Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya

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Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya ( W.H.O ) hukuma ce ta musamman ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya wacce ke da alhakin kula da lafiyar jama'a na duniya.[1] Kundin Tsarin Mulki na WHO, wanda ke kafa tsarin hukumar da ka'idojin hukumar, ya bayyana babban burinta a matsayin "cimma nasarar dukkan al'ummomin da ke da matukar matakin kiwon lafiya".[2] Yana da hedikwata a Geneva, Switzerland, tare da ofisoshin yanki shida masu cin gashin kansu da ofisoshin filaye 150 a duk duniya.

An kafa WHO ta tsarin mulki a ranar 7 ga Afrilu 1948, [3]wanda ake tunawa da shi a matsayin Ranar Kiwon Lafiya ta Duniya .[4]Taron farko na Majalisar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHA), hukumar kula da hukumar, ta gudana ne a ranar 24 ga watan Yulin 1948. A WHO rajista da dukiya, ma'aikata, da kuma aikinsu na League of Nations "Health Organization da kuma Office International d'Hygiène Publique , ciki har da Classididdigar Cututtuka na Duniya (ICD). [5]Aikinta ya fara da gaske a cikin 1951 biyo bayan mahimmin jiko na albarkatun kuɗi da fasaha.[6]

Babban umarnin na WHO ya hada da bayar da shawarwari kan kiwon lafiyar duniya, sa ido kan matsalolin lafiyar jama'a, daidaita martanin gaggawa, da inganta lafiyar dan adam da lafiyar su.[7] Yana bayar da taimakon fasaha ga ƙasashe, ya kafa ƙa'idodin kiwon lafiya na duniya da jagororin, kuma yana tattara bayanai kan al'amuran kiwon lafiyar duniya ta hanyar binciken Lafiya ta Duniya. Babban littafinsa, Rahoton Kiwon Lafiya na Duniya, yana ba da ƙididdigar ƙwararrun batutuwan kiwon lafiya na duniya da ƙididdigar kiwon lafiya akan dukkan ƙasashe.[8] Har ila yau, Hukumar ta WHO ta zama dandalin taro da tattaunawa kan al'amuran kiwon lafiya.[1]

Hukumar ta WHO ta taka rawar gani a nasarorin da aka samu game da kiwon lafiyar jama'a, musamman kawar da cutar sankarau, kusan kawar da cutar shan inna, da samar da allurar rigakafin cutar ta Ebola . Abubuwan da ta sa a gaba yanzu sun hada da cututtuka masu yaduwa, musamman HIV / AIDS, Ebola, COVID-19, zazzabin cizon sauro da tarin fuka ; cututtuka marasa yaduwa irin su cututtukan zuciya da kansar; lafiyayyen abinci, abinci mai gina jiki, da wadatar abinci ; lafiyar aiki ; da shan kayan maye . A zaman wani ɓangare na kungiyar Ci gaba mai Dorewa, a WHA, wacce ta ƙunshi wakilai daga dukkan ƙasashe mambobi 194, tana matsayin babbar hukumar yanke shawara ta hukumar. Hakanan yana zaɓa da kuma ba da shawara ga kwamitin zartarwa wanda ya ƙunshi ƙwararrun likitoci 34. Kungiyar ta WHA tana yin taro a kowace shekara kuma tana da alhakin zabar babban darakta, da sanya manufofi da kuma fifiko, da kuma amincewa da kasafin kudin hukumar ta WHO da ayyukan ta. Babban darakta janar na yanzu Tedros Adhanom, tsohon ministan lafiya kuma ministan harkokin wajen Habasha, wanda ya fara wa’adinsa na shekaru biyar a ranar 1 ga watan Yulin 2017. [9]

WHO na dogaro da gudummawa daga kasashe membobin kungiyar (wadanda aka tantance su da na son rai) da kuma masu bayar da tallafi na masu zaman kansu. Jimlar kasafin kudin da aka amince dashi na 2020-2021 ya haura $ 7.2 biliyan,[1][10] wanda yawancinsu ke fitowa daga gudummawar son rai daga mambobin ƙasashe. Ana tantance gudummawar ta hanyar tsari wanda ya hada da GDP na kowane mutum. Daga cikin manyan masu ba da gudummawa akwai Jamus (wacce ta ba da gudummawar 12.18% na kasafin kuɗi), Gidauniyar Bill & Melinda Gates (11.65%), da kuma Amurka (7.85%).[11]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Asali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Taron Sanitary na Duniya, wanda aka fara shi a ranar 23 ga Yuni na 1851, sune farkon magabata na WHO. Jerin taruka 14 da suka gudana daga 1851 zuwa 1938, Taron Sanitary na Duniya yayi aiki don yaƙar cututtuka da yawa, babban cikinsu akwai kwalara, zazzaɓin zazzaɓi, da annoba ta bubonic . Tarukan ba su da tasiri sosai har zuwa na bakwai, a cikin 1892; lokacin da aka zartar da Yarjejeniyar Tsafta ta Duniya wacce ta magance cutar kwalara.

Shekaru biyar bayan haka, an sanya hannu kan babban taro game da annobar.[12]  A wani ɓangare sakamakon nasarorin taron, Ofishin Sanitary na Bankin Amurka (1902), da Office International d'Hygiène Publique (1907) ba da daɗewa ba aka kafa. Lokacin da aka kafa League of Nations a 1920, sun kafa Hukumar Lafiya ta League of Nations. Bayan Yaƙin Duniya na II, Majalisar Nationsinkin Duniya ta tattara dukkan sauran ƙungiyoyin kiwon lafiya, don kafa WHO.[13]

Kafawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A yayin taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan kungiyar kasa da kasa ta 1945, Szeming Sze, wata wakiliya daga Jamhuriyar Sin, ta tattauna da wakilan Norway da na Brazil kan kirkirar kungiyar kiwon lafiya ta kasa da kasa karkashin kulawar sabuwar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya. Bayan kasa samun kudurin da aka zartar kan batun, Alger Hiss, babban sakataren taron, ya ba da shawarar amfani da sanarwa don kafa irin wannan kungiyar. Sze da sauran wakilai sun yi lobbi kuma an gabatar da sanarwa don kiran taron ƙasa da ƙasa kan kiwon lafiya.[14] Amfani da kalmar "duniya", maimakon "na duniya", ya jaddada ainihin yanayin duniya na abin da ƙungiyar ke neman cimmawa.[15] Tsarin mulki na Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya ya rattaba hannu ga dukkan kasashe 51 na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, da wasu kasashe 10, a ranar 22 ga Yulin 1946.[16] Ta haka ne ta zama hukuma ta musamman ta musamman ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya wacce kowane memba ya yi rajista da ita.[17] Tsarin mulkinta ya fara aiki bisa ƙa'ida a ranar farko ta Kiwon Lafiya ta Duniya a ranar 7 ga Afrilu 1948, lokacin da ƙasa memba na 26 ta amince da shi.[16]

Taron farko na Majalisar Lafiya ta Duniya ya gama a ranar 24 ga Yuli 1948, bayan da ya sami kasafin US$5 million(sannan GB£1,250,000 ) na shekara 1949. Andrija Štampar shi ne shugaban Majalisar na farko, kuma G. Brock Chisholm an nada shi darekta-janar na WHO, bayan ya yi aiki a matsayin babban sakatare a lokacin shirin. [15] Abubuwan da ta sa a gaba sun hada da kula da yaduwar zazzabin cizon sauro, tarin fuka da cututtukan da ake yadawa ta hanyar jima'i, da inganta kiwon lafiyar mata da kananan yara, abinci mai gina jiki da tsaftar muhalli.[18]Dokar ta ta farko da ta shafi doka ita ce game da tattara ƙididdigar ƙididdiga kan yaduwa da cutar cuta. [19] Alamar Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya ta nuna sandar Asclepius a matsayin alama ta warkarwa.[20]

Ayyuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

IAEA - Yarjejeniyar WHA 12-40[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Alexey Yablokov (hagu) da Vassili Nesterenko (mafi nisa daga dama) suna zanga-zanga a gaban hedkwatar Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya da ke Geneva, Switzerland a 2008.
Zanga-zanga a ranar bala'in Chernobyl kusa da WHO a Geneva

A cikin 1959, WHO ta sanya hannu kan yarjejeniyar WHA 12-40 tare da Hukumar Makamashin Nukiliya ta Duniya (IAEA), wacce ke cewa:[21]

Yanayin wannan bayanin ya sa wasu kungiyoyi da masu fafutuka ciki har da Mata a Turai don Makoma daya sun yi ikirarin cewa WHO ta takaita ne a cikin ikon ta na binciken illolin da ke tattare da lafiyar bil'adama na radiation da amfani da karfin nukiliya da ci gaba da bala'in nukiliya a Chernobyl da Fukushima . Sun yi imani cewa dole ne WHO ta sake dawo da abin da suke gani a matsayin 'yanci.[22][23][24]WHO mai zaman kanta ta gudanar da taron mako mako daga 2007 zuwa 2017 a gaban hedkwatar WHO. [25]Koyaya, kamar yadda Foreman ya nuna[26] a cikin sakin layi na 2 ya ce:

An nuna rubutu mai mahimmanci a sarari, yarjejeniyar a sakin layi na 2 ta bayyana cewa WHO na da 'yanci yin kowane aiki da ya shafi kiwon lafiya.

Tarihin aiki na WHO[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsoffin daraktoci na shirin kawar da cutar kanana a duniya sun karanta labarin cewa an kawar da cutar shan inna a duniya, 1980

1948: WHO ta kafa sabis na bayani game da annoba ta hanyar telex, kuma a shekara ta 1950 an fara aikin rigakafin tarin fuka da yawa ta amfani da allurar rigakafin BCG .

1955: An ƙaddamar da shirin kawar da zazzabin cizon sauro, kodayake daga baya an canza shi cikin haƙiƙa. 1955 ya ga rahoto na farko game da cutar siga da kirkirar Hukumar Kula da Ciwon Kansa ta Duniya .[27]

1958: Viktor Zhdanov, Mataimakin Ministan Lafiya na USSR, ya yi kira ga Majalisar Kiwon Lafiya ta Duniya da ta gudanar da wani shiri na duniya don kawar da cutar shan inna, wanda ya haifar da Kuduri WHA11.54.[28]

1966: WHO ta dauke hedkwatarta daga reshen Ariana a Fadar Kasashen Duniya zuwa wani sabon HQ da aka gina a wani wuri a Geneva.[29][30]

1967: WHO ta ƙarfafa kamfen kawar da cutar shan inna ta duniya ta hanyar ba da gudummawar $ 2.4 miliyan a kowace shekara don ƙoƙari da kuma amfani da sabuwar hanyar sa ido game da cututtuka,[31][32]a daidai lokacin da mutane miliyan 2 ke mutuwa daga cutar shan inna a shekara.[33] Matsalar farko da ƙungiyar WHO ta fuskanta ita ce rashin isasshen rahoto game da ƙananan cututtukan. WHO ta kafa cibiyar sadarwa na masu ba da shawara wadanda suka taimaka wa kasashe wajen kafa ayyukan sa ido da tsare abubuwa.[34] WHO din kuma ta taimaka wajen dakile barkewar cutar Turai ta karshe a cikin Yugoslavia a shekarar 1972 .[35] Bayan sama da shekaru 20 na yaki da cutar shan inna, WHO ta bayyana a 1979 cewa an kawar da cutar - cuta ta farko a tarihi da kokarin dan adam ya kawar da ita.[36]

1967: WHO ta ƙaddamar da Shirin na Musamman don Bincike da Horarwa a cikin Cututtukan Tropical kuma Majalisar Kiwon Lafiya ta Duniya ta jefa ƙuri'a don zartar da ƙuduri kan Rigakafin Rashin Lafiya da Sake Gyarawa, tare da mai da hankali kan kulawar da ke cikin al'umma.

1974: An fara fadada shirin kan rigakafi da kuma kula da cutar kanjamau, muhimmiyar kawance tsakanin Hukumar Abinci da Aikin Gona (FAO), Shirin Raya Kasa na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UNDP), da Bankin Duniya .

1977: An tsara jerin farko na magunguna masu mahimmanci, kuma shekara guda bayan haka aka ayyana babban burin "Lafiya Ga Kowa".

1986: WHO ta fara shirinta na duniya game da cutar kanjamau . Shekaru biyu bayan haka aka hana nuna banbanci ga masu fama kuma a 1996 aka kafa UNAIDS.

1988: An kafa shirin Kawar da Cutar Polio a Duniya .[37]

1998: Darakta-Janar na WHO ya bayyana nasarorin da aka samu a rayuwar yara, rage mace-macen jarirai, karuwar rai da raguwar "annoba" kamar kananan yara da cutar shan inna a bikin cika shekaru hamsin da kafuwar WHO. Ya, duk da haka, ya yarda da cewa lallai ne a yi wasu abubuwa don taimakawa lafiyar uwaye kuma ci gaban da ake samu a wannan yanki ya yi tafiyar hawainiya.[38]

2000: An kirkiro Kawancen Dakatar da cutar tarin fuka tare da shirin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na Bunkasar Millennium .

2001: An kirkiro shirin kyanda, kuma an yaba shi da rage mace-macen duniya daga cutar da kashi 68% cikin 2007.

2002: An kirkiro Asusun Duniya don Yaki da cutar kanjamau, tarin fuka da zazzabin cizon sauro don inganta albarkatun da ke akwai.[39]

2006: Theungiyar ta amince da kayan aikin HIV / AIDS na farko na duniya don Zimbabwe, wanda ya kafa tushe don rigakafin duniya, magani, da tallafawa shirin yaƙi da cutar AIDS .[40]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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