin, dole ne ta samar da tsarin gudanarwa wanda zai kafa Jimlar Matsakaicin Loads na yau da kullun (TMDLs) don masu gurɓatawar ruwa da ke lalata amfani da ruwa. Waɗannan TMDLs sun kafa ragi da ake buƙata don cikakken goyan bayan abubuwan da aka keɓance. [13]

Ma'aunin ruwan sha, wanda ya dace da tsarin ruwan jama'a, EPA ne ke bayar da shi a ƙarƙashin Dokar Amintaccen Ruwan Sha .

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. [1], Katner, A. L., Brown, K., Pieper, K., Edwards, M., Lambrinidou, Y., & Subra, W.. (2018). America’s Path to Drinking Water Infrastructure Inequality and Environmental Injustice: The Case of Flint, Michigan (pp. 79–97). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71389-2_5
  2. [2],(2019, June 14). Drinking-water. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/drinking-water.
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Franson
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :0
  5. United States Geological Survey (USGS), Denver, CO (2009). "Definitions of Quality-Assurance Data." Archived 2022-03-07 at the Wayback Machine Prepared by USGS Branch of Quality Systems, Office of Water Quality.
  6. International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka (2010). "Helping restore the quality of drinking water after the tsunami." Archived 2012-03-02 at the Wayback Machine Success Stories. Issue 7. doi:10.5337/2011.0030
  7. State of California Environmental Protection Agency Representative Sampling of Ground Water for Hazardous Substances (1994) pp. 23–24
  8. IOWATER (Iowa Department of Natural Resources). Iowa City, IA (2005). "Benthic Macroinvertebrate Key." Archived 2013-12-07 at the Wayback Machine
  9. Dickens CWS and Graham PM. 2002. The Southern Africa Scoring System (SASS) version 5 rapid bioassessment for rivers Archived 2016-03-28 at the Wayback Machine "African Journal of Aquatic Science", 27:1–10.
  10. Republic of South Africa, Department of Water Affairs, Pretoria (1996). "Water quality guidelines for South Africa: First Edition 1996." Archived 2017-06-27 at the Wayback Machine
  11. Hodgson K, Manus L. A drinking water quality framework for South Africa. Water SA. 2006;32(5):673–678 .
  12. National Archives, London, UK. "The Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2000." 2000 No. 3184. 2000-12-08.
  13. More information about water quality in the United States is available on EPA's "Surf Your Watershed" website.
  1. United States. Federal Water Pollution Control Amendments of 1972, Pub.L. 92–500 ("Clean Water Act"). "Definitions." Section 502(19), 33 U.S.C. § 1362.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, D.C. "Definitions." "EPA Administered Permit Programs: The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System." Code of Federal Regulations, 40 CFR 122.2.
  3. ^ "Definitions." CWA sec. 502(12); 33 U.S.C. § 1362.
  4. ^ "Thermal discharges." CWA sec. 316, 33 U.S.C. § 1326.
  5. ^ "Identification of areas with insufficient controls; maximum daily load; certain effluent limitations revision." CWA sec. 303(d), 33 U.S.C. § 1313(d).
  6. ^ EPA. "Secondary Treatment Regulation." Code of Federal Regulations, 40 CFR 133.
  7. ^ United States. Safe Drinking Water Act. Pub.L. 93–523; 42 U.S.C. § 300f et seq. 1974-12-16.
  8. ^ EPA. "National Primary Drinking Water Regulations." Code of Federal Regulations, 40 CFR Part 141.
  9. ^ "Effluent limitations." CWA sec. 301(b), 33 U.S.C. § 1311(b); "Effluent limitation guidelines." CWA sec. 304(b), 33 U.S.C. § 1314(b)
  10. ^ "National standards of performance." CWA sec. 306(a), 33 U.S.C. § 1316(a).
  11. ^ EPA. "Secondary Treatment Regulation." Code of Federal Regulations, 40 CFR Part 133.
  12. ^ "National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System." CWA sec. 402, 33 U.S.C. § 1342.
  13. ^ United States. Federal Water Pollution Control Amendments of 1972, Pub.L. 92–500, 33 U.S.C. § 1251 et seq., as amended.
  14. ^ United States. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Pub.L. 94–580. Approved October 21, 1976. 42 U.S.C. § 6901 et seq., as amended.
  15. ^ United States. Safe Drinking Water Act, Pub.L. 93–523. Approved December 16, 1974. 42 U.S.C. § 300f et seq., as amended.
  16. ^ United States. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Pub.L. 75–717. Approved June 25, 1938. 21 U.S.C. § 301 et seq., as amended.